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add a b or # before the Roman numeral
If the root of the chord is altered by mode mixture, alter the Roman numeral by ___ to show that the chord is built on an altered pitch
(1) recurring accidentals
(2) Roman numeral analysis shows unusual progressions
signs of modulation (1)/(2)
having a region of a new key (one or two non-diatonic chords) but not completely modulating
relative major/minor, one more sharp/flat and its relative, one less sharp/flat and its relative
closely related keys to modulate to
(1) pivot chord diatonic to both keys (usually ii or IV in the new key)
(2) chord just before the accidental or altered chord signaling the new key
(3) new key established by authentic cadence after modulation
(4) all music before common chord in original key and all music from common key to cadence in new key
signs of common chord modulation
chromatically altered note in the same voice (shifts at the accidental)
sign of chromatic modulation
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