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EMT Intermediate Final Exam

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You respond to a nursing home's call regarding an older patient who fell. During your assessment, you note injuries that are not consistent with the mechanism described. You should:
transport the patient and report your suspicions
When treating an anxious and uncooperative patient with chest pain, you state, "If you don't settle down, I am going to put a large IV in your arm." What is this an example of?
Assault
You respond to a call for an 16-year-old boy who injured his arm. As you are assessing the child, he tells you that he does not want you to touch him. His mother tells you to begin treatment and transport the child to the hospital if necessary. What should you do?
Continue your assessment and transport if necessary
The concept of standard precautions assumes that:
every patient is potentially infected or can spread an organism that could be transmitted in the health care setting
After several years in EMS, you begin to experience chronic stress. An effective way to deal with this is to:
sustain friends or activities outside of EMS
You respond to a call for an older woman who has fallen. Upon arrival at the scene, you assess the patient, who is responsive and alert to person, place, time, and event. She states that she does not want to go to the hospital; however, her son requests that you take her. What should you do?
Ensure the patient is fully aware of the consequences of refusing treatment
A self-motivated AEMT should be able to:
discover problems and solve them without someone else's direction
Which of the following is NOT a typical warning sign of stress?
Increased appetite
Physical signs that indicate an emotionally disturbed patient may become violent include all of the following, EXCEPT:
large physical stature
Which of the following statements regarding HIV is correct?
HIV cannot enter the bloodstream through intact skin
Which of the following foods provides the safest, most reliable source for long-term energy production?
Pasta
Under which of the following situations would the AEMT NOT have a legal duty to act?
You are off duty and encounter a man in cardiac arrest
Continuous quality improvement (CQI) involves all of the following components, EXCEPT:
negative feedback to those who make mistakes while on a call
All of the following are roles and responsibilities of the AEMT, EXCEPT:
providing definitive care for the patient's condition
You arrive at the scene of an overturned semi-trailer truck. There is an odd odor in the air and you can see material leaking from the truck. After ensuring that fire department and law enforcement personnel are notified, you should:
use binoculars to try to read the placard
The function of the National Registry of EMTs is to:
assess competence through a valid testing process
You have just established an IV on a critically injured patient. As you prepare to dispose of the needle in the appropriate container, you get stuck with the needle. You should:
report the incident to your supervisor as soon as possible
En route to the hospital, a diabetic patient regains partial consciousness. He tells you that he feels fine and that he does not want to go to the hospital. Under these circumstances, you should:
assess whether the patient's mental condition is impaired
For consent to be informed, the AEMT must:
explain the risks and benefits of treatment
An AEMT administers 1,000 mL of IV fluid to a patient with severe pulmonary edema and a stable blood pressure. The patient then develops profound respiratory distress and becomes apneic. What is this situation an example of?
Gross negligence
While triaging patients at a multiple-casualty incident, you encounter a 40-year-old female with an obvious fracture of her right forearm and multiple abrasions to her face and arms. She is responsive and alert and does not appear to have any airway or breathing problems. You note that she is wearing an organ donor bracelet. You should:
assign her an appropriate triage category and move to the next patient
Which of the following defines your scope of practice within your local response area?
Local protocols and standing orders
A direct relationship between a patient's injury and the AEMT's actions or inactions is called:
proximate cause
Which of the following patients has the legal right to refuse treatment?
Responsive and alert 45-year-old male with chest pressure
Molecules that bind to a cell's receptor and trigger a response by that cell are called:
agonists
The olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I) is responsible for:
smell
The semilunar valves of the heart function by:
preventing backflow of blood into the ventricles
Which two pairs of cranial nerves do NOT exit from the brainstem?
Optic and olfactory
The __________ nerve innervates the muscles that cause motion of the eyeballs and upper lid
oculomotor
Which of the following is NOT a lymphatic organ?
Liver
The primary waste product of metabolism is:
carbon dioxide
To prevent the tissues from becoming edematous, the __________ system must absorb excess fluid and return it to the central venous circulation
lymphatic
The myocardium is the only muscle that can generate its own electrical impulses. This process is called:
automaticity
The chemical neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system is:
acetylcholine
In the pregnant patient, the secretion of oxytocin causes:
uterine smooth muscle contraction
The aorta divides into the two common iliac arteries at the level of the:
fifth lumbar vertebra
The most common solvent in the body, in which solutes or other substances will dissolve, is:
water
How many milliliters per kilogram (mL/kg) of blood are contained within the average adult male's body?
70
With regard to the heart, ejection fraction is defined as the:
percentage of blood ejected from the heart
Afterload is defined as the:
degree of pressure against which the left ventricle pumps
What part of the brain regulates a person's level of consciousness?
Reticular activating system
The movement of a substance against a concentration or gradient, such as the cell membrane, is called:
active transport
Which layer of the heart would be penetrated during an emergent medical procedure in order to remove fluid?
Pericardium
What is the cardiac output of a person with a stroke volume of 60 mL and a heart rate of 90 beats/min?
5.4 L
The thick fibrous sac that surrounds the heart is called the:
pericardium
During an allergic reaction, basophils release histamines and heparin. What respective roles do these chemicals play?
Increase tissue inflammation and inhibit blood clotting
The sebaceous glands of the skin secrete sebum, which:
keeps the skin soft and prevents cracking
Stimulation of alpha receptors of the sympathetic nervous system result in:
peripheral vasoconstriction
During an infection, white blood cells consume bacteria and foreign particles. This process is called:
phagocytosis
The point where the first cervical vertebra (C1) articulates with the base of the skull is called the:
atlanto-occipital joint
After the aorta arises from the left ventricle, it first:
ascends and branches into the coronary arteries
Nonfunctional erythrocytes are destroyed in the spleen by cells called:
macrophages
A patient was struck in the right lower anterior chest with a baseball bat. In addition to fractured ribs, you should be suspicious of injury to the:
liver
Which of the following is a function of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V)?
Provides motor innervation to the muscles of chewing
The study of the body functions in a diseased state is called:
pathophysiology
If the concentration of H+ increases, the pH of the blood will:
decrease
The layer of tissue that lines the inside of the chest cavity is called the:
parietal pleura
The primary respiratory stimulus in a healthy adult is a/an:
increased arterial carbon dioxide level
All of the following are voluntary muscles, EXCEPT:
smooth muscle
Stimulation of beta receptors of the sympathetic nervous system results in:
increased myocardial contractility
The jugular notch is located:
at the superior border of the sternum
The second heart sound (S2) represents:
closure of the semilunar valves
Chemicals that become ionic conductors when dissolved in water are called:
electrolytes
As an electrical impulse travels down the electrical conduction system, it transiently slows at the:
Av Node
Phagocytosis is the process by which:
monocytes digest microbes
If the body is sliced so that you have a left and right portion, a __________ plane is formed.
sagittal
Tidal volume is defined as the volume of air that:
is moved into or out of the lungs during a single breath
The renin-angiotensin system in the kidneys helps to regulate:
blood pressure
A bruit differs from a murmur in that a bruit:
is auscultated over a main blood vessel
If too much water enters a cell during osmosis, it will burst. This process is called:
lysis
The atrioventricular (AV) valves of the heart include the:
tricuspid and mitral
In most instances, a valid do not resuscitate (DNR) order must meet which of the following requirements
It must clearly state the patient's medical condition
An AEMT witnessed a call in which his partner gave adequate physical care; however, he was deliberately rude because the patient was thought to be infected with HIV. The AEMT ignored his partner's treatment of this patient and took no steps to prevent this behavior from happening again. This lack of action on the part of the AEMT is considered:
legal but unethical
Which of the following scenarios involves an ALS skill?
Administering oxygen and infusing IV fluids
You and your partner are the first to arrive at a potential crime scene involving a critically injured patient. The scene is safe. Your FIRST priority is to:
provide emergency care to the patient
A male patient is reporting crushing chest pain. Prior to informing an invasive procedure on him, you must:
explain the risks and benefits of the procedure to the patient
You are dispatched for a young male who, according to witnesses, is "not acting right." The patient is found sitting on the ground outside of a grocery store, rocking back and forth. He has blood on his arm from an apparent wound to his wrist. You should:
talk to him as you approach him, but be prepared for him to turn violent
Which of the following information is NOT considered confidential?
time of dispatch
You respond to the home of a 75-year-old man who is in cardiac arrest. The family states that the patient is terminally ill and has an advance directive; however, they are unable to locate it. How should you manage this situation?
Begin CPR and contact medical control
Which of the following components is NOT required to establish negligence?
Abandonment
Which of the following is NOT a standard licensure requirement for the AEMT?
Completion of an NREMT-developed AEMT course
Warning signs of stress include which of the following?
Indecisiveness
Authorization to use an automatic transport ventilator when transporting a patient requires which minimum level of EMS provider?
EMT
Which of the following physiologic responses is common during an acute stress reaction?
Increased blood glucose levels
A man is experiencing significant anxiety and depression regarding the impending death of his wife. However, the wife is trying to comfort her husband by telling him that she loves him and is prepared to die. What stage of the grieving process is the patient experiencing?
Acceptance
Critical incident stress management is a program designed to:
confront the responses to critical incidents and defuse them
While caring for a 40-year-old male with shortness of breath and a history of tuberculosis, the AEMT should place a:
HEPA respirator on himself and a nonrebreathing mask on the patient
An AEMT is trained and generally authorized to perform all of the following interventions EXCEPT:
interpretation of cardiac rhythms
Which of the following is your BEST protection against being accused of defamation of character?
Documenting objective findings only
You arrive at the scene of a domestic violence situation. As you approach the doorway of the apartment, you hear screaming and the statement "He has a gun!" At this point, you should:
retreat immediately and call for law enforcement assistance
Which of the following statements would be MOST appropriate to make to the family member of a patient who has just died?
This must be hard for you to accept
The AEMT should wear double gloves when caring for a patient who:
is bleeding heavily from a large artery laceration
Life-long immunity would MOST likely occur after a patient is infected with:
rubella
A critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) should ideally be held within how many hours after the incident?
24-72 hours
While treating a man with severe chest pain and difficulty breathing, you are presented with a valid do not resuscitate (DNR) order by the patient's wife. She tells you that her husband does not want any "heroics." How should you manage this situation?
Provide supportive care and transport the patient
In an enhanced 9-1-1 system:
the phone number from which the call is made is displayed on a screen
In most instances, a valid do not resuscitate (DNR) order must meet which of the following requirements?
It must clearly state the patient's medical condition
While attempting resuscitation of a patient in cardiac arrest, you initiate CPR, defibrillate the patient with an AED, and insert a multilumen airway prior to contacting medical control. What does this scenario most accurately describe?
Standing orders
As an AEMT, you may have to function as an advocate for your patient. This involves:
protecting the best interests of the patient
You are NOT covered under the Good Samaritan law if you:
perform an act beyond your scope of care
Common hazards associated with a structural fire include all of the following, EXCEPT:
carbon dioxide deficiency
When writing your patient care form involving an acutely intoxicated patient, you document that the patient was "drunk." What does this statement constitute?
Libel
Which of the following circumstances would require a written release of confidential information from the patient?
Family members wanting information about an adult patient
When establishing negligence, which of the following factors is NOT a consideration?
The patient's injury was life threatening
Normal inspiration is the result of:
negative pressure in the thoracic cavity
The vagus nerve:
carries parasympathetic fibers to the thoracic and abdominal organs
The pulmonary circulation is responsible for:
ensuring that blood gets reoxygenated
As electricity travels down the left and right bundle branches, it first stimulates the:
interventricular septum
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is manufactured in the:
ventricles of the brain
Which of the following statements regarding type O blood is correct?
It contains no surface antigens
Proteins of the immune system that recognize foreign substances is/are called:
antibodies
A specialized part of the venous system that filters the blood and metabolizes various drugs is called the:
hepatic portal system
What type of valves are the aortic and pulmonic valves?
Semilunar
Which portion of the spinal column articulates with the pelvis?
Sacral
The respiratory center of the brain is located in the:
medulla
Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the nose following severe head trauma suggests:
fracture of the cribriform plate
The first artery to branch from the aortic arch is the:
brachiocephalic artery
Severe injuries to the liver are life threatening because it is:
highly vascular and very fragile
Cardiac output is equal to:
stroke volume multiplied by heart rate
Oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveocapillary membrane through a process called:
diffusion
Which layer of the blood vessel wall is composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells?
Tunica media
The term inotropy refers to the:
strength of myocardial contraction
How do the blood vessels of the skin respond to cold temperatures?
Constriction, which diverts blood away from the skin
Which of the following statements regarding interstitial fluid is correct?
It is located in the extracellular space and in between the cells
The two major veins that drain the head and neck of blood are the:
jugular veins
What occurs during the initial phase of hemostasis?
Local vasoconstriction and platelet activation occur
During an acidotic state, the kidneys attempt to maintain a normal pH by:
retaining bicarbonate
The majority of the body's total body water is contained within the:
intracellular space
All of the following are formed components of the blood, EXCEPT:
plasma
White blood cells are also known as:
leukocytes
Motor nerves of the peripheral nervous system are responsible for:
carrying commands from the central nervous system to the muscles
The germinal layer contains cells that produce pigment granules, which help to produce:
skin color
Insulin and glucagon are produced in specialized groups of cells in the pancreas known as the:
islets of Langerhans
When oxygen levels are low or absent, the cells revert to a process of:
anaerobic metabolism
Which of the following is NOT a function of the skin?
Production of antibodies to foreign organisms
The process of moving air in and out of the lungs is called:
ventilation
The middle muscular layer of the heart is called the:
myocardium
A normally balanced condition of the body that is resistant to change is called:
homeostasis
A projection of the second cervical vertebra (C2) that fits into the vertebral foramen of the first cervical vertebra (C1) is called the:
odontoid process
All of the following are facial bones, EXCEPT the:
parietal
The left main coronary artery rapidly divides into the:
left anterior descending and circumflex arteries
The ilium is defined as the:
bony prominence of the pelvis
What body system is comprised of various glands located throughout the body?
Endocrine system
Detoxification of toxic substances, production of bile, and production of certain clotting factors are all functions of the:
liver
Systemic vascular resistance is the resistance to blood flow within all the blood vessels, EXCEPT the:
pulmonary vessels
Which of the following physiologic responses would you expect to see in a patient with a pH of 7.50?
Decreased respirations
A medication that possesses a positive chronotropic effect is one that:
increases heart rate
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) targets the adrenal cortex and causes it to secrete:
cortisol
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves arise from the:
autonomic nervous system
To prevent the tissues from becoming edematous, the __________ system must absorb excess fluid and return it to the central venous circulation.
lymphatic
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a major female hormone that:
is manufactured by the developing embryo to sustain the pregnancy
Which of the following is NOT a peripheral pulse in the adult?
Femoral
Which of the following is NOT a type of white blood cell?
Histamine
Beginning with the outermost layer, the three meningeal layers of the central nervous system are the:
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
After ____ minutes without oxygen, some brain damage is almost certain.
6
While assessing a semiconscious 22-year-old female's respirations, you note that they are 16 breaths/min. You should:
assess the regularity and depth of the patient's breathing
The preferred method for ventilating an apneic patient is the:
bag-mask device with two rescuers
According to Starling's law of the heart:
an increase in diastolic filling increases contractility
Which of the following patients should be placed in the recovery position?
A 33-year-old unconscious male without injury who has respirations of 22 breaths/min and good chest rise
If a multilumen airway device is inserted into the trachea:
it functions the same as an endotracheal tube
In contrast to the Combitube, the King LT airway:
has two cuffs that are simultaneously inflated
A 70-year-old male with a history of esophageal cancer is unresponsive with slow, shallow respirations. Appropriate airway management for this patient includes:
inserting an oral airway and ventilating with a bag-mask device
You are dispatched to a football game, where a spectator fell approximately 20 from the stands. As you approach the patient, you can see that he has obvious bilateral femur fractures and is not moving. Your initial action should be to:
open his airway and assess his breathing
A 66-year-old female is in cardiac arrest and requires advanced airway management. Prior to inserting a Combitube, you should take standard precautions and then:
preoxygenate the patient with a bag-mask device and 100% oxygen
What is the pulse pressure of a patient with a blood pressure of 104/58 mm Hg?
46 mm Hg
When properly placed, the distal tip of the Cobra perilaryngeal airway (CobraPLA):
is proximal to the esophagus and seals the hypopharynx
When treating a patient with severe bleeding, you must:
take standard precautions
When using the bag-mask device to ventilate an apneic patient who has dentures, you should:
periodically reassess the airway to ensure the dentures are not loose
The fifth link in the chain of survival includes:
controlling body temperature to optimize neurologic recovery
A 43-year-old female is unconscious following an overdose of heroin. Her respirations are slow and shallow. Which of the following conditions will she initially develop if not treated?
Respiratory acidosis
A male patient with a history of congestive heart failure presents with orthopnea. This means that:
the severity of his respiratory difficulty varies with position
What size oxygen cylinder is typically carried by the AEMT to the patient's side?
D cylinder
A 50-year-old female with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea complains of intense thirst and generalized weakness. Her blood pressure is 86/50 mm Hg and her pulse rate is 130 beats/min and thready. Which of the following interventions would NOT be appropriate for her?
Salt-containing solutions by mouth
What is the correct ratio of compressions to ventilations when performing two-rescuer child CPR?
15:2
The hypoxic drive stimulates breathing when the:
arterial oxygen level falls
The normal tidal volume, including dead space volume, in the average adult male is approximately:
500 mL
Signs of a sudden severe upper airway obstruction include all of the following, EXCEPT:
forceful coughing
After inserting the CobraPLA into your patient, you note that her tongue is protruding from her mouth. You should:
recognize that the device is not inserted far enough
When ventilation is compromised but perfusion continues:
blood passes over some alveolar membranes without gas exchange taking place
Hypoxia is a condition in which:
there is a lack of oxygen to the body's cells and tissues
A patient is considered to have positive orthostatic vital signs if:
the systolic pressure drops upon standing
In most people, a systolic BP of _______ is sufficient to adequately perfuse the brain and other vital organs.
80 - 90 mm Hg
When treating a patient with CPAP, it is often beneficial to:
initially allow the patient to hold the mask to his or her face
CPAP produces all of the following physiologic effects, EXCEPT:
dispersing thick secretions within the lung tissue
Cellular ischemia results in anaerobic metabolism. What occurs during this process?
Blood stagnates in the capillaries and lactic acid is produced
Cellular function deteriorates and death occurs when the pH:
drops below 6.9 or rises above 7.8
Unresponsive patients MOST often experience airway obstructions from:
occlusion of the posterior pharynx by the tongue
Blood leaves the capillary beds and is returned to the right side of the heart by the:
venules and veins
If the brain is deprived of oxygen for 4 to 6 minutes:
anoxic brain injury will occur
CPR should be initiated when:
a valid living will is unavailable
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is indicated for patients with:
pulmonary edema
When cleaning around her empty swimming pool, a 30-year-old female fell into the deep end of the pool. She presents with decreased sensation and movement in her lower extremities, a blood pressure of 80/50 mm Hg, and a heart rate of 50 beats/min. What is the MOST likely etiology of this patient's condition?
Disruption of the nervous system and relative hypovolemia
What happens when systemic vascular resistance is decreased?
Systolic blood pressure falls
Baroreceptors, which are located in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses, help regulate blood pressure by:
sensing changes in systemic vascular resistance
When using the bag-mask device to ventilate an apneic patient who has dentures, you should:
periodically reassess the airway to ensure the dentures are not loose
A 66-year-old female is in cardiac arrest and requires advanced airway management. Prior to inserting a Combitube, you should take standard precautions and then:
preoxygenate the patient with a bag-mask device and 100% oxygen
As perfusion decreases, the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated, resulting in:
a release of epinephrine and norepinephrine
The measurement of the level of a solution's acidity is called:
pH
What do snoring respirations in an unconscious patient indicate?
Partial occlusion of the posterior pharynx by the tongue
Which of the following is NOT a BLS intervention?
cardiac monitoring
Which of the following structures is NOT a part of the lower airway?
Larynx
Complications associated with chest compressions include all of the following, EXCEPT:
gastric distention
Which of the following patients would benefit MOST from a nasopharyngeal airway?
Semiconscious patient with a gag reflex
Internal respiration is defined as the:
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level
The MOST rapidly acting compensatory mechanism that maintains pH is the:
bicarbonate buffer system
After establishing that an adult patient is unresponsive and not breathing, you should:
check for a carotid pulse
Which of the following signs is MOST indicative of adequate breathing?
Respirations of 20 breaths/min
What is the minimum number of chest compressions that should be delivered per minute to a 4-month-old infant?
100
The turbinates, which extend into the nasal passageway, function by:
improving filtration, warming, and humidification of inhaled air
After an advanced airway device has been inserted during cardiac arrest, you should ventilate an infant or child:
by giving one breath every 6 to 8 seconds
A portable oxygen cylinder should be taken out of service and refilled when the pressure inside it is at ________ psi or below:
500
A major advantage of the multilumen airway device is that it:
cannot be improperly inserted
An apneic 2-year-old child with a heart rate of 110 beats/min is being ventilated with a bag-mask device at a rate of 20 breaths/min. After 2 minutes of ventilations, you note that the child's heart rate is 80 beats/min. You should:
recognize that your ventilations are not adequate
Which of the following statements regarding Multiple-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) is correct?
MODS occurs when injury or infection triggers a massive immune, inflammatory, and coagulation response
When ventilating an apneic adult patient with a bag-mask device and 100% oxygen, you should:
deliver just enough volume to produce visible chest rise
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is:
the blood pressure required to sustain organ perfusion
You should deliver chest compressions to an unconscious adult patient in cardiac arrest by:
compressing the sternum between the nipples
The lower portion of the pharynx that opens into the larynx anteriorly and the esophagus posteriorly is the:
hypopharynx
Which of the following injuries or conditions would be LEAST likely to result in hypovolemic shock?
Widespread vasodilation
Initial treatment to dislodge a severe foreign body airway obstruction in a responsive infant involves:
back blows
Which of the following is considered an obvious sign of death and would not require the initiation of CPR?
Dependent blood pooling
A 40-year-old male is unconscious, has inadequate breathing, and is producing copious, continuous secretions from his mouth. This situation is MOST effectively managed by:
suctioning for 15 seconds and ventilating for 2 minutes
A 72-year-old male with a tracheal stoma requires ventilatory assistance. However, when you attempt to ventilate, you meet resistance. You should:
suction the stoma and mouth
You and your partner arrive at the side of a 60-year-old woman who suddenly collapsed about 7 minutes ago. She is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. You should:
perform CPR for about 2 minutes and then apply the AED
When attempting to ventilate an unconscious patient, you note decreased lung compliance. This indicates:
decreased alveolar expansion
Obstructive shock occurs when the:
heart is physically restricted from pumping adequately
Intrapulmonary shunting occurs when:
nonfunctional alveoli inhibit the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide
All of the following can lead to shock (hypoperfusion), EXCEPT:
increased venous return to the right atrium
When ventilating a patient with a stoma and a tracheostomy tube, you should:
attach the bag-mask device to the 15-mm adaptor on the tube
You are assessing a semiconscious patient's respirations and note that they are 18 breaths/min. When further assessing the patient's breathing, which of the following signs would indicate inadequate breathing?
Shallow movement of the chest
Minute volume would increase if:
respiratory rate was increased
The MOST reliable indicator that suggests crystalloid IV fluids have improved perfusion is when the:
radial pulses become stronger
Gastric distention will MOST likely occur:
if you ventilate a patient too fast
A patient in shock is experiencing tachycardia, among other signs. What physiologic response causes tachycardia during times of decreased perfusion?
Beta1 receptor stimulation
Which of the following clinical manifestations is MOST consistent with irreversible shock?
Bradycardia and decreased respirations
Carbonic acid is an ideal buffer because it:
is a weak acid and can accept or donate hydrogen ions
After inserting a King LT airway, you attach the bag-mask device and begin to ventilate the patient. However, you meet resistance with your initial ventilation attempts. You should:
withdraw the device slightly until ventilations are easy
Ventilation is defined as the:
physical act of moving air into and out of the lungs
The anterior portion of the cricoid ring is separated from the thyroid cartilage by the:
cricothyroid membrane
Which of the following situations would contraindicate use of the LMA?
Patients who are morbidly obese
Basic life support (BLS) is defined as:
noninvasive emergency care that is used to treat conditions such as airway obstruction, respiratory arrest, and cardiac arrest
Signs and symptoms of Multiple-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) include:
tachycardia and dyspnea
Following severe head trauma, a patient presents with an irregular rate, pattern, and depth of breathing with brief periods of apnea. This breathing pattern is characteristic of:
Biot's respirations
Which of the following statements regarding the use of the AED in children is correct?
AED use in children up to 12 to 14 years of age involves pediatric pads and an energy reducer
Slow, shallow, irregular respirations or occasional gasps are MOST indicative of:
cerebral anoxia
Which of the following structures is NOT a part of the upper airway?
Bronchioles
Your patient is a 29-year-old male who presents with signs and symptoms of shock. However, your assessment reveals no obvious external signs of injury. You should suspect:
intraabdominal bleeding
Which of the following is NOT an indication to stop CPR once you have started?
Care is transferred to a bystander
Which of the following is a sign that CPAP is improving your patient's clinical status?
Decrease in respiratory rate
The lungs are covered with a thin, slippery outer membrane called the:
visceral pleura
While ventilating an apneic 33-year-old man, you note that his stomach is becoming slightly distended. You should:
recheck and reposition his airway
The preferred device to use when administering supplemental oxygen in the prehospital setting is the:
nonrebreathing mask
During times of decreased perfusion, the autonomic nervous system:
redirects blood to the most vital organs of the body
During one-rescuer adult CPR, you should compress the patient's chest at a rate of at least _______ per minute.
100
Which of the following equations represents metabolic acidosis?
↑ H2CO3 → ↑ H+ + HCO3- → ↓ pH
During the IV procedure, when is it MOST appropriate to apply the constricting band?
Before you cleanse the venipuncture site
What might happen if a drug is given to a patient with liver disease?
Toxic blood levels of the drug
Which of the following represents a "standard" drug dose?
1 mg
500 micrograms (µg) is equal to:
0.5 mg
What is an enteral drug?
Any drug that is administered along any portion of the GI tract
Which of the following routes is the quickest for getting medication into the central circulation?
Intravenous
Which of the following electrolytes is essential for the distribution of water throughout the body?
Sodium
You are unable to establish an IV on a critically injured conscious patient. What route should you use for gaining vascular access?
Intraosseous (IO)
Which of the following medications are typically administered via the subcutaneous route?
Insulin and epinephrine
When choosing an IV site on an elderly patient, you should:
know that varicose veins allow minimal circulation
The function of a drug or the particular action of a drug on an organism is called:
mechanism of action
A 42-year-old man was splashed in the eye by a corrosive substance. Medical control orders you to irrigate the patient's eye with 2 liters of sterile saline. How many milliliters is this?
2,000
When discontinuing an IV line, you should FIRST:
shut off the flow from the IV with the roller clamp
As you are treating a patient, he tells you that he has a bleeding ulcer and took Cialis 12 hours ago. Which of the following medications are contraindicated for this patient?
Aspirin and nitroglycerin
Epinephrine is classified as a/an:
sympathomimetic
One of the MOST common signs of an acute hypertensive emergency is:
a sudden, severe headache
According to Starling's Law of the Heart:
contractility increases as the myocardial walls are stretched
A 77-year-old man presents with hypertension, anuria, generalized edema, and tachypnea. This clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
acute renal failure
The cells convert glucose into energy through the Krebs cycle and:
glycolysis
In addition to epinephrine, other medications that can be administered to patients with an allergic reaction include:
inhaled bronchodilators
Disease or inflammation of organs that lie behind or beneath the abdominal cavity can cause signs of peritonitis because the:
parietal peritoneum is richly supplied with very sensitive nerves
Following exposure to an allergen, an individual will MOST likely experience a severe allergic reaction if he or she:
was previously exposed and sensitized to the allergen
You are dispatched to an office complex for a middle-aged male with acute abdominal pain. Your assessment reveals that he is conscious, restless, and in severe pain. His airway is patent, his breathing is adequate, and his vital signs are stable. Treatment for this patient should include all of the following, EXCEPT:
placing him supine and elevating his legs
The ability of the body to recognize a foreign substance the next time it is encountered is called:
sensitivity
A young female with severe lower abdominal pain presents with a decreased level of consciousness, tachypnea, and shallow breathing. Her blood pressure is 88/48 mm Hg and her pulse is 130 beats/min and weak. You should:
assist her ventilations with a bag-mask device
Hypovolemic shock caused by an atraumatic acute abdomen is usually the result of:
abnormal fluid shifts from the bloodstream into the body tissues
The AEMT should transport any patient with an allergic reaction, even if he or she is able to stop the reaction with epinephrine, because:
the patient's symptoms could recur up to 8 hours later
A biphasic response to an antigen occurs when:
an acute response is followed later by a delayed response
Insulin maintains homeostasis by:
facilitating cellular glucose uptake
A 29-year-old confused female has a blood glucose reading of 50 mg/dL. After administering one tube of oral glucose, you note marked improvement in her mental status. As you are taking her vital signs, her level of consciousness suddenly decreases. You should:
assess her airway and treat accordingly
Type 1 diabetes:
is a metabolic condition in which no insulin is produced by the body
During your assessment of an elderly woman, you note a shunt on her left forearm. This indicates that she:
receives hemodialysis treatments
A foreign substance that stimulates the body's immune response is called a(n):
antigen
The liver secretes ________, which is an enzyme that the body uses to:
bile, dissolve fats into solution
Unlike the honeybee, wasps and hornets:
can sting multiple times, because their stinger is not left imbedded in the skin
Which of the following illnesses or conditions would MOST likely predispose a patient to chronic renal failure?
Strep throat
A 29-year-old male with a history of type 1 diabetes presents with excessive urination and marked thirst. These signs indicate that the:
renal system is excreting excess glucose
Hemoglobin is:
found within the red blood cells and is responsible for carrying oxygen
Patients with thrombophilia are at an increased risk for:
pulmonary embolism
During your assessment of a 19-year-old male, you are told that he is being treated with factor VIII. This indicates that:
he has hemophilia a
A 19-year-old female presents with severe pain to the left lower quadrant of her abdomen. She is restless, tachypneic, and tachycardic. When you inquire about her last menstrual period, she tells you that it was approximately 2 months ago. You should suspect:
a ruptured ectopic pregnancy
Signs and symptoms that are MOST commonly associated with an acute abdomen include:
nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain
The MOST immediate threat to life that is associated with angioedema is:
swelling of the upper airway
A 67-year-old male complains of burning sensation in his abdomen and hematemesis. During your assessment, you note pain to palpation of his left upper quadrant; his vital signs are suggestive of shock. Which of the following conditions should you suspect?
Bleeding peptic ulcer
Medically, the term "diabetes" refers to:
impairment of the body to metabolize carbohydrates
Assuming that previous exposure and sensitization has occurred, which of the following patients will likely experience the MOST severe allergic reaction?
A 40-year-old female who was stung by a yellow jacket
When managing a semiconscious patient with adequate breathing, you should administer oxygen and:
position the patient on his or her side and have suction ready
You are dispatched to a residence for a 60-year-old diabetic male who is unresponsive. As you are assessing the patient, your partner attempts to obtain a blood glucose reading; however, the glucometer reads "error" after two attempts. You should manage this patient's airway appropriately and then:
start an IV and administer 50 mL of 50% dextrose
Common findings in patients with blood disorders include all of the following, EXCEPT:
flushed skin and bradycardia
Five minutes after administering a patient's epinephrine auto-injector to him, you reassess him and note that his symptoms have not improved. You should:
administer a second dose of epinephrine, if the patient has another auto-injector
An acute accelerated drop in the hemoglobin level, which is caused by red blood cells breaking down at a faster rate than normal, occurs during a(n) __________ crisis.
hemolytic
Hypoglycemic crisis tends to develop more often and more severely in children because:
they do not always eat correctly and on schedule
Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:
tachycardia, weight loss, and hyperactive reflexes
A 69-year-old male with a history of hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes complains of an acute onset of tearing pain in the lower quadrants of his abdomen that radiates to the back. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg, pulse is 110 beats/min and thready, and respirations are 24 breaths/min and shallow. This clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
ruptured or dissecting aortic aneurysm
A young male with sickle cell disease presents with chest pain, fever, and a cough. His vital signs are stable, although he is experiencing mild respiratory distress. You should suspect:
pneumonia
A 38-year-old male with an inguinal hernia complains of increased pain and nausea. He tells you that he has been able to reduce the hernia himself in the past, but it will not reduce today. This patient is at GREATEST risk for:
strangulation of the bowel
Unlike an epinephrine auto-injector, a Twinject:
delivers two doses of epinephrine
Which of the following statements regarding sickle cell disease is correct?
In sickle cell disease, the red blood cells are abnormally shaped and are less able to carry oxygen
The dose of epinephrine for patients who weigh more than 66 pounds is:
0.3 mg
Which of the following pain patterns is MOST consistent with kidney stones?
Flank pain that radiates to the groin
Which of the following organs does NOT utilize insulin for the cellular uptake of glucose?
Brain
The normal range for blood glucose levels in nonfasting adults and children ranges from:
80 to 120 mg/dL
You respond to a movie theater for a 70-year-old male who is confused. His wife tells you he has type 2 diabetes but refuses to take his pills. Your assessment reveals that he is diaphoretic, tachycardic, and tachypneic. Initial treatment for this patient should include:
applying a nonrebreathing mask at 15 L/min
Pain to palpation of the costovertebral angle is MOST suggestive of:
pyelonephritis
A potential complication associated with the administration of D50 is:
tissue necrosis if it extravasates into the soft tissues
Elderly patients with diabetes commonly develop neuropathy, which predisposes them to:
atypical acute coronary syndrome
Which of the following is an example of acquired immunity?
Desensitized with a vaccination
Patients with hypothyroidism often gain weight because of:
decreased metabolism
Potential side effects of epinephrine include:
tachycardia and hypertension
Your assessment of a patient with an allergic reaction should focus on the:
respiratory system, circulatory system, mental status, and skin
A 72-year-old male with type 2 diabetes complains of "not feeling well." He is diaphoretic and his blood sugar reading is 110 mg/dL. You should be MOST suspicious for:
an acute myocardial infarction
Which of the following conditions would result in the MOST rapid loss of consciousness?
Acute hypoglycemia
Peritonitis typically causes ileus, which is the result of:
absent peristalsis in the intestine
A 27-year-old male complains of an acute onset of abdominal pain. He is found curled in a fetal position with his right knee drawn up into his abdomen. This position is MOST commonly seen in patients with acute:
appendicitis
A common clinical finding in patients with hypo- or hyperglycemic crisis is:
an altered mental status
While assessing a patient with signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock, you notice angioedema of the face and neck. This is caused by:
histamine release that results in an increase in vascular permeability
The primary fuels for cellular metabolism are:
glucose and oxygen
Prior to administering IV dextrose to an unresponsive 43-year-old male with a blood glucose reading of 35 mg/dL, you should:
ensure that the IV line is patent and running effectively
Kussmaul respirations indicate that the respiratory system is:
excreting ketones from the blood
A 56-year-old male is found unresponsive by a neighbor. Your assessment reveals that he is diaphoretic, pale, and is breathing rapidly and shallowly. His blood glucose reading is 49 mg/dL. The MOST appropriate management for this patient includes:
assisted ventilation, 50 mL of D50 IV, and oropharyngeal suctioning as needed
An allergic reaction is MOST accurately defined as a(n):
exaggerated response of the body's immune system to a foreign stimulus
Decreases in cardiac output and blood pressure in a patient with anaphylactic shock are the result of:
systemic vasodilation
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs when:
the body's cells metabolize fat as an immediate energy source
Which of the following chemicals that are released by the immune system are responsible for an allergic reaction?
Histamines and leukotrienes
Your general impression of a 50-year-old man with acute abdominal pain reveals that he is confused and has pale, diaphoretic skin. After correcting any problems with airway, breathing, and circulation, your main focus should be on:
prompt transport to the hospital
Excess glucose is stored in the liver and skeletal muscles in the form of:
glycogen
In which of the following patients would it be MOST appropriate to administer oral glucose?
Confused diabetic patient who is breathing adequately
The ____________ is a solid organ.
ovary
A 29-year-old male experienced multiple fire-ant bites to his lower extremities. He is conscious and alert, and denies respiratory distress. His skin is warm, dry, and without urticaria and his breath sounds are clear and equal bilaterally. Appropriate management for this patient includes:
applying ice to the bites and observing for signs of an allergic reaction
Which of the following statements regarding Kussmaul respirations is correct?
The SpO2 may be normal due to an increase in respiratory rate and depth
Which of the following MOST accurately describes an acute abdomen?
Sudden onset of abdominal pain that indicates peritoneal irritation
A 56-year-old male complains of pain to the right upper quadrant of his abdomen and pain to his right shoulder; however, he denies pain in between his abdomen and shoulder. This is characteristic of:
referred pain
Most of the digestive process occurs in the:
small intestine
You respond to a residence for a patient who is "not acting right." As you approach the door, the patient, a 35-year-old male, begins shouting profanities at you and your partner while holding a baseball bat. The man is confused and diaphoretic, and is wearing a medical identification bracelet. You should:
retreat at once and call law enforcement
Prior to administering glucagon, you must:
reconstitute it with diluent
Which of the following statements regarding diabetes is correct?
Type 1 diabetes occurs most commonly in children
A 39-year-old male with a history of type 1 diabetes is found unresponsive by his wife. When obtaining initial information from the wife, which of the following questions would be LEAST pertinent?
"Was your husband hospitalized for this problem in the past?"
A 22-year-old female with type 1 diabetes is unresponsive and has a blood glucose level of 29 mg/dL. She is receiving high-flow oxygen and several attempts to establish IV access have failed. You should:
administer 0.5 to 1 mg of glucagon via the intramuscular route
Which of the following complications is MOST commonly associated with hypoglycemic crisis (insulin shock)?
Seizures
When assessing a patient with von Willebrand disease, you should be especially alert for:
any evidence of bleeding
Epinephrine is a critical treatment for patients with severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) because it:
works rapidly to raise the BP by constricting the vasculature and improves ventilation by dilating the bronchioles
Glycogenolysis is a metabolic process in which:
glucagon converts stored glycogen into glucose
It is important to avoid giving anything by mouth to a patient with acute abdominal pain because:
the stomach must be empty prior to surgical intervention
A 50-year-old male with a blood sugar level of 38 mg/dL would be expected to present with all of the following, EXCEPT:
severe dehydration
Patients with COPD are highly susceptible to pneumonia because:
they cannot effectively expel infected pulmonary secretions
Definitive treatment to reduce acute respiratory distress in a patient with a pleural effusion involves:
a fluid thoracentesis
What are the physiologic effects of nitroglycerin when given to a patient with suspected cardiac-related chest pain?
Vascular smooth muscle relaxation and coronary artery dilation
Which of the following statements MOST accurately describes asthma?
Reversible airway disease caused by an exaggerated immune response
Cheyne-Stokes respirations are characterized by:
tachypnea and bradypnea with alternating apneic periods
The percentage of blood pumped from the heart is called:
ejection fraction
The primary function of the atrioventricular (AV) node is to:
slow conduction from the atria to the ventricles to allow for ventricular filling
What is the approximate cardiac output of a person with a heart rate of 70 beats/min and a stroke volume of 75 mL?
5 L/min
An ischemic stroke is MOST often the result of a(n):
blocked cerebral artery
The presence of distended jugular veins that do not collapse, even when the patient is sitting, is consistent with:
congestive heart failure
A 77-year-old male with a history of emphysema complains of an acute worsening of his shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain that occurred after a forceful cough. Auscultation of his lungs reveals scattered wheezing on the left side and diminished breath sounds on the right. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
spontaneous pneumothorax
A 30-year-old male presents with a partial seizure to his left arm. His wife denies that he has ever had seizures in the past. Which of the following conditions would be the LEAST likely cause of this patient's seizure?
Idiopathic epilepsy
When assessing a patient using a pulse oximeter, it is important to remember that:
abnormally bound hemoglobin may produce inaccurate readings
A 33-year-old male complains of generalized weakness and chest discomfort that began following his morning workout at the gym. He is conscious and alert, but restless. Your assessment reveals a BP of 130/64 mm Hg, pulse of 78 beats/min and occasionally irregular, respirations of 16 breaths/min and unlabored, and an SpO2 of 98% on room air. He has prescribed nitroglycerin tablets and states that he took one without relief. Appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
oxygen via nasal cannula, up to 324 mg aspirin, saline lock, additional nitroglycerin per medical control, and transport
A 60-year-old male presents with shortness of breath and a productive cough of two days' duration. He denies chest pain or any other associated symptoms. Auscultation of his lungs reveals scattered bilateral rhonchi in all fields. His skin is pink, warm, and dry and the pulse oximeter reads 94% on room air. This patient is MOST likely experiencing:
bronchitis
You are transporting a 55-year-old female with chest pain, who has not responded to 3 doses of nitroglycerin. As you are talking to her, she becomes unresponsive and apneic. You should:
assess her pulse, tell your partner to stop the vehicle, begin CPR, and analyze her cardiac rhythm with an AED
The _____________ is the end of the great cardiac vein and collects blood returning from the walls of the heart.
coronary sinus
You respond to a call for a 39-year-old female with an altered mental status. Your primary assessment reveals that she is conscious but confused, has a heart rate of 88 beats/min, and has respirations of 22 breaths/min with adequate tidal volume. After administering supplemental oxygen, you should:
perform a focused history and physical exam
When assessing the severity of nocturnal dyspnea in a patient with a chronic respiratory disease, you should determine:
how many pillows he or she sleeps with at night
A 55-year-old male with poorly controlled hypertension presents with respiratory distress and difficulty speaking in complete sentences. He is conscious and alert with a blood pressure of 150/90 mm Hg, a pulse rate of 110 beats/min, and respirations of 28 breaths/min and labored. Auscultation of his lungs reveals diffuse coarse crackles. After placing the position in a comfortable position, you should:
apply the CPAP device
The _____________ anchors the heart within the thoracic cavity and prevents cardiac overdistention.
pericardium
What acid-base derangement initially occurs in a tachypneic patient without a physiologic demand for increased oxygen?
Respiratory alkalosis
A 49-year-old male complains of acute chest discomfort. He is conscious but restless, and he is noticeably diaphoretic. As your partner is applying 100% oxygen, the patient hands you a bottle of nitroglycerin that was prescribed to him by his family physician. Prior to assisting the patient with his medication, you should:
assess his systolic BP to ensure that it is at least 100 mm Hg
To minimize the amount of brain-cell damage that occurs following an ischemic stroke, fibrinolytic therapy must be administered within:
3 hours after the onset of symptoms
When defibrillating a 6-month-old infant, you should recall that:
a manual defibrillator is preferred
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that results in:
excess sodium loss and thick pulmonary secretions
Which of the following clinical presentations is consistent with a malfunctioning implanted pacemaker?
Syncope and bradycardia
A 61-year-old female called EMS after suddenly being awakened in the middle of the night with a feeling that she was "smothering." You arrive to find the patient, very apprehensive and restless, sitting on the living room couch in obvious respiratory distress. Her BP is 160/90 mm Hg, pulse is 110 beats/min and irregular, and respirations are 24 breaths/min and labored. Auscultation of her lungs reveals diffuse rhonchi in all fields. Treatment for this patient should include:
continuous positive airway pressure and an IV line set to keep the vein open
Which of the following would likely exacerbate pulmonary edema?
Increased cardiac preload
The left main coronary artery rapidly divides into the:
left anterior descending and circumflex arteries
Which of the following physiologic processes occurs during pulmonary respiration?
Carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli
The term acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is used to describe:
any group of symptoms consistent with acute myocardial ischemia
When assessing a patient with difficulty breathing, which of the following findings would lead you to suspect congestive heart failure as the underlying cause?
The onset of the difficulty breathing was acute and the patient takes prescribed diuretics
An anaphylactic reaction impairs effective breathing secondary to:
upper-airway swelling
You are dispatched to a residence for a 4-year-old male who is not breathing. When you and your partner arrive at the scene, you find the child's father is performing mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing on him. The father tells you that his son stuck a pin in an electrical socket. After assessing the child and determining that he is pulseless and apneic, you should:
begin CPR and apply the AED as soon as possible
Approximately 2 weeks following a total hip replacement, a 70-year-old female complains of a sudden onset of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain. Your assessment reveals perioral cyanosis, blood-tinged sputum, and wheezing to the base of her right lung. As your partner applies high-flow oxygen, the patient states that she has a history of hypertension. You should be MOST suspicious of:
a pulmonary embolism
A 56-year-old male with a history of coronary artery disease complains of an acute onset of substernal chest discomfort and diaphoresis while moving a heavy box. After sitting down and taking one nitroglycerin tablet, the discomfort promptly subsides. This episode is MOST consistent with:
stable angina pectoris
More carbon dioxide diffuses out of the bloodstream when:
fresh oxygen diffuses into the alveoli
When treating a patient who complains of dyspnea, it is important for the AEMT to:
be prepared to treat the patient's anxiety as well
You should be MOST suspicious that a patient is experiencing an acute myocardial infarction if he or she presents with:
an acute onset of weakness, nausea, and sweating without an obvious cause
In addition to oxygen, which of the following medications would the AEMT be the MOST likely to administer to a patient who is experiencing acute chest pain, pressure, or discomfort?
Aspirin and nitroglycerin
You are dispatched to a residence for a 69-year-old female with "breathing problems." When you arrive, the patient's husband directs you to his wife, who is sitting on the couch in obvious respiratory distress. She is semiconscious and has labored, shallow respirations. You auscultate her lungs and hear diffuse rhonchi in all lung fields. Which of the following interventions would be of LEAST benefit to her?
IV therapy with up to a 500 mL normal saline bolus
Chronic carbon dioxide retention, as seen in patients with certain lung diseases, may cause the patient to:
breathe on the basis of decreased oxygen
You are assessing a 45-year-old male who experienced a syncopal episode. He is conscious and alert, and complains only of slight weakness. He denies any medical problems or drug allergies. His blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg, pulse is 40 beats/min, and respirations are 22 breaths/min. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient's syncopal episode?
Acute bradycardia
When treating a 56-year-old female with chest pain, you have placed on her oxygen, established IV access, and administered two doses of sublingual nitroglycerin. However, the patient's pain has not improved. You reassess her blood pressure and note that it is 106/66 mm Hg. You should:
administer one more dose of nitroglycerin
A 59-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled hypertension becomes acutely dyspneic, develops profound cyanosis to the upper chest, and becomes unresponsive. She is pulseless and apneic upon your arrival. As you and your partner are performing the appropriate treatment interventions, you discuss the possible cause of her condition, which is MOST likely a(n):
massive pulmonary embolism
Which of the following physiologic processes does NOT occur in patients with COPD?
Increased surfactant production
Which of the following MOST accurately describes the pathophysiology of angina pectoris?
Reversible process in which myocardial oxygen demand exceeds the supply of available oxygen
You are assessing a 59-year-old male with an altered mental status. You should suspect an acute ischemic stroke versus hypoglycemia if the patient:
attempts to communicate with you
The coronary arteries of a person with arteriosclerotic heart disease:
are thickened and hardened and lose their elasticity
You receive a call to a local grocery store for a possible heart attack. Upon arrival at the scene, you find two bystanders performing CPR on the patient, a 49-year-old male. You should:
confirm that the patient is in cardiac arrest
The aortic valve:
regulates the flow of blood from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation
When treating a patient with a blood pressure of 80/40 mm Hg due to "pump failure," you should:
give a 20 mL/kg crystalloid fluid bolus to improve perfusion
A 67-year-old male who smokes three packs of cigarettes per day complains of a productive cough, chills, and generalized weakness. He is in mild respiratory distress; auscultation of his lungs reveals rhonchi to the lower left lobe. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
pneumonia
A 20-year-old female with a history of chronic epilepsy, who is compliant with her anticonvulsant medication, experiences a "breakthrough" seizure. This usually happens when:
a seizure occurs despite a therapeutic medication blood level
You are assessing a young male with an acute onset of tachypnea. He is conscious and alert with shallow respirations of 40 breaths/min, and complains of numbness and tingling to his face and hands. The patient's girlfriend tells you that he has been very worried about his mother, who was recently diagnosed with cancer. Appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
coached breathing and oxygen as needed
Which of the following conditions would be LEAST likely to result in cerebral hypoxia?
Methamphetamine overdose
Emphysema, a degenerative disease, is caused by:
surfactant destruction and increased alveolar surface tension
Which of the following respiratory medications is exclusively indicated for chronic asthma treatment or as asthma prevention?
Advair
Ventricular tachycardia often causes hypotension because:
there is not enough time between beats for the left ventricle to fill with blood
Damage to the ___________ valve may cause blood to regurgitate into the lungs.
mitral
Afterload is defined as the:
pressure against which the left ventricle must pump
The __________, which is present wherever a nerve cell terminates, connects to the next cell via__________.
synapse, neurotransmitters
The movement and utilization of oxygen in the body is dependent on all of the following, EXCEPT:
effective alveolar-capillary osmosis
You are called to the county jail for a 50-year-old male who is "drunk." When you assess him, you note the smell of alcohol on his breath and a markedly decreased level of consciousness. The sheriff's deputy tells you that this patient is a "regular." On the basis of the information that you have obtained, you should:
assess the patient's blood glucose and suspect intracranial bleeding
The normal site of origin of electrical impulses in the heart is the ____________, which generates ___________ impulses per minute.
sinoatrial node, 60 to 100
The _____________ arteries arise from the aorta shortly after they leave the left ventricle.
coronary
You are treating a 2-year-old boy who is experiencing respiratory distress. During your assessment, you note that the child has mild inspiratory stridor, a barking cough, and a low-grade fever. The child is otherwise conscious, is acting appropriate for his age, and has strong radial pulses. Treatment should include:
humidified oxygen
Shortly after administering a second nitroglycerin dose to a 44-year-old male with chest pain, he becomes lightheaded. You take his blood pressure and is reads 80/50 mm Hg. You have already established IV access and are administering oxygen. You should:
place him supine and elevate his legs
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, at the cellular level or in the lungs, is called:
respiration
The middle, muscular layer of the heart is called the:
myocardium
You are dispatched to an assisted-living center for a 67-year-old male with "mental status changes." You arrive at the scene and begin to assess the patient. He is responsive to painful stimuli only, has rapid and shallow breathing, and a slow radial pulse. You should:
begin assisting the patient's ventilations
Which of the following scenarios is MOST descriptive of an absence seizure?
A 6-year-old male who is conscious, but will not respond to his mother; symptoms subside spontaneously within a few minutes
The fifth link in the cardiac chain of survival includes:
temperature regulation and maintenance of glucose levels
The spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord and:
carry signals to and from the body
Patients with a hemorrhagic stroke typically experience a rapidly declining level of consciousness because of:
increasing intracranial pressure
You respond to a residence for a 27-year-old male with an altered mental status. As you are assessing him, his girlfriend tells you that he does not have any medical problems that she is aware of; however, he did fall two days ago and struck his head. These clinical and historical findings should make you MOST suspicious for:
subdural hemorrhaging
While treating a patient who is in cardiogenic shock, your paramedic partner makes the comment that the patient needs an inotropic medication. You should recall that this type of medication is intended to:
affect the strength of cardiac contraction
Which of the following MOST accurately describes the correct sequence of events after attaching an AED to a patient in cardiac arrest and pushing the analyze button?
"Shock advised" message, stand clear, defibrillate, immediately resume CPR, reanalyze after 2 minutes
When given to a patient who is experiencing an acute coronary syndrome, aspirin works by:
preventing an existing clot from getting larger
The tricuspid and mitral valves of the heart are referred to as:
atrioventricular valves
A 57-year-old female with a history of peripheral vascular disease presents with an acute onset of confusion, aphasia, left-sided hemiparesis, and loss of muscle control to the right side of her face. You should suspect an:
arterial blockage in the right cerebral hemisphere
The hypertension that is commonly observed in patients with an intracerebral hemorrhage is usually the result of:
the body's attempt to shunt blood to the brain
Acute epiglottitis in the adult is characterized by:
a severe sore throat
A degenerative cerebral disease is an example of a(n) ______________ cause of a seizure.
structural
When assisting a patient with his or her prescribed inhaler, it is important to:
have the patient exhale deeply prior to inhaling the medication
A 60-year-old female is in possible cardiogenic shock. She is semiconscious with shallow respirations, an irregular pulse, and hypotension. Appropriate treatment for this patient should include:
assisted ventilation with a bag-mask device, thermal management, 20 mL/kg fluid bolus, and transport
Erythropoiesis is the ongoing process by which:
red blood cells are made
The visceral pericardium, which lies closely against the heart, is also called the:
epicardium
Following a head injury, a patient is verbally abusive and combative. He MOST likely has an injury to the ___________ lobe of the brain.
frontal
In cases of pulmonary edema, diffusion is impaired primarily because of:
fluid-filled alveoli
With regard to potential treatment in the hospital, which of the following questions is MOST important to ask the spouse of a 66-year-old female who presents with signs and symptoms of an acute ischemic stroke?
"When did you first notice the symptoms?"
Which of the following is NOT a component of the cardiac electrical conduction system?
Interatrial septum
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of electrical conduction through the myocardium?
SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
The clonic phase of a generalized motor seizure is characterized by:
muscle contraction and relaxation occurring in rapid succession
Which of the following statements regarding the automated external defibrillator (AED) is NOT correct?
A pulse should be checked immediately after the AED shocks
You are transporting a 60-year-old male to the hospital for suspected COPD exacerbation. He is receiving 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask. As you reassess him, you note that his respirations have decreased and have become shallow. You should:
begin assisting his ventilations
In most people, speech is controlled by the:
left hemisphere
A hemorrhagic stroke occurs as a result of:
a ruptured cerebral artery
A 20-year-old female presents with acute respiratory distress. Auscultation of her lungs reveals diffuse expiratory wheezing. She is in moderate distress and tells you that she has a prescribed inhaler that she uses when this happens. You should suspect:
an acute asthma attack
Compared to monophasic defibrillation, biphasic defibrillation is advantageous because it:
utilizes less energy to achieve effective defibrillation
Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system results in:
increased blood pressure and heart rate
You are dispatched to the home of a 64-year-old male patient with lung cancer. The patient complains of acute dyspnea; however, as long as he is sitting upright, his breathing is easier. He denies fever and his breath sounds are decreased over the base of the left lung. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient's symptoms?
Collection of fluid outside of the lung
Which of the following clinical findings is MOST consistent with inadequate breathing?
Respirations of 16 breaths/min and reduced tidal volume
A hypertensive crisis is considered to be a true emergency when:
signs of central nervous system dysfunction are present
A middle-aged male presents with classic signs and symptoms of a dissecting aortic aneurysm. The MOST important intervention that you can perform for this patient is:
prompt transport
Characteristics of adequate breathing in an adult include all of the following, EXCEPT:
asymmetrical chest movement
When applying the AED pads to a patient with a surgically-implanted pacemaker, you should:
apply the pads at least 1" away from the pacemaker
Which of the following questions would be of LEAST pertinence when obtaining a focused history of a patient with an acute onset of chest discomfort?
Have you ever been told you have low blood pressure?
When a patient's blood glucose level increases significantly, the:
kidneys excrete excess glucose via water
Peritonitis is almost always associated with nausea and vomiting because:
absent peristalsis prevents movement of food through the GI tract
You are assessing a 32-year-old female who was stung by a scorpion. She is unresponsive and has stridorous, severely labored respirations. Your partner, who is assisting the patient's ventilations with a bag-mask device, tells you that he is meeting significant resistance with each ventilation. You should:
insert an advanced airway device to protect her airway
Natural immunity occurs when a person's body:
produces antibodies after being exposed to and experiencing all the symptoms of a disease
A young female complains of acute pain located in the left lower quadrant of her abdomen. When palpating her abdomen for tenderness, and rigidity, you should FIRST palpate the:
right lower quadrant
Because the ____________ is the body's first line of defense, signs of anaphylaxis typically manifest there first.
skin
Which of the following statements regarding hyperglycemic crisis (diabetic coma) is correct?
It usually progresses over hours or days
All of the following are common signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure, EXCEPT:
hematuria
The metabolic conversion of glucose into energy is called:
glycolysis
In order for electricity to flow through the body and cause injury:
there must be a complete circuit between the electrical source and the ground
Which of the following is the MOST acute and serious complication associated with a break in the integrity of the skin?
Loss of fluids
Small muscles within the dermis that pull the hair into an erect position when you are cold or frightened are called the:
erector pili
The three basic pathways by which radiation enters the body are:
inhalation, ingestion, and direct exposure
Common signs and symptoms of radiation sickness include:
hair loss and skin burns
On the basis of the Parkland formula, how much crystalloid should you administer per hour to a 70-kg patient with severe burns to 50% of his BSA?
800-900 mL
High-voltage burn injuries occur MOST frequently in:
utility workers
You are caring for a 59-year-old male involved in a motor-vehicle crash. During your assessment, you note that his pelvis is unstable, he is pale and diaphoretic, and his blood pressure is 80/50 mm Hg. Use of the pneumatic antishock garment (PASG) would be absolutely contraindicated if further assessment of this patient revealed:
coarse crackles in the lungs
When assessing a 70-year-old male with suspected internal bleeding, which of the following findings would be MOST pertinent?
Dizziness or syncope upon standing
All of the following signs are indicative of upper airway burns due to an inhalation injury, EXCEPT:
wheezing or rhonchi
Prior to applying a tourniquet to a profusely bleeding injury, you should take standard precautions and then:
hold direct pressure over the bleeding site
A 21-year-old male has lost approximately 35% of his blood volume following a penetrating injury to the chest. Which of the following signs or symptoms would you NOT expect to see?
Widened pulse pressure
You respond to a domestic dispute, where a middle-aged male was stabbed in the chest by his wife. Your assessment reveals that the patient is pulseless and apneic. The knife is impaled in the center of his chest. You should:
carefully remove the knife, control the bleeding, and perform CPR
During Stage 1 hemorrhage, the body compensates primarily by:
constriction of the vascular bed
The mouth, nose, and other body orifices are lined with ___________________, which secrete a watery substance and provide a protective barrier against harmful agents.
mucus membranes
In contrast to upper-airway injury following a burn, lower-airway injury is usually the result of:
inhalation of chemicals and particulate matter
Which of the following has the MOST impact on the severity of radiation injury or type of health effect?
The amount and duration of exposure
When assessing a patient with blunt abdominal trauma, the severity of internal bleeding is BEST determined by:
monitoring for signs of shock
You are dispatched to the scene of a shooting. Upon arrival, you are directed by law enforcement to the patient, a 44-year-old male, who is unconscious. He is lying in an impressive pool of blood and you can hear gurgling from his mouth when he breathes. After your partner assumes C-spine control and opens the patient's airway, you should:
suction the patient's oropharynx
When managing a patient with severe bleeding, it is important to:
take standard precautions
Which of the following statements regarding electrical burns is correct?
Internal injury caused by an electrical burn is usually more severe than the external burns indicate
When a person is exposed to cold temperatures, blood vessels in the skin:
constrict and divert blood away from the skin
Compartment syndrome is caused by:
tissue compression and damage due to fluid trapped in a confined space
Cardiac arrest following an electrical burn would MOST likely occur if:
the electricity flows from arm to arm
A 22-year-old male, who was trapped in a confined space during a structural fire, is conscious and alert and refuses EMS treatment and transport. He is breathing without difficulty, but has singed nasal hair and facial redness. Which of the following statements regarding this patient is correct?
The patient may die several hours later due to pulmonary complications
When managing a critically-burned patient, it is important to:
rapidly estimate the burn's severity and then cover with dry, sterile dressings
You are dispatched to a local nightclub for a patient who has been stabbed. After arriving at the scene and ensuring you and your partner's safety, you find the patient sitting on the ground. He is conscious, screaming in pain, and attempting to control bright red blood that is spurting from his groin area. After taking standard precautions, you should:
apply direct pressure to control the bleeding
Which of the following patients would benefit MOST from the application and inflation of the pneumatic antishock garment (PASG)?
Unstable pelvis with a BP of 80/50 mm Hg
You are dispatched to an industrial plant for a worker who was exposed to an unknown chemical. Upon arrival, you find the patient sitting outside of the plant. He has a white, dry powder covering his right arm. Care for this patient's exposure includes:
brushing the chemical from the patient's arm and then irrigating with water.
A 22-year-old female was involved in a traumatic incident. She is exhibiting signs of shock, but there are no obvious external signs of trauma. You should suspect bleeding within the:
abdominal cavity
Which of the following is NOT a function of the skin?
Destruction of sebum
The mouth, nose, and other body orifices are lined with ___________________, which secrete a watery substance and provide a protective barrier against harmful agents
mucus membranes
You should be MOST suspicious for serious bleeding when:
a patient has a poor general appearance
Which of the following weapons would MOST likely result in the largest surface area of tissue damage?
12-gauge shotgun
Which of the following organs or tissues requires only intermittent circulation of blood?
Muscles
When caring for a patient with multiple abrasions, you should:
be alert for underlying injuries
A 55-year-old male sustained partial-thickness burns to his face and neck when he opened the hot radiator cap on his car. He is conscious and alert, but complains of dyspnea and difficulty swallowing. His oxygen saturation is 96% on room air. You should be MOST concerned about the:
status of his airway
Which of the following would be classified as a moderate burn in an infant or child?
Partial-thickness burns covering 15% of the BSA
You arrive at the scene of a residential fire where the occupant, a 48-year-old male, has sustained partial- and full-thickness burns to his lower extremities and lower torso. Firefighters removed the patient's smoldering clothing and stopped the burning process prior to your arrival. The patient is conscious, but restless, and complains of intense pain to the burned areas. After taking the standard precautions, you should:
apply supplemental oxygen and monitor his airway.
When administering IV crystalloid boluses to a patient with an electrical injury, you should give enough fluid to maintain a urine output of:
1 mL/kg per hour
The LEAST desirable method of bleeding control in the prehospital setting is:
clamping a bleeding artery with hemostats
Which of the following statements regarding severe burns is correct?
Significant hypovolemia may not occur for several hours following the burn injury
Perfusion is MOST accurately defined as:
circulation of blood within an organ or tissue
Compartment syndrome is caused by:
tissue compression and damage due to fluid trapped in a confined space
If a patient is hemorrhaging, he or she is:
bleeding
A 62-year-old female with a history of type 2 diabetes has sustained partial-thickness burns to 27% of her body surface area (BSA). This burn should be classified as a:
critical burn
A 22-year-old female was involved in a traumatic incident. She is exhibiting signs of shock, but there are no obvious external signs of trauma. You should suspect bleeding within the:
abdominal cavity
An elderly male was removed from his burning house by firefighters. He has extensive full-thickness burns; is semiconscious; and has shallow, stridorous respirations. The firefighters have already stopped the burning process. After ensuring an open airway, you should:
assist his ventilations with a bag-mask device and 100% oxygen
Following an electrical burn, estimating the extent of the BSA involved is:
difficult because the degree and depth may be greater internally than externally
Appropriate management of a patient with an abdominal evisceration includes:
covering the exposed organs with a moist, sterile dressing and securing the dressing in place with a dry, sterile dressing
Which of the following organs or systems can survive the longest without oxygen?
Skeletal muscles
Which of the following patients has experienced a critical burn?
A 65-year-old with 18% partial-thickness burns to both upper extremities
The "rule of palms" for estimating the extent of the body surface area (BSA) burned is especially useful with:
irregularly-shaped burns
Prior to applying a tourniquet to a profusely bleeding injury, you should take standard precautions and then:
hold direct pressure over the bleeding site
Heat that is generated by an electrical injury can cause coagulation and vascular occlusion, resulting in:
compartment syndrome
During an explosion, a metal worker sustained a large laceration to the left side of his neck by flying debris. He is conscious, but restless; the wound is moderately bleeding. Appropriate care for this patient's injury includes:
preventing air from entering the wound and applying a pressure dressing
All patients with closed soft-tissue injuries should be assessed for:
serious hidden injuries
Which of the following injuries presents the greatest risk for severe internal bleeding?
Pelvic fractures
A thermal burn involving the epidermis that is characterized by redness and pain is classified as a:
superficial burn
A 21-year-old male has lost approximately 35% of his blood volume following a penetrating injury to the chest. Which of the following signs or symptoms would you NOT expect to see?
Widened pulse pressure
During times of decreased perfusion, the autonomic nervous system:
redirects blood to the most vital organs of the body
During a lengthy transport of a 120-lb 29-year-old female with partial- and full-thickness burns to 45% of her BSA, medical control orders you to begin IV fluid replacement based on the Parkland formula. What volume of IV crystalloid should you administer per hour?
620 mL
Which of the following types of burns is characterized by intense pain and destruction of a portion of the dermis?
Partial-thickness
In which of the following circumstances should you remove an impaled object?
Metal shard in the cheek and inadequate respiratory effort
Which of the following medications would interfere with the body's hemostatic effect?
Anticoagulants
After blood diffuses across the capillary membrane and perfuses the cells, it:
returns waste products to the right side of the heart, starting with the venules
A 40-year-old patient has sustained circumferential burns to the chest. The MOST serious complication associated with this type of burn injury is:
ventilatory insufficiency
The ability of a person to effectively compensate for acute blood loss is MOST directly related to the:
rate of blood loss
All of the following are characteristic of a closed soft tissue injury, EXCEPT:
deformity of a short bone
You and your partner are caring for a 30-year-old female who sustained extensive partial- and full-thickness burns when she was near a gas heater that exploded. Your primary assessment reveals that the patient is semiconscious with profoundly labored and stridorous respirations. Immediate management of this patient should include:
assisting her breathing with a bag-mask device and oxygen
A 32-year-old male was involved in a motorcycle crash and sustained bilateral femur fractures as he was ejected over the handlebars of his bike. He is experiencing signs and symptoms of shock. On the basis of his injury, what is the approximate volume of blood that he has lost?
2 L
When assessing a patient with multiple gunshot wounds, you should:
identify the number and location of all wounds
Priority treatment for a patient with an open soft-tissue injury includes:
control of active bleeding
The layer of skin that lies below the germinal layer and contains nerves, sebaceous glands, and blood vessels is called the:
dermis
A 34-year-old male was involved in a motor-vehicle crash. During the crash, his vehicle caught fire. Bystanders removed the patient from his vehicle prior to your arrival. The patient is conscious with adequate breathing. He has partial-thickness burns to his face and neck, and an open femur fracture with severe bleeding. Immediate management for this patient should include:
controlling the bleeding from his leg
When managing an adult patient with an inhalation injury, inspiratory stridor, and an altered mental status, you should:
prepare for early definitive airway management
Common prehospital treatment for patients with severe burns includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
tetanus prophylaxis
During your rapid assessment of an unconscious 67-year-old female, you note signs of shock and the presence of hematochezia. You should be MOST suspicious for:
lower gastrointestinal bleeding
Significant vital signs changes, including increased heart and respiratory rates and a decreasing blood pressure, would likely occur if an 80-kg adult patient acutely loses as little as _____ L of blood.
1
A young male tripped on a garden hose, fell, and struck his head on a concrete sidewalk. He is unresponsive and has a large hematoma to his forehead. His respirations are slow and shallow. You should:
assist his ventilations with 100% oxygen
Death immediately following a burn is MOST commonly the result of:
toxic chemical inhalation
You are assessing a 4-year-old male who was electrocuted when he stuck a pin into an electrical socket. He is conscious and alert and complains of pain to his left hand, where you find a small entrance wound. When treating this child, you should:
anticipate extensive internal injuries
Why does the skin become flushed or red when a person is exposed to a hot environment?
Blood vessels dilate and heat radiates to the skin surface
A full-thickness burn is typically characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT:
intense pain
Hemostasis is a natural response of the body in which:
bleeding spontaneously clots through vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation
How much IV fluid (per bolus) should you administer to a 65-kg patient with extensive burns and severe shock?
1,300 mL
In addition to improving systemic perfusion following an electrical burn injury, you should administer IV crystalloid fluid boluses in order to:
maintain adequate urine output
utility worker was trimming branches away from a high power line when he accidentally cut the power line. He is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. You should begin CPR and then:
apply the AED as soon as possible
Which of the following statements regarding the dermal layer of the skin is correct?
Blood vessels in the dermis do not penetrate into the epidermis
Which of the following conditions would allow an adult patient to MOST effectively compensate for external blood loss?
500 mL of blood loss over 15 minutes
A 60-year-old male has sustained partial- and full-thickness burns to his anterior chest, head, and both anterior arms. On the basis of the "Rule of Nines," what percentage of his body surface area (BSA) has been burned?
36%
Under which of the following conditions would external bleeding be LEAST difficult to control?
Lacerated femoral vein and a BP of 88/60 mm Hg
A 1-year-old female sustained blunt abdominal trauma following a motor-vehicle crash in which she was not properly restrained. Significant signs and symptoms will MOST likely occur after as little as _____ of blood loss.
100 mL
A 28-year-old female was the unrestrained driver of a car that struck the rear end of another car while traveling at 35 mph. She is conscious and alert and complains of pain to the anterior chest. During your assessment, you note a large ecchymotic area over the superior aspect of the anterior chest. As your partner assumes manual stabilization of her head, you should:
apply 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask
An industrial-plant worker was splashed in the left eye with a strong acid chemical. The MOST appropriate initial care for this patient's injury is to:
irrigate the eye laterally, away from the unaffected eye
Which of the following injuries or conditions would MOST likely overwhelm the body's hemostatic response and result in death?
Ruptured aortic aneurysm
When caring for an open wound that has small pieces of glass and other debris inside of it, you should:
cover the wound with a sterile dressing
Which of the following factors has the MOST significant impact on determining the severity of a burn?
Depth and extent of the burn
The Adam's apple is:
the upper part of the larynx that is formed by the thyroid cartilage
The superficial temporal artery can be palpated:
just anterior to the tragus
A patient with neurogenic shock would be expected to present with:
bradycardia and hypothermia
When a light is shone into the pupil:
it should become smaller in size
Which of the following is the MOST significant complication associated with facial injuries?
Airway compromise
A 6-year-old female was riding her bicycle and struck a clothesline with her throat. She is breathing, but with obvious difficulty. Your assessment reveals a crackling sensation in the soft tissues of her neck and facial cyanosis. In addition to the appropriate airway management, the intervention that will MOST likely improve her chance of survival is:
rapidly transporting her to the hospital
During your assessment of a 29-year-old female with a severe head injury, you note that her left pupil is dilated and unreactive to light. This suggests pressure on the:
oculomotor nerve
Just before striking a tree with her car, a 17-year-old female suddenly gasps and holds her breath. What type of injury will she MOST likely experience?
Rupture of the lung parenchyma
A middle-aged male is found unconscious at the base of the steps to his house. There is no evidence of trauma and there were no witnesses to the event. You should:
stabilize his head and open his airway with the jaw-thrust maneuver
Commotio cordis is a condition in which:
immediate cardiac arrest occurs when the chest is impacted during the heart's repolarization period
Which of the following signs or symptoms would you MOST likely encounter in a patient who was struck in the back of the head?
Visual disturbances
The physiologic response that occurs when a person is exposed to a stressful stimulus is initiated by the:
sympathetic nervous system
When caring for a patient with significant thoracic trauma and signs of shock, it is MOST important to:
transport promptly to a trauma center
A young female was involved in a motor-vehicle crash and complains of neck pain. When assessing her, you should NOT:
determine cervical range of motion
Which of the following statements regarding scalp lacerations is correct?
Blood loss from a scalp laceration may result in hypovolemic shock, especially in children
The eyeball itself is called the:
globe
A 52-year-old unrestrained female struck the steering wheel with her face when her truck collided with another vehicle. She has obvious swelling to her face and several dislodged teeth. A visual exam of her mouth reveals minimal bleeding. She is conscious and alert with a blood pressure of 130/80 mm Hg, a pulse of 110 beats/min, and respirations of 22 breaths/min with adequate depth. You should:
apply supplemental oxygen, immobilize her spine, attempt to locate the dislodged teeth, suction as needed, and transport
When assessing an unresponsive 20-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury, you note that his left pupil is fully dilated and non-reactive. This indicates injury:
to the left cerebral hemisphere
The upper jawbones are called the:
maxillae
Decerebrate posturing is characterized by:
extension of the arms and extension of the legs
When transporting a patient with a facial injury, it is MOST important to be as descriptive as possible with the hospital regarding the patient's injury because:
a specialist may be needed to manage the injury
Which portion of the central nervous system is afforded the BEST protection by the cranium?
Brainstem
A 39-year-old female experienced a severe closed head injury. She is unconscious with her eyes slightly open; her pupils are bilaterally dilated and slow to react. In addition to managing problems with airway, breathing, and circulation, you should:
close her eyes and cover them with a moist dressing
Following a traumatic brain injury, a patient presents with Cushing's triad, which consists of:
hypertension, bradycardia, and irregular respirations
A trauma patient who presents with shock, jugular venous distention, and bilaterally equal breath sounds has MOST likely experienced a:
pericardial tamponade
Which of the following chest injuries would be the LEAST likely to present with jugular venous distention?
Massive hemothorax
The presence of posturing following severe head trauma is a sign of:
brainstem injury
Which of the following potentially lethal chest injuries would you be the LEAST likely to detect during the primary assessment?
Pulmonary contusion
You are caring for an 11-month-old male who fell from a second-story window and landed on his head. While assessing him, it is important to remember that:
he could develop hypovolemic shock from intracranial bleeding
You are transporting a 37-year-old male with a head injury to a local trauma center. When performing your reassessment, which of the following clinical findings would be the earliest indicator of increasing intracranial pressure?
A decreasing level of consciousness
Which of the following MOST accurately describes the pathophysiology of a pneumothorax?
Intrapleural pressure with progressive pulmonary collapse
The complex network of spinal nerves that controls the lower extremities is called the:
lumbosacral plexus
When stabilizing a patient's cervical spine, you should:
align the patient's nose with the navel
A 38-year-old male committed suicide by hanging himself. This mechanism of injury MOST likely resulted in:
distraction of the upper cervical spine
You are caring for a young female who experienced blunt head trauma and is unresponsive. You have inserted a King LT airway and are providing mild hyperventilation because she has signs of brain herniation. In doing this, you should:
utilize capnography and ensure that her end-tidal CO2 does not fall below 30 mm Hg
Which of the following statements regarding blunt chest trauma is correct?
Fractured ribs can tear the lung parenchyma or other vital intrathoracic organs
Which of the following findings is LEAST suggestive of a head injury?
Briskly constricting pupils when exposed to light
Which of the following MOST accurately describes the position of the cerebellum within the skull?
Inferoposterior to the cerebrum
As the aorta exits the left ventricle, it immediately branches into the:
coronary arteries
In contrast to paradoxical chest motion, asymmetrical chest movement occurs when:
one side of the chest fails to move normally during inspiration
Following a minor head injury, which of the following occurs more commonly in children than adults?
Vomiting
A 39-year-old female struck a tree while traveling approximately 40 mph. When you arrive at the scene, the patient is out of her vehicle and walking around. You should:
immobilize her in a standing position to a long backboard
Any injury at the nipple line should be considered a thoracic and abdominal injury because:
the diaphragm may elevate as high as the nipple line upon exhalation
You are transporting an immobilized patient with severe facial trauma. As you are preparing to give your radio report to the hospital, the patient begins vomiting large amounts of blood. You should:
turn the backboard onto its side
When caring for a patient with an open facial injury, the AEMT must:
wear gloves and facial protection
A 37-year-old male was struck on the driver side of his vehicle by another car traveling at 45 mph. Your primary assessment reveals that the patient is semiconscious and in respiratory distress. When extricating this patient from his car, you should:
apply a C-collar and rapidly remove him on a long backboard
Which of the following statements regarding the lung parenchyma is correct?
It is covered by the visceral pleura
A 54-year-old male impacted the steering wheel with his chest when his truck struck another vehicle head-on. He complains of retrosternal chest pain, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Although his blood pressure is 160/90, his femoral pulses are weakly palpable. You should suspect:
traumatic aortic disruption
The function of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves is to:
allow transmission of sensations directly to and from the brain
When treating a patient with a suspected diaphragmatic rupture, you should:
avoid placing the patient in a Trendelenburg position
The conjunctiva are kept moist by fluid produced by the:
lacrimal glands
A 37-year-old male sustained blunt trauma to the left anterolateral chest. He is conscious, but confused, and complains of pain during inspiration; his respirations are shallow. Your assessment reveals crepitus to the area of impact. Breath sounds, although weakly audible, are bilaterally equal. The pulse oximeter reads 89% on room air. You should:
assist his ventilations with a bag-mask device
An appropriately sized cervical collar should:
rest on the shoulder and provide support under the mandible
A 29-year-old male has an anterior nosebleed after he was accidentally elbowed in the nose. His is conscious and alert with adequate breathing. The MOST appropriate care for this patient includes:
leaning him forward and pinching his nostrils together
The largest portion of the brain, which controls a wide variety of functions, is the:
cerebrum
A 34-year-old male is in late shock secondary to blunt chest trauma. His respirations of 6 breaths/min and shallow will initially result in:
carbon dioxide retention and acidosis
The cricoid cartilage:
is the only complete circular cartilage of the trachea
You are dispatched to a convenience store, where the clerk sustained a laceration to the side of his neck during a robbery attempt. During your assessment, you note bright red blood spurting from the laceration. You should:
apply direct pressure above and below the wound
If a person places his or her hand on a hot stove:
the sensory nerve will bypass the brain and send a message directly to the motor nerve
Mastoid bruising is also referred to as:
Battle's sign
A subdural hematoma is an accumulation of blood:
beneath the dura mater but outside the brain
A person would MOST likely experience a compression injury of the lumbar spine when he or she:
falls and lands on his or her feet
Which of the following is a LATE sign of a tension pneumothorax?
Contralateral tracheal shift
Cerebral edema is aggravated by:
low O2 levels in the blood
A 19-year-old male was struck by a baseball in the occipital region of the skull. Witnesses report that the patient was briefly unconscious following the incident. He is now conscious and alert, but cannot remember the events immediately following the injury. He is breathing without difficulty and his vital signs are stable. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with a/an:
cerebral concussion
Visceral injuries in the chest that occur from shearing forces, compression, or rupture, are MOST commonly seen with:
blunt chest trauma
The opening in the center of the iris, which allows light to move to the back of the eye, is called the:
pupil
Significant trauma to the face should increase the AEMT's index of suspicion for a/an:
spinal cord injury
The esophagus enters the thorax via the thoracic inlet and travels:
through the posterior thorax
Fracture of the first and second ribs following severe blunt trauma would MOST likely result in a:
tracheobronchial injury
Following blunt head trauma, a 44-year-old male presents with clear, watery fluid draining from his nose. You should suspect:
damage to all of the meningeal layers
A young male has experienced a possible neck injury. When you attempt to place his head in a neutral in-line position, he complains of a severe spasm in his neck. You should:
immobilize him in the position in which you found him
The skin and underlying tissues of the face:
have a rich blood supply and bleed heavily
What physiologic response may occur when a head-injured patient is hyperventilated with a bag-mask device and 100% oxygen?
Vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral perfusion
A construction worker is pinned in between a truck and a loading dock. He is conscious and in respiratory distress. Further assessment reveals upper torso and facial cyanosis and bilateral conjunctival hemorrhages. When treating this patient, you must:
be prepared for severe hypotension once he is freed
A Level 4 hazardous material:
A Level 4 hazardous material:
Which of the following chemicals is a nerve agent?
soman
An 81-year-old female fell and struck her head. You find the patient lying on her left side. She is conscious and complains of neck and upper back pain. As you are assessing her, you note that she has a severely kyphotic spine. What is the MOST appropriate method of immobilizing this patient?
Leave her on her side and use blanket rolls to immobilize her to the long backboard
A tour bus has overturned, resulting in numerous patients. When you arrive, you are immediately assigned to assist in the triage process. Patient 1 is a middle-aged male with respiratory distress, chest pain, and a closed deformity to his right forearm. Patient 2 is a young female who is conscious and alert, but has bilateral femur fractures and numerous abrasions to her arms and face. Patient 3 is an older woman who complains of abdominal pain and has a history of cardiovascular disease. Patient 4 is unresponsive, is not breathing, has a weak carotid pulse, and has a grossly deformed skull. What triage categories should you assign to these patients?
Patient 1, immediate (red); Patient 2, delayed (yellow); Patient 3, immediate (red); Patient 4, expectant (black)