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Protein synthesis occurs primarily during


During meiosis centromeres split during

Anaphase II

If the DNA content of a cell is X, what would be the DNA content of a cell undergoing meiosis at the end of telophase II


If DNA content of cell is X, undrgoing meiosis what would DNA content at the end of telophase I


During mitosis, centromeres split during


Cell growth occurs during


A particular cell has half as much DNA as some of the other cells in a mitotically active tissue. The cell in question is most likely in


How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be generated in gametes made by an organism with a diploid number of 8(2n=8)


Non-disjunction occurs during


Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of a dividing cell during

Meiosis I

A cell goes through G1, S and G2, but fails to undergo cell division and immediately goes back into G1, this would cause the cell to:

Increase DNA content

In humans, 2n=46. How many possible different cells could potentially be generated by any one indivdual


A cell undergoes a number of mitotic divisions with each cell generation becoming smaller. Which Stage of the cell cycle is missing?


The major difference between mitosis and meiosis occurs during


Non-Disjunction may result in cells with

Fewer than normal number of chromosomes

In a typical cell cycle, cytokinesis generally overlaps in time with which stage?


during metaphase I of meiosis cell that is 2n=12 has ___Chromatids


at the end of telophase I of meiosis cell 2n=12 has ____chromatids


at the end of telophase II of meiosis cell 2n=12 has _____chromatids


During preparation for sexual reproduction, meiosis is responsible for the production of

different haploid cells

Two processes whcih must occur during meiosis:

reduction and variation

during meiosis, centromeres split during

anaphase II

Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that

sister chromatids separate during anaphase

If the DNA content of a diploid cell in G1 phase of the cell cycle is X then the DNA content of the same cell at metaphase of meiosis I would be


If the DNA content of a diploid cell in G1 phase of cell cycle is X and 2X in meiosis I then in metaphase of meiosis II would be


Dna content of of cell that is X at metaphase of meiosis I would have DNA content what at end of telophase II


How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle?

The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amout of DNA

A cell containing 92 chromatids at metaphase of mitosis would at its completion produce two nuclei each containing how many chromosomes?


If there are 20 chromatids in a cell during G2 how many centromeres are there?


The formation of microspheres, liposomes, and coacervates all require

self assembly

what is the sequence in evolution of life on this planet

abiotic production of organic molecules, polymerization, protobionts

The first living cells were most likely

anaerobic, heterotrophs

The mian explanation for the lack of a continuing abitic origin o flife on Earth today is that

our oxidizing atmosphere is not conducive to the spontaneous formation of complex molecules

One of the major evolutionary trends observed in living organisms is the

development of specialized cells

in order for living organisms to continue to develop and to become more comples, which of the follwing had to be in place first

atmospheric oxygen

monera are characterized as

single celled prokaryotes

the relative success of a group of organisms is based on

species number, total biomass, evolutionary status, energy flow

reproductive structure in bacteria


in distinction to the cell wall of gram positive bacteria, the cell wall of gram negative bacteria contain


a prokaryotic genome is different from a eukaryotic genome in that

it has less protein associated with its DNA and is not enclosed in a nuclear envelope

how do yo differentiate strains of bacteria

cell shape, gram stain, nutrition, colony shape

of the list of taxonomic levels presented which is highest,


gram negative bacteria are unique in possessing a

lipopolysaccharide layer

which structures play direct roles in permitting bacteria to adhere to each other or to other surfacs


Darwin's unique contribution ot the theory of evolution was to propose that

the environment selects successful organisms

biology is a natural science which

attempts to explain life in physical terms

oxygen has an atomic number of 8. You would expect the arrangement of electrons in this atom to be

two in the first orbital and six in the second

which of the following elements having the given atomic number would be the elast reactive, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10


The most common elements found in living organism include

nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, hydrogen

phosphorous has an atomic number of 15 and atomic mass number of 31 how many electrons does it have in outermost orbital


phosphorous has an atomic number of 15 and an atomic mass number of 31 how many covalent bonds is it likely to form


A radioactive isotope of phosphorous has a mass number of 32. this implies that p-32 has________than p-31

one more neutron

Carbon has an atomic number of 6. This suggest that carbon will

share electrons with other atoms

As the pH of a solution increases

the hydrogen ion concentration decreases

All of the unique characteristics of water are due to the

the electronegativity of oxygen

the high boiling point of water is due to the

necessity of breaking hydrogen bonds

Water is most dense at _____C


Water surface tension is due to the

electrostatic attraction between water molecules

The emperical formula of a trisaccharide made up only of glucose (C6H12O6) would be


How many structural isomers are possible for the compound C5H12


Functional group that confers acidic properties on organic molecules


Functional group that forms cross links stabilizing protein structure


name a polymer


nucleic acids are polymers made up of______monomeric units


Unsaturated fats contain one or more

double bonds

a lipid contains

fatty acids

Glycogen is what type of macromolecule


Cholesterol is what type of macromolecule


RNA is what type of macromolecule

Nucleic acid

An Enzyme is what type of macromolecule


Egg white is what type of macromolecule


When a protein is reversibly denatured, it

loses its secondary and tertiary structure

Information content in nucleic acids is in the

arrangement of nucleotides

according to the cell thoery

cells give rise to cells

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are similar in that both cell types, they

contain ribosomes

cells secreting insulin would most liley contain a large number/amount of


site of protein synthesis in cells


eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that they have


structural component of the cytoskeleton


a protein being produced and then secreted by a secretory cell wold pass through the following sequence of cell structures

rough endoplasmic reticulum---smooth endoplasmic reticulum---golgi

major evolutionary trend observed in the protists

cellular differentiation

what uses cytoplasmic streaming for locomotion


In regard to the evolution of the protists whcih of the following is most correct

they are polyphyletic

a characteristic of all protists is that they

are eukaryotic

an ?attempt? at becoming multicellular observed in the cellular slime molds

aggregation of cells

the metazoans are believed tohave developed from which of the following


which of the following is not common to all phyla of vascular plants

the development of seeds

the male gametophyte of an angiosperm is the

germinated pollen grain

ferns are

seedless, vascular platns

the immature male gametophytes of pine are called

pollen grains

the transfer of the pollen grains from the male to the female reproductive structure is known as


Seed plants do not possess which of the following structures

a large, nutritionally independent gametophyte

bryophyts do not have

vascular tissue

which of the following is the dominatn stage in the life cycle of moss


plant spores give rise directly to


which of the following was not a problem for the first land plantds

animal predation

heterospory refers ot the condition of some plants in which

two different spore types are produced

the ___represents the sporophyte generation of a conifer and the ____produces gametophytes

tree cone

the nutrient material for the developing gymnosperm embryo

haploid female gametophyte tissue

fruis have contrubted to the success of angiosperms by

facilitating dispersal of seeds by wind and animals

angiosperms are the most successful terrestrial platns. this success is due to

animal pollination, reduced gametophytes, fruits enclosing seeds and xylem

A seed represents the

next sporophyte generation

the following are all generally observred among animals except

autotrophic nutrition

the common ancestor of all animals was probably a


the most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having

radial or bilateral symmetry

cephalization is primarily

an adaptation to movement

what is an important distinction between a coelomate animal and a pseudocoelomate animal...coelomates

have a gut that possess muscles separated from the body wall, whereas pseudocoelomates have no gut musculature

the cells in a sponge responsible for trapping food particles from circulating water are called


which class of the phylum coelenterata occurs only as a polyp


serial replication of structure


characteristics of anthropods don't include

mantle cavity

what is the function of water vascular system of echinoderms

locomotion, feeding and gas exchange

which of the following is a deuterstome


the operation of a hydrostatic skeleton is dependent upon all of the folling with exception of

porous body wall

which of the following phyla is probably the most polyphyletic


the success of the arthropods is most likely due to their possession or development of

an exoskeleton

mandibulate arthropod


which of the following best descreibes the echinoderms

this group has more extinct thatn living species

the development of pentaradial symmetry in the echinoderms is probably due to

a sessile existence

how does the nerve cord run in chordates


the most primitive vertebrates are represented by


the echinoderms and chordates are alike in that both

share a common ancestor

a swim bladder was first obsered in the


the original function of the swim bladder was for


direct ancestor of the primitive amphibians


two necessary pre-adaptations had to be in place before vertebrates moved onto land. These were

swim bladder and lobe fins

Homeothermy is a characteristic of the______and_____

birds and mammals

mammalian group with internal fetal development


the first successful terrestrial vertebrates were


sclerenchyma cells would most likely be found associated with which of the following tissues


the plant cell wall contains what?

cellulose and other polysaccharides

meristematic tissue in plant roots


wood consists primarily of

secondary xylem

vessel elements of the primary plant body originate from the


a sieve-tube member would likely lose its nucleus in which zone of growth in a root?

zone of maturation

which of the following is not included in the bark of a tree

vascular cambium

the cork cambium arises from cells in the


secondary growtth in plants require the presence of

lateral meristems

structure or tissue found in the center of a monocot root but not in a dicot root


spongy mesophyll would be found in


where do plants get most of their mass

from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

which of the following cells provide flexible support to the growing parts of platns

collenchyma cells

new growth that increases stem length on a plant arises mainly from

apical meristems

the vascular cambium gives rise to

secondary phloem

embryonic tissue in plants that in turn gives rise to all primary meristems is the

apical meristem

______is to xylem as __________is to phloem

vessel element, sieve-tube member

all of the following enter the plant throught eh roots except

carbon dioxide

which structure or compartment is not part of the platns apoplast

the lumen of a sieve tube

positive root pressure is generated by

solute transport into the root

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