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298 terms

Wine

STUDY
PLAY
It has been suggested that 10-14% of people have the potential of becoming alcohol dependent
True
Although Dr. Marton's review of the research literature showed a 50% increase in breast cancer for moderate drinkers compared to non-drinkers, there are a number of reasons why our understanding of the relationship between moderate drinking and breast cancer is less certain than it is for cardiovascular disease.
True
The alcohol content of various wines varies greatly
True
In terms of coronary heart disease (CHD)
Both wine consumption and overall alcohol consumption are negative CHD correlates, Wine consumption has a stronger corelation with CHD than alcohol in generaland overall alcohol consumption are negative CHD correlates
Lipase is an enzyme that removes lipids from the blood
True
Alcohol consumption has been found to be related to an increase in breast cancer risks for women.
True
About 90% of women who are active alcoholics during pregnancy will deliver a child who clearly suffers from FAS.
False
The earliest documented wine production in what is now the United States
Was done by French Huguenots in the 1500s in/around Jacksonville, Florida
In the earliest, ancient Mediterranean civilizations wine was the first drink of the common citizen.
False
Wine provides about how many calories per four-ounce serving?
100
Medical researchers define moderate alcohol consumption as about how many four-ounce glasses of wine daily?
1-2
Demographic studies have shown that wine drinkers are better educated and earn more than non-wine drinkers.
True
Charlemagne, King of the Franks (768-814), crowned Holy Emperor of Rome in AD 800,decreed that in making wine, grapes should not be stomped by foot nor should wine be stored in animal skins
True
Safe levels of alcohol consumption
Differ for men and women
Excessive drinking can lead to hemorrhagic stroke
True
It is believed that wine was invented about 1000 years ago.
False
Polyphenols/flavonoids in wine
are antioxidants, inhibit blood clotting
Although wine has a 4000-year history of therapeutic use, it is not considered useful in today's hospital setting in the U.S.
False
Which of the following have been found to lower the prevalence of coronary heart disease?
wine and fruit consumption
Some acknowledge the apparent health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption, but hesitate to discuss them as they fear this may lead some that may become alcohol dependent to start consuming alcohol
True
Order the following alcoholic beverages according to their typical phenol content (1 = highest)
1. Red wine 2. white wine 3. beer 4. spirits
At what blood alcohol concentration do most people perceive the maximum relaxation?
.05%
The research reviewed by Dr. Keith Marton showed that cardiovascular mortality increased with heavy alcohol use and that moderate drinkers have a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-drinkers.
True
Scholars who have studied the origins of alcohol abuse agree that the American pattern of prohibiting exposure to alcoholic beverages until age 21 is one of the most effective ways to prevent alcohol abuse.
False
Boffetta's and Garfinkel's study showed that at three or more drinks per day there is an increased risk of death for drinkers compared to non-drinkers, particularly for liver cirrhosis.
False
Fibrinogen is a blood protein than enhances coagulation.
True
Cabernet Franc ripens faster than Cabernet Sauvignon and is therefore more important in cooler regions such as Michigan.
True
Which of the following is considered the classical white grape/varietal of Germany and Alsace?
Riesling
Which of the following statements are correct in regard to Michigan, grapes, wine, and wineries (2005 data).
Michigan is the fourth largest grape growing state
Which of the following two varietals would we expect to produce a fuller, fatter, and richer wine?
Chardonnay
The largest number of wine grapes belong to
Proles Occidentalis
The most famous blend that makes use of Grenache Noir is Châteauneuf-du-Pape
True
Muscat is an ancient grape, considered to be the grape that has been cultivated for wine the longest.
True
You are about to be served a Riesling wine. It is reasonable to expect a wine with crisp, fruity, acidity.
True
"Merlot UC Davis 18" is an example of a clone
True
Sauvignon Blanc wines are usually NOT aged.
True
Grape wine is a wine produced by normal fermentation
True
More often than not a place of origin is typically required on a wine label
True
A Crackling Wine is a sparkling wine with more than "normal" levels of carbonation.
True
Vermouth is a type of aperitif wine
True
Carbonated Grape Wine is
a wine that has been made effervescent with carbon dioxide NOT from secondary fermentation of the wine within a closed container, tank or bottle; a wine that has been mechanically carbonated
The same wine may have very different labels in different countries
True
Which of the following is TRUE regarding wine labels in the USA?
A branded name is required unless the wine is not sold under a 'Brand Name';
If no 'brand' is used on the label, the label must list the name of the bottler or packer
or the name of the person for whom the wine was bottled, packed or distributed
Berry wine is fruit wine produced from berries
True
Dessert Wine as a class of wine
tends to have higher alchol content than Table Wine
Great wines are distinguished from ordinary wines by their greater complexity, harmony, and the power to stimulate the emotions.
True
A winetaster who is evaluating the quality of a wine will take time to notice - among other things - if the wine has a lot of odors and flavors or just a few, how well the individual parts fit together, and if it pleases him or her.
True
Winetasting focuses on a relatively narrow range of existing colors.
False
In wine usage, _______________ refers to the odors which come from the grape and _______________ is used for smells that come from fermentation and aging in oak and bottle.
aroma, bouquet
Blind tastings - in which the wines are identified only by a letter or numerical code - are designed to eliminate stimulus errors which occur when irrelevant criteria are used to judge wines.
True
Refer to the label De Loach Vineyards Estate Bottled Russian River Valley Gewürztraminer 1987 Early Harvest. Given that "residual sugar 1.2% by wt" is about 1.2 grams per 100 ml, this wine should taste sweet to
about 50% of people
Which of the winetasting activities listed below is not done to enhance a taster's ability to esperience the wine's odors?
hold the wine against a white background
What sensation would you expect in your mouth when the stimulus tannin in the wine is low or absent?
smooth
In white table wines, this color is a sign that the wine has been exposed to too much air in production or has been bottle aged too long
brown
Serious wine tasters do not smoke during tastings and do not come to them wearing perfume, after-shave, or with recently-brushed teeth.
true
When wine is aged in oak barrels, the following may occur:
Alcohol and water evaporate through the sides of the barrel, concentrating the wine

Some oxygen dissolves in the wine, allowing oxygen-dependent maturation reactions to occur, albeit slowly

Color, odor, and flavor components are extracted from the wood

Tannins from the wood are extracted into the wine
Because most of the world's white table wines emphasize the aroma of the grapes and the malolactic fermentation (MLF) reduces fruitiness, most winemakers take precautions to prevent the MLF altogether in these wines.
true
Grappa can be produced when press juice is fermented and then distilled.
True
American oak barrels will impart more oak or vanilla flavor to wines than will European oak barrels.
true
Which of the following statements are correct?
Sulfites are produced naturally during fermentation

If sulfites are at 10ppm or higher the must be labeled as containing sulfites
You lost your job when Château Prestigious Wine Cellars folded because its first year cash flows were gobbled up by the owner's high-living son-in-law. Luckily, you have been hired by the neighboring wine cellar, Chateau Very Ordinary, and asked to project their cash flows. Based on your extensive knowledge of the white wine making process, you calculate that they could expect to first earn income from the sale of their Jus' Plain Mountain Chablis wines about _____ months after the harvest.
3-5
Free-run juice has more sugar and less acid and tannin than press-run juice because press juice is extracted at higher pressures from must containing a higher proportion of stems, skins, and seeds.
true
Wines of 2-3% residual sugar can be made by slowing down their fermentations before all the sugar has been used up by chilling them at about 4-8° Brix and then centrifuging to remove the cold-inactivated yeast.
true
For premium wines, a warmer climate is normally preferred over a cooler climate.
false
Which procedure listed below would you not expect to be done before fermentation of Chardonnay?
cold stabilization
You are preparing a plate of appetizers for dinner. You will serve a dry Gewürztaminer with the appetizers. You do not include green apple slices on the plate because __________________________________________.
eating the apple will interfere with the acid in the wine.
It is recommended practice to wash your hands prior to tasting wines.
true
According to Gregg Solomon's research, wine tasting experts were no better than wine tasting novices in identifying wine attributes.
false
What people often describe as flavors have significant odor (smell) elements.
true
White varietal wine whose wines acquire "subtle, oily scents" as they age.
White (Johannisberg) Riesling
White varietal wine whose grapes are used to make Champagne and White Burgundy wines in France.
Chardonnay
Which of the following are considered part of white wines' structural elements?
Acidity

Astringency

Bitterness

Body

Sugar-to-Acid Balance
Consider the notion of spectrum of flavor strength. Rank order the following wines in the order of DECREASING (strongest first) anticipated flavor strength given the typical varietal characteristics.
__2__
Gewurztraminer
__5__
Chardonnay
__4__
Sauvignon Blanc
__3__
Riesling
__1__
Muscat
__6__
Chenin Blanc
White varietal wine on the list with the weakest flavor.
Chenin Blanc
Grapes for this white varietal wine rank with French Colombard as one of the most commonly planted varieties in California.
Chardonnay
In California red grapes for varietal table wine making are harvested at higher "degrees Brix" and lower total acids than are white grapes for varietal table wine making.
true
Match the following growing condition characteristic with the correct (relative) color and pH.
__2__
Cool ConditionsWarm Conditions
__1__
Cool Conditions

1.
Lower pH (reddish tint).
2.
Higher pH (purple tint).
Grapes that grow in the shade, compare to those that grow in the sun
Ripen slower and have less color
The decision to make a particular style of wine dictates the choice of grape variety as specific varietals have specific characteristics.
true
On the average, the overall process of making red wines from grape to bottle takes longer than the overall process of making white wines.
true
Pinot Noir has naturally low concentrations of lighter pigments and is low in tannins, so California winemakers commonly collect the stems at the crusher and add them to Pinot Noir fermentations to produce premium wines.
false
The juice of Zinfandel and most other red wine grapes is
colorless
Its inherent qualities make Pinot Noir a good candidate for Blanc de Noirs wine production.
true
One thing a grower or winemaker does not have to worry about in Pinot Noir production is using the right clone.
false
The same viticultural practices that produce the best flavor, also produce the best color.
true
The higher alcohol contents and stronger odors of red wines, when compared to white wines, might lead you to have more olfactory fatigue while tasting red wines versus white wines?
true
Descriptors from the floral and tropical fruit segments of the aroma wheel are used less often for red table wines than they are for white table wines.
true
If tasters wait 40 seconds or more between sip the effect of tannins is red wines
is lessened
Most vegetative/herbaceous red wine on the list.
Cabernet Sauvignon
When off odors, particularly the acetaldehyde odor of oxidation, predominate in a wine.
the wine is likely dead
Used for sparkling wine production in California and France.
pinot noir
Which red table wine on the list below would you predict would have the darkest color and most tannin? It also can have an aroma of fresh ground black pepper. All are from the same vintage.
syrah
Refer to the five wines marked A, B, C, D, and E in the article "Napa Pinot Noirs Still Rank at the Top" (page 177) from the SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE, May 8, 1991. Which of the sound wines would you predict to have the shortest aging life in the bottle?
c
A California wine made from Pinot Noir grapes with warmer fermentation temperatures and oak aging would be?
a Burgundian-style wine
Which sensory change on the list below would not not expect as a fine bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon ages?
The total acid content increases.
From the Rhône Valley of France
syrah
The most commonly made blush varietal wine in California starts with this grape.
Zinfandel
What element of red wines will probably cause you to have palate fatigue if tasting many red wines?
The astringency from tannins
Most likely to be vinified by carbonic maceration.
Gamay
Grown in the best vineyards of Bordeaux, France.
Cabernet Sauvignon
Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a bottle of Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon that was spoiled by vinegar bacteria?
acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate
A fruity raspberry aroma is typical of this variety when young; originally from Italy.
Zinfandel
Which sensory change on the list below would not not expect as a fine bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon ages?
The total acid content increases.
From the Rhône Valley of France
syrah
The most commonly made blush varietal wine in California starts with this grape.
Zinfandel
What element of red wines will probably cause you to have palate fatigue if tasting many red wines?
The astringency from tannins
Most likely to be vinified by carbonic maceration.
gamay
Grown in the best vineyards of Bordeaux, France.
Cabernet Sauvignon
Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a bottle of Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon that was spoiled by vinegar bacteria?
acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate
A fruity raspberry aroma is typical of this variety when young; originally from Italy.
Zinfandal
What element of red wines will probably cause you to have palate fatigue if tasting many red wines?
The astringency from tannins
Which sensory change on the list below would not not expect as a fine bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon ages?
The total acid content increases.
The most commonly made blush varietal wine in California starts with this grape.
Zinfandel
Which red table wine on the list below would you predict would have the darkest color and most tannin? It also can have an aroma of fresh ground black pepper. All are from the same vintage.
syrah
The most commonly made red varietal wine in California starts with this grape.
Cabernet Sauvignon
Descriptors from the floral and tropical fruit segments of the aroma wheel are used less often for red table wines than they are for white table wines.
true
A California wine made from Pinot Noir grapes with warmer fermentation temperatures and oak aging would be?
a Burgundian-style wine
Most vegetative/herbaceous red wine on the list.
Cabernet Sauvignon
From the Rhône Valley of France
syrah
Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a bottle of Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon that was spoiled by vinegar bacteria?
acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate
Grown in the best vineyards of Bordeaux, France.
Cabernet Sauvignon
Most likely to be vinified by carbonic maceration.
gamay
A fruity raspberry aroma is typical of this variety when young; originally from Italy.
zinfandel
Used for sparkling wine production in California and France.
pinot noir
If tasters wait 40 seconds or more between sip the effect of tannins is red wines
is lessened
The higher alcohol contents and stronger odors of red wines, when compared to white wines, might lead you to have more olfactory fatigue while tasting red wines versus white wines?
true
To emulate the characteristics of grapes produced under conditions in France's Champagne district, ________
_____ grape growing regions are preferred and the grapes are harvested ___
____ wherever méthode chamenoise wines are made.
cool, early
The _________________ is a method of producing sparkling wines in which the wines undergo their second fermentation in bottles which are then opened and their pooled wine filtered to remove the yeast, receive a dosage, and be re-bottled.
transfer
The sugar is adjusted in the méthode champenoise after the yeast is removed. This step is called:
dosage
Reserve wines
are blends of still wines from previous vintages

are added to cuvées

help minimize vintage-to-vintage variation
Which of the following are added along with an actively growing yeast culture to start the prise de mousse?
Both sugar and yeast nutrients
Every sparkling wine is a Champagne
false
The neck of the bottles are frozen in the ______
_______ step in order to ________
______ collected by _____
________.
disgorging, trap the yeast, riddling
The process of collecting the yeast for removal is:
riddling
While Dom Pérignon, Cellarmaster at the Benedictine Abbey in Hautvilliers from 1668 to 1715 is often credited with the discovery of Champagne, the residents of Limoux fiercely disagree with this. They They claim that their own monks of the famed Abbey of St. Hilaire discovered "Champagne" in 1531.
true
Pressing whole clusters is one fruit-handling procedure which was originally developed to minimize color extraction from dark skinned Pinot Noir grapes.
true
Which spice would you not expect to find in a sparkling wines but would be anticipated in (red) table wines?
black pepper
Under appearance, the bubble display of sparkling wines is evaluated and tasters look for small bubbles that evolve from the wine over a long time and form a smooth, white foam on the surface of the wine.
true
When evaluating sparkling wines, a rapid release of carbonation and large bubbles are more highly prized/desired than small bubbles and a slow release.
false
When evaluating sparkling wines, varietal aromas are
not expected
The ____________ in sparkling wines are carried out of the wine and into the air by the carbon dioxide in the wine.
odorants
Which of the following would be most desired in a sparkling wine?
marked acidity
When the sparkling wine aroma wheel is compared to the more general wine aroma wheel, we find more spicy, floral, and fruity odors suggested for sparkling wines and fewer vegetative and herbaceous odors.
true
It is not necessary to __
__ sparkling wines to increase the release of volatile odor components in sparkling wine.
swirl
If a sparkling wine has a deep color, this suggests that the wine may be sweet.
true
Descriptive terms for champagne bouquet would be found in all but one of these categories on the sparkling wine aroma wheel? Please identify the descriptor least likely to be used in describing sparkling wines.
fruity
The degree and type of flor development decides which type of Sherry will be produced
true
Wine spirits used in fortified wines are chosen based on their __
__ as they need to be compatible with the wine being fortified.
flavors
Botrytis produces an anti-fungal that kills yeast and fermentation may stop before the wine has reached sufficient/desired levels of alcohol
true
Botrytis cinerea is also called Botrytis bunch rot. The rot takes two different forms: Grey rot and Noble rot. Which of the following conditions will allow Noble rot to form?
Drier conditions follow wet or humid conditions.
All Port wines can be divided into the two general categories of Vintage Port (aka Glass Port) and Wood Port.
true
In California, ruby and vintage ports are aged in _____
_____ barrels that do not contribute much wood flavor.
neutral
Fermentations of the high-sugar juices of Botrytis-affected fruit are hard to start and slow to progress.
true
There are four (4) major types of red port.
false
The water evaporation that occurs in a vineyard successfully infected with Botrytis can reduce yields to as little as 1/3 to 1/2 of normal.
true
A Botrytis infection cannot develop in the fruit unless the skins of the grapes are first cracked or broken by some other agent.
false
The change in sugar and acid composition following a Botrytis infection differs from the changes of normal grape ripening because acid and sugar both increase in concentration.
true
Port wines obtained their name due to their being shipped from the the harbor town of Oporto/Porto.
true
Add a sweetening wine to Oloroso, and it may be called
Cream Sherry
Ports are made from
a blend of grapes
Which of the following Marsala wines has been aged for the shortest period of time?
fine
The age specified on a bottle of Tawny Port is the age of the wine in the bottle.
false
Which item on the list below is not a general vineyard condition or cultural practice that would encourage Botrytis cinerea growth on grape berries?
removal of leaves to aerate the canopy
Botrytis affected dessert wines made in California are modeled after Hungarian Tokai.
false
In ports, color that extends all the way to the rim reflects deeper color intensity and is generally associated with greater overall flavor concentration and quality.
true
Tasting dessert wines requires careful pacing because these wines are all higher in alcohol content than table wines.
false
Compared to regular table wines, dessert wines often (but not always)have
higher alcohol

higher sugar levels

stronger flavors
You would expect a Sauternes-style California late-harvest wine to be made from which grape varieties?
Sauvignon Blanc and/or Sémillion
Why do winemakers dilute wine spirits with water when they taste them?
Diluting a solution that has a high concentration of alcohol changes the spectrum of perceptible odors. The spirits will be diluted in the wine and must be diluted for tasting to observe the 'new odor spectrum' that will be part of the wine

The high alcohol content of wine spirits can interfere with a winemaker's, or anyone's, odor perception.
Dessert wines are more potent and may tire your palate quicker than table wines.
true
Compared to a glass of plain water, an alcohol solution should seem sweeter, smoother, heavier, and warm.
true
What textures would you expect in a young port and a mature port? Please make the proper matches.
__2__
A young port--or young red table wine for that matter-
__1__
A mature port--or an older wine for that matter-

1.
-should be velvety smooth because the tannins have polymerized, softening the texture and, very likely, forming a sediment.
2.
-should be astringent because it possesses tannins.
Why is it especially important to catch your first impressions when tasting port?
With repeated sniffing the alcohol will interfere with your ability to smell.
When tasting dessert wines, take small sips to avoid palate fatigue.
false
What is overcropping?
A vine's production of more crop than it can satisfactorily mature.
If shoot spacing along cordons remains constant, then dividing a canopy curtain into two fruiting tiers doubles the number of shoots per curtain.
true
Flower clusters are removed to prevent overcropping and its accompanying loss of grape quality.
true
Which is a botanical pesticide?
strychnine
If your grape vines are treated with sulfur and the sulfur remains on the grape, it will be reduced to stinky hydrogen sulfide during fermentation.
true
Shade decreases the concentration of monoterpenes in Gewürtztraminer.
true
Degree days are calculated by subtracting ______ degrees from the day's average temperature.
50
If canopies are thin, leaf layer numbers are low, but shoot growth excessive, the pruner should leave more nodes next year than she left last year.
true
Thick canopies adversely affect
grape composition

next year's crop

grape berry health
Dry summers __

__ vine vigor because they do not replenish soil
___.
reduce, water
The shoots on a severely pruned vine tend to grow very long, because
there is less competition for stored sugars.

there is less competition for the available light.

there is less competition for water.

there is less competition for mineral resources.
Irrigation will decrease wine grape quality.
false
The intensity of light per unit area of leaf is greatest if the leaf is perpendicular to the light rays.
true
Gewürztraminer is less suited to hot regions than is French Colombard.
true
Wind may warm a vineyard if a layer of warm air exists above the vineyard.
true
Assuming they are well exposed to light, about how many leaves does a shoot need to mature its grape clusters?
10-20
The leaf layer number is a measure of canopy "thickness."
true
Leaves export sugars to developing grapes.
true
Please match the sentence with the proper sugar level.
__1__
Sweet wines rarely have sugar contents higher than
__2__
Sweet foods can have a sugar content as high as

1.
10%
2.
24%
Food with bitter components
seems to increase the bitterness of a wine served with it
The primary sensory function of wine (or any beverage for that matter) during a meal is to refresh diner's palate.
true
Wines that are slightly sweet can be a good choice when you want to reduce the perception of saltiness, tartness, or bitterness in a food.
true
____ foods can make ___

____ wines taste sour and feel thin.
sweet, dry
You and your partner are about to share a wine while you eat dinner. Your partner ordered his/her most favored wine, but you find it far too dry. Which of the following can you do to make the wine seem less dry (more sweet) and closer to your own preference?
Add some salt or soy sauce to your food
Matching a wine with a particular food or dish is rather straight forward and simple. All one needs to do is to refer to one of the available food and wine charts or one of the food and wine recommendations made by wine journalists.
false
A very low acidity wines may make produce an unpleasant metallic taste with salty foods.
false
Which of the following statements are correct in regard tio alcohol in wine?
The higher the level of alcohol in a wine, the heavier the body.

The alcohol level of wine is related to perceptions of sweetness.

High levels of alcohol in a wine can produce hot tactile sensations.
Umami taste in food can bring out bitter and metallic tastes in wine
true
Green vegetables can add bitter elements to foods which must be considered when choosing a wine and when preparing the dish.
true
Your restaurant has baked ham on the menu. Which of the following wine choices is likely to produce the most favorable match?
A white or rosé wine with some residual sugar, fruity flavors, moderate acidity and no tannins.
Sweetness in food will increase our perception of sourness, bitterness, and astringency in wine.
true
In general, a dry wine will tend to taste more acidic than a sweeter wine of the same varietal/blend.
true
Umami
was identified by the Japanese researcher Ikeda in 1908 as the taste in laminaria Japonica seaweed
Adding salt to food, especially to sauces and other savory foods, can tone down bitterness and astringency in wines.
true
Sour foods with high amounts of acidity will decrease our perception of sourness in a wine, making a wine taste richer and more mellow.
true
All people considered, which beverage is likely the best fit for a Snickers bar?
Espresso or Cappuccino
The more you know of a wine's organoleptic properties, the better you will be at predicting successful food and wine matches.
true
Which of the following characteristics is most important in matching wine and food?
overall style of the wine
While it is recommended by many to match the "weight of the wine" to the "weight of the food" it is good to remember that while light food tends to work reasonably well with a heavy wine, heavy food tends not work with a light wine.
true
Which of the following foods are considered potentially problematic foods from the perspective of matching with a wine?
All of the above are potentially problematic!
If a sweet wine does not have adequate acidity it will tend to taste somewhat flat and cloying
true
Consumers of wine, such as yourselves, have different personal preferences for sweetness. This personal preference will make different levels of sweetness in wine appropriate for different people.
true
Red wine is always a poor choice as a match with fish. Fish dishes require a white wine.
false
Your chef has devised a new robust dish for which he recommends a robust red wine. A consumer that you are serving has just ordered the dish, but declined your recommendation for a particular robust red wine and selected a White Zinfandel as the beverage of choice. This is
a fine choice, as it is the type of wine your customer enjoys.
Every person who consumes wine may have preferences about which wines and foods work well together that differs from that of the preferences of other persons.
true
Tannins can be found in
in red wine and teas
Spicy foods will typically
exaggerate the tannins in a wine, exaggerate bitterness
Fruit-based desserts can never be successfully matched with a wine.
false
______ serving temperatures ____
______ our perception of sweetness in wine.
cool, increase
enology
study of wines and winemaking
sensory evaluation
use of senses to learn about wine
organoleptic characteristics
those chemical and physical characteristics of wine and food that affect our senses
viticulture
the science of grape growing
species of grapes that most wines are made from
vitisvinifera
in early mediterranean civilizations, wine was the first drink of the common citizen
false, it was for priests and the wealthy
Preventing alcohol until age 21 is the most effective way to prevent abuse
false, introduce diluted wine to children
wine drinkers are better educated on average
true
what blood concentration is associated with the most relaxation?
.05%
how many calories per 4 ounce serving?
100
wine is not considered safe for therapeutic use
false, appetite stimulant and sleep aid
people who should be most concerned about sulfites are sulfite sensitive, steroid dependent asthmatics
true
how many 4-ounce servings per day is considered moderate?
1-2 glasses
heavy drinkers have a higher rate of heart disease, moderate drinkers have a lower than average rate
true
Drinking 3 or more drinks a day increases risk of death, especially liver cirrhosis
true
moderate drinkers have a 50% more risk for breast cancer, but there are many factors due to heart disease rates
true
90% of alcoholic women during pregnancy will deliver a baby with fetal alcohol syndrome
false, 10%
why do women need to consider their alcohol intake
increased risk of breast cancer, pregnancy
perception is the immediate neurological response to a stimuli
false, that's sensation
sensory stimuli in wine can either be physical or chemical "activators"
false, stimuli can be thermal
the smallest concentration of a wine component required for a taster to name it "by jove, that's sweet"
recognition threshold
given residual sugar is 1.2% by weight is about 1.2 grams per 100ml, this wine would taste sweet to...
50% of people
winetasting focuses on a narrow range of existing colors
false; range from yellow/greens to brick reds/purples
wine sensory components, such as color, which provoke pleasure in and of themselves, are said to have a hedonic quality
true
what sensory quality would not be expected from the clue, "a white wine is very pale and nearly colorless"
intense fruit aromas
overall quality in red wines is correlated with total color and pigment content
true
our appreciation of wine is mainly due to their odors
true
flavors are in-mouth odors sensed by olfactory epithelium
true
The maximum sensitivity ofour sense ofsmell has been estimated at one part per 10,000.
False. It's one part per million to several parts per trillion.
It has been estimated that the average person can loam many as 200 odors
false. We can learn about 1,000 odors. Wine has about 200 odors.
The sensory organ for the sense of smell is located at the top and rear of the nasal cavity and about 53-10% ofthe air reaches it in normal breathing
true
What is the "retro-nasal route"
The passageway from the rear of the mouth and rear nasal passages to the olfactory epithelium.
We can only smell volatile molecules that can evaporate from the surface of a wine at the range of temperatures in which it is customarily served.
true
Which winelasling aclivily is not done to enhance a lasler's ability to experience the wine's odors?
Holding the wine against a white background.
Winetasters may find that a wine's odors are stronger and more pleasant when they are experienced in the mouth as flavors than as odors entering the olfactory area in inhaled air
true
Which taste quality Is very rare in wincs?
salty
When is the mechanism of taste dependent on saliva?
solid substance must be dissolved ln sallva to be tasted.
Where are the papillae located that have very few taste buds in them?
0n the tongue's top surface.
We should question the accuracy ofthe taste bud map of thc tongue because we don't taste sweet, sour, bitter, or salty in just one place.
true
At a gross level, we are most sensillve to which taste qualily
bitterness
What is not perceived in wine with you sense of louch?
acidity
When the stimulus alcohol is present in high amounts in a wine, you can expect to experience both a taste and a tactile (touch) scnsat ion, which are...
sweet and hot.
Adaptation is a chance in sensitivity that occurs in response to different levels of stimulation. Winetasters learn to work with olfactory adapatlon by resting 15-45 seconds between snttfs when evaluating wines
true
An example of taste adaptation is the fact that we are unaware of the taste of our own saliva
true
Refer to the label: William Hill 198') Willamette Valley Oregon Dry White Riesling. How would you expect this wine to taste and smell to most people?
Without perceptible sweetness and with an aroma that has an element that is like roses.
PTC tasting is a well-documented example of how dramatically people can vary in their ablilty to taste something bitter, and it accurately predicts a person's sensitivity to bitterness in wines
false
Anosmia can refer to the loss of a person's ability to smell all odors, and the term "specific anosmla" ls used when someone cannot detect a particular scent, but otherwise has a normal sense of smell.
true
The "orange juice effect" is an example oft
taste modifier
You just served 2 glasses ofDe Loach Vineyards Estate Bollled Russian River Valley Gewurztraminer 1987 Early Harvest lo a friend. One glass is colder and the other is warmed. When she tastes them, the warmer wine will seems...
sweeter
The National Geographic Smell Survey found that olfactory sensitivity is reduced during pregnancy and that odor perception declines during aging
true
Women are more able to learn to identify odors than men.
true
Blind tastings, in which the wines are identified only by a letter or numerical code, are designed to eliminate stimulus errors, which occur when irrelevant criteria are used lo judge wines.
true
Our ability to recall wine odors can be reduced by giving the odora verbal structure, such as our associations with the odor and dictionary-style definilions
false, It enhances our ability recall its name
The wine aroma wheel was designed In enhance lhe accuracy of communication about wine odors among members wlne lnduslry
true
When judging the appearance of wines, lhe taster evaluates their
clarity
The higher the alcohol content of a wine, the thicker the streams produced when the wine falls back down the side of lhe glass after It is swirled
FaIse. The streams are thinner
In white table wines, this color is a sign that the wine has been exposed in too much air in produclion or has been bottle-aged too long
brown
Within lhe normal color range [or while table wines, darker colors are associated with oak barrel aging and/or later harvests
true
Among red wines, a purple hue Is associated wilh older, bottle-aged wines, and the brick red hue ls characteristic of young wines
false. Purple wines are younger and get more brickred with age.
Because their detection and prevention is of central concern to winemakers, a very large number of off odors have been linked to particular diagnostic chemicals such as acetic acid and ethyl acetate, which can be found by laboratory as well as sensory analysisi'
true
In wine usage, _____ refers to the odors that come from the grape, and _____ ls used [or smells 11ml come from fermentation and aging in oak and bottle.
aroma, banquet
Fora wine to have perceptible varietal aromas requires a particular grape variety, proper growing conditions, and careful wlnemaklng.
true
The term "flavor components" is used for the chemicals responsible for a wine's taste and tactile sensations
false, the correct term is "structural components."
A wine with inadequate body would be correclly described as
thin
What sensallon would you expect in your mouth when lhe sllmulus tannin in lhe wine is low or absent
smooth
You are tasling 2 While Riesling wines. They are idenlical cxcepi for sugar content. Wine A has 3x as much sugar as Wine B. When you lasle the 2 wines, you expccl wine Am have more body than Wine B
true
great wines are distinguished from ordinary wines by their greater complexlty, harmony. and the power to stimulate emotions
true
Serious wine tasters do not smoke during lasting and do not come lo them wearing perfume, afler-shave, or wllh recenlly-hrushed leelh.
true
The glasses for winetastings are not
funnel shaped
This group ofwtncs ls served at the coldest temperature, both In the restaurant and tasting labs
sparkling and sweet wine
Which tasting order would place the second wine at a disadvantage?
sweet before dry
To Inspect a wine for color, hold it up to a bright source of light such as a clear lightbulb or candle
false, hold it to a white background
Winetasters begin the olfactoly stage of evaluating a wine by swirling the wine in the glass 6 or 8 revolutions ,and pulling their noses into the glass and taking 4 or 5 quick, deep sniffs
Winemsiers begin the olfactory stage by sniffing without swirling, and in the 2"" stage they swirl the wine 1-2 revolutions and sniff 2-3 times.
Winetasters draw some air through the wine so that all their taste buds can come into contact with the wine,and the tactile receptors in their mouths can sense its sweetness and tartness
false. Wlnetasters "chew" the wine so that all of their taste buds come Into contact with it.
A wineiaster who is evaluating the quality of a wine will take time to notice, among other lhings, if the wine has a lot of odors and flavors or just a few, how well the individualized parts together, and if il pleases him or her
true