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20 terms

Intro to Evolution - Darwin's theory

Chapter 16 Miller and Levine Biology
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evolution
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
fossil
the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
artificial selection
selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to produce offspring with desired genetic traits
adaptation
inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
fitness
a measure of an organism's ability to survive and produce offspring relative to other members of a population
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
biogeography
dealing with the geographical distribution of animals and plants
homologous structure
structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues
analogous structure
structures that do not have a common evolutionary origin but are similar in function (examples bird wing, and a bee wing)
vestigial structure
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species
Darwin
naturalist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection, wrote the book "Origin of the Species" (1809-1882)
Lamarck
naturalist who proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics (1744-1829)
Lyell
geologist who is considered the 'father of uniformitarianism' - the belief that the earth was old, and changed slowly over time
Hutton
said that earth is shaped by geological forces over long periods of time- thus earth is millions years old
Malthus
said human population cannot continue to increase exponentially; consequences would include war, famine & disease
Wallace
English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913)
overpopulation
a situation in which too many organisms compete for the natural resources in an area
competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
embryology
the study of embryos and their development
molecular biology
The study of the molecular basis of genes and gene expression; molecular genetics.