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180 terms

Bio Final

STUDY
PLAY
Protein synthesis occurs primarily during
G1
During meiosis centromeres split during
Anaphase II
If the DNA content of a cell is X, what would be the DNA content of a cell undergoing meiosis at the end of telophase II
0.5X
If DNA content of cell is X, undrgoing meiosis what would DNA content at the end of telophase I
X
During mitosis, centromeres split during
Anaphase
Cell growth occurs during
interphase
A particular cell has half as much DNA as some of the other cells in a mitotically active tissue. The cell in question is most likely in
G1
How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be generated in gametes made by an organism with a diploid number of 8(2n=8)
16
Non-disjunction occurs during
Anaphase
Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of a dividing cell during
Meiosis I
A cell goes through G1, S and G2, but fails to undergo cell division and immediately goes back into G1, this would cause the cell to:
Increase DNA content
In humans, 2n=46. How many possible different cells could potentially be generated by any one indivdual
2^23
A cell undergoes a number of mitotic divisions with each cell generation becoming smaller. Which Stage of the cell cycle is missing?
G1
The major difference between mitosis and meiosis occurs during
Metaphase
Non-Disjunction may result in cells with
Fewer than normal number of chromosomes
In a typical cell cycle, cytokinesis generally overlaps in time with which stage?
telophase
during metaphase I of meiosis cell that is 2n=12 has ___Chromatids
24
at the end of telophase I of meiosis cell 2n=12 has ____chromatids
12
at the end of telophase II of meiosis cell 2n=12 has _____chromatids
6
During preparation for sexual reproduction, meiosis is responsible for the production of
different haploid cells
Two processes whcih must occur during meiosis:
reduction and variation
during meiosis, centromeres split during
anaphase II
Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that
sister chromatids separate during anaphase
If the DNA content of a diploid cell in G1 phase of the cell cycle is X then the DNA content of the same cell at metaphase of meiosis I would be
2X
If the DNA content of a diploid cell in G1 phase of cell cycle is X and 2X in meiosis I then in metaphase of meiosis II would be
X
Dna content of of cell that is X at metaphase of meiosis I would have DNA content what at end of telophase II
.5X
How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle?
The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amout of DNA
A cell containing 92 chromatids at metaphase of mitosis would at its completion produce two nuclei each containing how many chromosomes?
46
If there are 20 chromatids in a cell during G2 how many centromeres are there?
10
The formation of microspheres, liposomes, and coacervates all require
self assembly
what is the sequence in evolution of life on this planet
abiotic production of organic molecules, polymerization, protobionts
The first living cells were most likely
anaerobic, heterotrophs
The mian explanation for the lack of a continuing abitic origin o flife on Earth today is that
our oxidizing atmosphere is not conducive to the spontaneous formation of complex molecules
One of the major evolutionary trends observed in living organisms is the
development of specialized cells
in order for living organisms to continue to develop and to become more comples, which of the follwing had to be in place first
atmospheric oxygen
monera are characterized as
single celled prokaryotes
the relative success of a group of organisms is based on
species number, total biomass, evolutionary status, energy flow
reproductive structure in bacteria
pilli
in distinction to the cell wall of gram positive bacteria, the cell wall of gram negative bacteria contain
lipopolysaccharide
a prokaryotic genome is different from a eukaryotic genome in that
it has less protein associated with its DNA and is not enclosed in a nuclear envelope
how do yo differentiate strains of bacteria
cell shape, gram stain, nutrition, colony shape
of the list of taxonomic levels presented which is highest,
class
gram negative bacteria are unique in possessing a
lipopolysaccharide layer
which structures play direct roles in permitting bacteria to adhere to each other or to other surfacs
pili
Darwin's unique contribution ot the theory of evolution was to propose that
the environment selects successful organisms
biology is a natural science which
attempts to explain life in physical terms
oxygen has an atomic number of 8. You would expect the arrangement of electrons in this atom to be
two in the first orbital and six in the second
which of the following elements having the given atomic number would be the elast reactive, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10
10
The most common elements found in living organism include
nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, hydrogen
phosphorous has an atomic number of 15 and atomic mass number of 31 how many electrons does it have in outermost orbital
5
phosphorous has an atomic number of 15 and an atomic mass number of 31 how many covalent bonds is it likely to form
3
A radioactive isotope of phosphorous has a mass number of 32. this implies that p-32 has________than p-31
one more neutron
Carbon has an atomic number of 6. This suggest that carbon will
share electrons with other atoms
As the pH of a solution increases
the hydrogen ion concentration decreases
All of the unique characteristics of water are due to the
the electronegativity of oxygen
the high boiling point of water is due to the
necessity of breaking hydrogen bonds
Water is most dense at _____C
4
Water surface tension is due to the
electrostatic attraction between water molecules
The emperical formula of a trisaccharide made up only of glucose (C6H12O6) would be
C12H22O11
How many structural isomers are possible for the compound C5H12
3
Functional group that confers acidic properties on organic molecules
-COOH
Functional group that forms cross links stabilizing protein structure
-SH
name a polymer
insulin
nucleic acids are polymers made up of______monomeric units
nucleotide
Unsaturated fats contain one or more
double bonds
a lipid contains
fatty acids
Glycogen is what type of macromolecule
Carbohydrate
Cholesterol is what type of macromolecule
Lipid
RNA is what type of macromolecule
Nucleic acid
An Enzyme is what type of macromolecule
Protein
Egg white is what type of macromolecule
protein
When a protein is reversibly denatured, it
loses its secondary and tertiary structure
Information content in nucleic acids is in the
arrangement of nucleotides
according to the cell thoery
cells give rise to cells
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are similar in that both cell types, they
contain ribosomes
cells secreting insulin would most liley contain a large number/amount of
golgi
site of protein synthesis in cells
ribosomes
eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that they have
mitochondria
structural component of the cytoskeleton
microfilament
a protein being produced and then secreted by a secretory cell wold pass through the following sequence of cell structures
rough endoplasmic reticulum---smooth endoplasmic reticulum---golgi
major evolutionary trend observed in the protists
cellular differentiation
what uses cytoplasmic streaming for locomotion
amoeba
In regard to the evolution of the protists whcih of the following is most correct
they are polyphyletic
a characteristic of all protists is that they
are eukaryotic
an ?attempt? at becoming multicellular observed in the cellular slime molds
aggregation of cells
the metazoans are believed tohave developed from which of the following
excavata
which of the following is not common to all phyla of vascular plants
the development of seeds
the male gametophyte of an angiosperm is the
germinated pollen grain
ferns are
seedless, vascular platns
the immature male gametophytes of pine are called
pollen grains
the transfer of the pollen grains from the male to the female reproductive structure is known as
pollination
Seed plants do not possess which of the following structures
a large, nutritionally independent gametophyte
bryophyts do not have
vascular tissue
which of the following is the dominatn stage in the life cycle of moss
gametophyte
plant spores give rise directly to
gametophytes
which of the following was not a problem for the first land plantds
animal predation
heterospory refers ot the condition of some plants in which
two different spore types are produced
the ___represents the sporophyte generation of a conifer and the ____produces gametophytes
tree cone
the nutrient material for the developing gymnosperm embryo
haploid female gametophyte tissue
fruis have contrubted to the success of angiosperms by
facilitating dispersal of seeds by wind and animals
angiosperms are the most successful terrestrial platns. this success is due to
animal pollination, reduced gametophytes, fruits enclosing seeds and xylem
A seed represents the
next sporophyte generation
the following are all generally observred among animals except
autotrophic nutrition
the common ancestor of all animals was probably a
protist
the most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having
radial or bilateral symmetry
cephalization is primarily
an adaptation to movement
what is an important distinction between a coelomate animal and a pseudocoelomate animal...coelomates
have a gut that possess muscles separated from the body wall, whereas pseudocoelomates have no gut musculature
the cells in a sponge responsible for trapping food particles from circulating water are called
choanocytes
which class of the phylum coelenterata occurs only as a polyp
anthozoa
serial replication of structure
annelids
characteristics of anthropods don't include
mantle cavity
what is the function of water vascular system of echinoderms
locomotion, feeding and gas exchange
which of the following is a deuterstome
starfish
the operation of a hydrostatic skeleton is dependent upon all of the folling with exception of
porous body wall
which of the following phyla is probably the most polyphyletic
anthropods
the success of the arthropods is most likely due to their possession or development of
an exoskeleton
mandibulate arthropod
insect
which of the following best descreibes the echinoderms
this group has more extinct thatn living species
the development of pentaradial symmetry in the echinoderms is probably due to
a sessile existence
how does the nerve cord run in chordates
dorsally
the most primitive vertebrates are represented by
agnatha
the echinoderms and chordates are alike in that both
share a common ancestor
a swim bladder was first obsered in the
actinopterygians
the original function of the swim bladder was for
locomotion
direct ancestor of the primitive amphibians
crossopterygians
two necessary pre-adaptations had to be in place before vertebrates moved onto land. These were
swim bladder and lobe fins
Homeothermy is a characteristic of the______and_____
birds and mammals
mammalian group with internal fetal development
eutheria
the first successful terrestrial vertebrates were
reptiles
sclerenchyma cells would most likely be found associated with which of the following tissues
vascular
the plant cell wall contains what?
cellulose and other polysaccharides
meristematic tissue in plant roots
pericycle
wood consists primarily of
secondary xylem
vessel elements of the primary plant body originate from the
procambium
a sieve-tube member would likely lose its nucleus in which zone of growth in a root?
zone of maturation
which of the following is not included in the bark of a tree
vascular cambium
the cork cambium arises from cells in the
cortex
secondary growtth in plants require the presence of
lateral meristems
structure or tissue found in the center of a monocot root but not in a dicot root
pith
spongy mesophyll would be found in
leaves
where do plants get most of their mass
from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
which of the following cells provide flexible support to the growing parts of platns
collenchyma cells
new growth that increases stem length on a plant arises mainly from
apical meristems
the vascular cambium gives rise to
secondary phloem
embryonic tissue in plants that in turn gives rise to all primary meristems is the
apical meristem
______is to xylem as __________is to phloem
vessel element, sieve-tube member
all of the following enter the plant throught eh roots except
carbon dioxide
which structure or compartment is not part of the platns apoplast
the lumen of a sieve tube
positive root pressure is generated by
solute transport into the root
all material passing into the vascular stele must pass through
the endodermis
movement form cell to cell in phloem would be through
plasmodesmata
the funciton of the casparian strip is to
prevent movement of material around cells
transpiratio results in the
net movement of water upward in xylem
movement of material in the phloem of a plant involves
active solute transport
guard cells are responsible for
water loss through the leaves
collenchyma cells would most liekly be associated with teh
cortex
all of the following are meristematic except
epidermis
plasmodesmata function in
solute transport
stomata open when guard cells
become more turgid because of an influx of potassium followed by water entry
the water potential in plant cells is a function of
both hydrostatic pressure and solute levels
proton pumps are responsible for
generating a pH gradient across the cell membrane
when solutes are added to water what happens to the water potential
the water potential decreases
pure water has a water potential of
0 MPa
root pressure oculd be increased by
active potassium transport into the root
movement of phloem sap from a sugar source to sugar sink
may translocate sugars from the breakdown of stored starch in a root up to developing shoots
in darwin's experiment with plants, which part of the seedling was sensitive to light?
the extreme tip of the leaf sheath
which of the following are responsible for softening the cell wasll in repsonse to ausin stimulation
hydrogen ions
the increase in girth associtated with production of wood and bark in trees occurs as a consequence of
secondary growth
bark consists of
secondary phloem, cork cambium, and cork
which of the following would be a good way to ripen a green tomato
placing it in a sealed plastic bag with an overripe banana
Cartilage would be an example of which of the following types of tissues?
connective
Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has
less surface area per unit of volume
Which of the following enzymes has the lowest pH optimum?
pepsin
4) The pH of the stomach is lowered by the secretions from ____________ cells.
Pariental cells
Water leaves the arterial end of the capillary into the interstitium because of:
excess hydrostatic pressure
) CO2 is transported from the tissues to the lungs primarily in the form of:
as bicarbonate ion in solution in the plasm
A steroid hormone is characterized by which of the following?
initiates protein synthesis
The main target organ of ADH is the
kidney
During the menstrual cycle, what is the main source of progesterone in females?
corpus luteum
) Puberty in the male is initiated by the secretion of:
GnRH