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Anatomy and Physiology Test 1 (Dr. Daft)
Terms in this set (71)
anatomy and physiology
anatomy -examines structure
physiology- examines function
Levels of Organization
Body covering -skin
support movement- bones, muscles, tendons, etc.
integration and coordination- nerves system, endocrine
absorption and excretion
Characteristics of Life
Respond to our surroundings
growth (or movement)- not about height
harvest energy (metabolism)- (digest, absorb, assimilate)
excrete waste-( Respiration, sweating)
Maintenance of Life
maintaining an internal environment despite a changing external environment. (homeostasis)
Homeostasis (equilibrium, negative feedback)
equilibrium- requires a set point
negative feedback- deviation to a set point is corrected, while the effector that caused the deviation is reduced.
make up 99.9% of the elements in our bodies
(hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon) found in the macromolecules of our bodies.
lower activation energy
noncompetitive (indirect) area away from the active site that bonds and causes a change of shape to the active site that won't allow the substrate in.
competitive (direct) blocks the active site
help regulate pH by taking or giving hydrogens to try to balance pH
what are particles made of?
protons, neutrons, and electrons
molecules vs compounds
molecule is a combination of two or more atoms
compound is a combination of two or more DIFFERENT atoms
Types of Bonds
Atoms that gain or lose electrons are called ions
- positively charged: cation
- negatively charged: anion
They are attracted to each other in all directions
- results in the formation of 3-chrystilization
Each line represents a sharing of electrons
"sharing is caring"
Require the presence of polar molecules
- electrons are shared within the molecule, but equally distributed.
- H+ is attracted to a N- or O-
these bonds make up our DNA
Polarity of water
H2O is a polar molecule because it has a positive H and a negative O
4 Types of Chemical reactions
A+B-> <- AB
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur within an organism.
small molecules are used to build larger reactions
-reactions provide everything a cell needs for : maintenance, growth, and repair.
larger molecules are broken down into smaller molecules
requirements to maintain characteristics of life
Water: Transportation, chemical reactions, temp.
Food: supply energy
Oxygen: Chemical reactions to harvest energy
Heat: Regulate metabolic reactions
Pressure: breathing and circulation
If something yields a hydrogen, it is an...
Sources of Hydrogen Ions
aerobic respiration of glucose
anaerobic respiration of glucose
incomplete oxidation of fatty acids
oxidation of amino acids containing sulfur
breakdown (hydrolysis) of phospholipids and nucleic acids.
High pH in the body (more basic)
Low pH in the body (more acidic)
3 buffer systems
Bicarbonate buffer system
Phosphate buffer system
Protein buffer system
Organic vs Inorganic
Organic is made up of carbon and hydrogen. They cannot dissolve in water, but most can in organic liquids like alcohol.
Inorganic does not contain carbon, except CO2. Does dissolve in water and typically dissociates into ions.
inorganic salts (electrolytes)
-Sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium
Organic macromolecules in your cells
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
provide energy that is essential for cell function
classified by size.
C6H12O6 - Glucose
cannot be broken any further down as a sugar
main source of fuel for cellular work
pentoses 5 carbon sugar: deoxyribose (DNA) and ribose (RNA)
Formed by linking monosaccharides
-consists of two 6 carbon units
-Sucrose (table sugar)
Lactose (milk sugar)
Built from "simple sugars"
Provide structural support for plants
Short term energy source
insoluble in water
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
includes: fats, phospholipids, steroids, oils, and waxes
- cell membrane
Fats are used to supply energy to cells
composed of fatty acids and glycerol
-glycerol is always the same
-many types of fatty acids
when there is a double bond it is unsaturated
Phosphate groups are hydrophilic and fatty acid hydrophobic
steroids modified lipids
derived from cholesterol
4 connected carbon rings
hormones: estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
lmp, to cell membrane structure
structural, energy, cell receptors, and hormones
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur
building blocks of proteins are amino acids (20 amino acids)
-Different levels of organization
Levels of Organization- protein
2. secondary structure (pleated sheet)
3. tertiary structure (3D look)
4. quaternary structure (4 polypeptide subunits)
*some don't go past 3.
Enzyme inhibitor (leukemia, cancer, bowel disease)
-blocks active site of enzyme- H6 PRTASE
-competes with hypoxanthine and guanine
-prevents nucleic acids (DNA/RNA)
-metabolism leads to death
Blueprint of life
-encode for amino acids sequence of protein
composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
RNA and DNA
RNA takes info and turns into protein
1. DNA stores info and RNA uses the info to construct protein
-purines: adenine and guanine
-Pyrimidine: thymine, cytosine, uracil
-twist in double helix
G-C (3 hydrogen bonds)
A-T ( 2 hydrogen bonds)
includes specialized organelles that are suspended in liquid (cytosol)
nuclear envelope- wall of nucleus
nucleolus- (nucleus within nucleus) contains RNA, protein, and is sight of ribosome synthesis
nuclear pores- send things out of nucleus
Inner membrane folds in forming cristae (shelf like structures
Cristae is the site of chemical reactions (increased surface area)
Process starts within cytoplasm and ends in Mitochondria to generate energy.
Rough ER: covered with ribosomes
proteins that are synthesized in the ER move to the Golgi for further modifications
Smooth ER: site of lipid synthesis, fat absorption, and break down drugs
Lipids synthesized in smooth ER are added to proteins that have been synthesized in the rough ER
Clean-up storage place
Found in all human cells
-most abundant in the liver and kidney cells
contain approximately 40 different enzymes
-synthesize bile acids for fat digestion
-breakdown long fatty acids
Cilia and Flagella
Cilia- pushes things out of the cell
Flagella- for motion to push things out
connection between mf and mt forms the cytoskeleton of the cells.
MF- made from protein actin
-form bundles (muscle cells)
MT- long slender tubes with a diameter that is 2-3x that of actin
-made from protein tubules
-found in flagella and cilia
a selective barrier that controls what enter s and leaves cells
diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and filtration
Active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis
1. Isotonic: same osmotic pressure as body fluid
-same solute concentration inside and out
2. Hypertonic solutions have a higher osmotic pressure than body fluids
-solute concentration is higher on the outside of the cell, cell pushes water out and shrivels.
3. Hypotonic- solutions have a lower osmotic pressure than body fluids
-solute concentration is higher on the inside of the cell, cell takes water and expands.
Dependent on membrane proteins
Important for solutes that are not lipid soluble
-sugars and amino acids
specific to each solute and only moves down a concentration gradient
Force molecules through membranes
-separates olds from water
1. Pinocytosis: takes in fluids from the extracellular environment
2. Phagocytosis: cell takes in solid
3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis- allows the ingestion of specific molecule
releases solid from cell
Endocytosis + Exocytosis
selective and rapid transport from one end of the cell to another.
an important anabolic reaction.
- hydroxyl group and hydrogen atom are shed to form H20
Decomposes carbohydrates, lipids, and protein
A water molecule is used for each bond that is broken
C6H12O5-> 6CO2+ 6H2O+ 36ATP+ HEAT
2. Citric Acid Cycle
3. Electron Transport Chain
the breaking of glucose
takes place in the cytosol
10 enzyme- catalyzed reactions that break down 6-carbon glucose into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules
3 main events of glycolysis
1. Phosphate is added onto each end of the glucose molecule (phosphorylation)
-requires energy from 2 ATP
2. Glucose is split into two 3-carbon molecules
3. Electron carrier NADH is produced and ATP is synthesized
-Gross: 4ATP Net: 2ATP
Citric Acid Cycle
In the presence of oxygen pyretic acid will eventually become acetyl CoA
Pyretic acid moves from the cytosol into the mitochondria
beginning of the CAC:
2 -carbon acetyl CoA molecule combines with 4-carbon oxaloatic acid molecule, producing 6-carbon citric acid and CoA
1. One ATP is produced from each CA molecule that goes through the cycle.
2. Each CA molecule, results in the transfer of 8 hydrogen (high energy) onto the NAD of flavin adenine dinucleuotide (FAD)
3. CO2 is produced when citric acid reacts to form oxaloacetic acid.
Electron Transport Chain
Who is carrying high energy electrons generated by glycolysis and the CAC?
-NADH and FADH2
To utilize this energy for ATP synthesis these high-power electrons are given to enzyme complexes that pass the electrons around to one another
-Electron transport chain
Takes place in the cristae(folds) of inner membrane in the mitochondria
Carbohydrate Metabolism: Anabolic
1. Glycogenesis- glycogen formed from carbohydrates
-muscle and liver main glycogen storage sites
2. Glyconeogenesis- formation of glycogen from non-carbohydrates
-Low-carb diet, uses lipids and proteins
3. Glucose is converted into fat when glycogen stores are maxed out.
Occurs primarily in the liver
-oxidation of fatty acids, synthesizing lipoproteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol.
-fat generated in the liver is transported by the blood adipose tissue throughout the body.
Lipids are used for :
-insulation, energy storage, energy, and protection
Meat, fish, poultry, cheese, nuts, milk, eggs, and cereals
Amino acids that can be synthesized by the human body are termed nonessential
-8 human amino acids that the adult body needs cannot be synthesized (essentials)
Proteins are classified as complete or incomplete
-complete have adequate amounts of the essential amino acids to maintain proper body functions
Creation of an exact copy of a DNA molecule
Hydrogen bonds are broken between complimentary base pairs
New bases pair with the exposed base pairs
Results in two identical strands
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