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301 terms

Chapters 15-20 Biology

Cell cycle, *** Linked Inheritance, Biotechnology, Mitosis, and Meiosis,Developmental Genetics, Genetic Technology
STUDY
PLAY
Cytogenetic is
The field of genetics that involves the microscopic examination of the chromosomes and cell division
DNA associates very tightly with nucleosomes because
negative charges on DNA are attracted to positive charges of the histone proteins.
The control of the cell cycle involves all of the following EXCEPT
Cytokinesis which involves the formation of cleavage furrow to separate the cells.
During metaphase
chromosomes are much shorter than they were in interphase
Which of the following statements is correct about the cell cycle?
When the S phase of the cell cycle is finished, a cell actually has twice as many chromatids as the number of chromosomes in the G1 phase
Humans have __________ different types of autosomes.
22
Consider an organism whose karyotype shows it to have a total of 60 chromosomes. How many chromosomes would be contained in the sperm of this organism?
30
Which of the following statements is incorrect concerning sister chromatids?
Sister chromatids separate during telophase
Which of the following is not a part of the mitotic spindle apparatus in plants?
centriole
Place the following events of mitosis in the correct order. I. Sister chromatids align on the metaphase plate. II. The cleavage furrow forms. III. The nuclear membrane breaks up. IV. Sister chromatids condense. V. Sister chromatids separate.
IV, III, I, V, II
The process by which haploid cells are produced from diploid cells is called
meiosis
The formation of the bivalent during meiosis
contributes to the genetic diversity of a species
At the end of meiosis I
the cells are haploid and the homologous pairs are in separate cells
The major way that meiosis II differs from mitosis is that
in meiosis II, the cells are haploid.
In a haploid dominant species
the multicellular organism is haploid and the zygote is diploid.
Why must the life cycle of sexually reproducing species alternate between haploid and diploid stages?
Meiosis must occur at some point in the life cycle to prevent a doubling of chromosomes in each generation.
You prepare the first ever karyotype of an endangered species of frog. Upon examination you find that all the chromosomes are metacentric. This is going to make it difficult to identify
both the p and q arms of the chromosome.
During crossing over in meiosis
an incomplete exchange of genetic material occurs. This would most likely produce,a deficiency in one homologue and a duplication in the other homologue
Consider a diploid species where n=5. If an individual of this species was found to have 11 chromosomes
it would be categorized as,both aneuploid and trisomic.
Horses and donkeys are closely related species that can interbreed. However
the offspring produced are usually sterile and cannot reproduce. What term would best describe the offspring from this mating?,alloploid
Consider a cell in which all of the homologous chromosomes experience nondisjunction during meiosis I. What would be the result of this event?
two polyploid gametes
Polyploidy in plants
All of these statements are true regarding polyploidy in plants.
Most human embryos that are aneuploid
are spontaneously aborted in the first trimester.
When a gamete that is lacking a sex chromosome due to nondisjunction has fused with a gamete carrying an X chromosome
this type of abnormality leads to the _________ .,the Turner syndrome
Chromosomes inside the nucleus do not overlap with each other because
they all have a specific chromosome territory that is determined by the nuclear matrix
What does not happen in the cytokinesis of plant cells?
Formation of cleavage furrow to separate the cells.
Put the following steps in the procedure for producing a karyotype in the correct order. I. Cells are visualized under the microscope. II. Cells are stimulated to divide. III. Homologues are organized into sets by matching size and banding patterns. IV. The cells are exposed to a hypotonic solution. V. Cells are stained and placed on a microscope slide.
II, IV, I, V, III
The centromere
is not present on the chromosomes of the daughter cells until the S phase
In mitosis
the main difference between plant and animal cells is that,plants produce a cell plate to segregate the daughter nuclei, while animals form a cleavage furrow.
A species that has three sets of homologous chromosomes can have up to __different combinations of chromosomes in the gametes.
8
Meiosis I produces __________
and meiosis II produces _________ cells,two haploid, 4 haploid
A chromosome with the centromere located two-thirds of the distance from its end could be classified as
either submetacentric or acrocentric.
Which of the following mutations will not alter the amount of genetic material on the chromosomes?
inversion
In a tetraploid species
a euploid individual would have ___sets of chromosomes.,4
A person who inherits an extra X chromosome will have
Klinefelter syndrome.
Chromosomes are replicated during the ______ phase.
S
Synaptonemal complexes form during
prophase of meiosis I.
Sister chromatids separate during
anaphase of meiosis II.
If two triploid species interbreed
the offspring will be,allohexaploid.
The life cycle of a sexual reproducing organisms includes
mitosis, meiosis, and fusion of the gametes
True or False: Homologous chromosomes are identical copies of each other
false
True or False: Mitotic cell division is never used by organisms as a means of reproduction
false
A diploid queen honeybee produce eggs by meiosis. Some of these eggs are never fertilized
while the rest are. These unfertilized eggs develop into haploid male honeybee. This can be an example of sexual reproduction,TRUE
For any given species
cells in metaphase II of meiosis would contain 2× more genetic material than cells in metaphase of mitosis,FALSE
True or False: The karyotype of a normal human male would show a total of 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes
FALSE
If a cell contains 20 units of DNA during G2
it will have 40 units of DNA during S.,FALSE
During prometaphase
the sister chromatids organize into a single row in the center of the cell.,FALSE
True or False: A cell undergoing meiosis that contains sister chromatids may be either haploid or diploid.
TRUE
True or False: One major difference between metaphase I and metaphase II is the presence or absence of bivalents.
TRUE
True or False: Sexual life cycles include both haploid and diploid stages
TRUE
The concept that offspring can inherit the acquired skills of their parents is called
blending inheritance or Lamarck's hypothesis.
What personal characteristics and events in Gregor Mendel's life significantly contributed to his ultimate contribution to the study of inheritance?
His training in physics and mathematics at the University of Vienna.
Mating a purebred Labrador retriever to a purebred poodle to produce "Labradoodles" is an example of
hybridization.
Which of these is NOT a reason that Mendel used pea plants as a model to study inheritance?
They cannot self-fertilize.
Which of the following are incorrectly matched for a single-factor cross?
F2 generation / result of P cross
A cross of a true-breeding smooth pod and yellow pod plants results in all smooth pod offspring. This indicates that
two of the answers are correct. Yellow and smooth are variants of the same gene, and smooth is the dominant trait.
Polydactylism is a dominant trait that results in extra fingers and toes in humans. A polydactyl man marries a woman with 10 fingers and toes. They have a child that has a normal number of digits. The phenotype of the man's father is unknown but his mother has a normal phenotype,
woman dd, man Dd
A cross between two pea plants produces a population of 732 purple and 268 white plants. What is the genotype and phenotype of the parents that produced this population?
both parents heterozygous purple
In humans having dimples in the cheeks is a dominant trait. If a child has dimples but only one of her parents does, what are the genotypes of her parents?
one parent must be dd, the other parent could be either Dd or DD
A male is heterozygous for the trait that produces freckles on the skin and he has freckles. If he marries a woman who is also heterozygous for freckles, ______ percent of their children will be freckled and __________percent of their children will be heterozygous.
75% freckled, 50% heterozygous
How can you determine the genotype of a plant showing the dominant phenotype of red color?
Cross the red plant with a white plant to see if any white plants appear.
The single-factor crosses performed by Mendel support the observation that
the two alleles for a given gene are distributed randomly among an individual's gametes.
The two-factor crosses performed by Mendel support the observation that
alleles for a given trait are distributed randomly among an individual's gametes independent of the alleles for other traits.
An organism that is heterozygous for two traits can produce a maximum of _______ different gametes for these traits
4
Which of the following INCORRECTLY states a principle of the chromosome theory of inheritance
Gametes contain either a maternal or paternal set of chromosomes.
A homologous pair of sister chromatids will possess _______ copies of the alleles for each locus.
8
Which of the following accurately gives the distribution of phenotypes produced from a cross of purple dwarf pea plants that are heterozygous for flower color and plant height?
63 purple dwarf; 28 purple tall; 27 white dwarf; 7 white tall
What features of meiosis allow for independent assortment of chromosomes?
random alignment of homologous sister chromatids on the metaphase plate
The probability of obtaining a dominant phenotype from self-fertilization of a heterozygous individual is
3/4
The probability of a couple having either a boy or a girl is ½. However many families have more boys than girls and VICE VERSA. Why is the observed ratio of boys to girls in typical families different than the predicted ratio?
Two of the answers are correct. There is a large random sampling error due to the small size of human families and the sex of each child is determined independently.
A nearsighted woman (Nn) with hazel eyes (Hh) marries a man with normal vision and hazel eyes (Hh). Their three children all have blue eyes and normal vision. What is the probability that their next child will have blue eyes and be nearsighted?
3/8
Which of the following phrases INCORRECTLY finishes this statement? A genetic disease that causes death in infancy and has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern can persist in a population because
if both parents are carriers, they have a 50% chance of having normal children.
A woman comes to your genetic counseling center because she knows that Huntington disease occurs in members of her family. Her paternal grandfather was afflicted but so far her father shows no symptoms. Her two great-great grandmothers on her father's side were healthy well into their 90s and one of her great-great grandfathers died of unknown causes at 45. Testing for Huntington disease is extremely expensive but she is concerned that she may fall victim to this disease and wants to plan her life accordingly. After examining her pedigree you advise her to
get tested because her father could be a carrier.
For mechanisms of sex determination
which of the following is incorrectly paired?,1n-2n, pea plant
In mammals males are ________ and females are ____________.
hemizygous, homozygous
In Thomas Hunt Morgan's experiments males had white eyes but females did not. What cross could you perform with his flies to obtain white-eyed females?
crossing either the F1 or F2 females with a white-eyed male will produce some white-eyed females.
In Thomas Hunt Morgan's experiments the ratio of red-eyed flies to white-eyed flies appeared to follow
A simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance.
What observation(s) did he make that led to his conclusion that the white-eyed trait was actually not a simple Mendelian trait?
He was able to correlate the expression of white eyes to the inheritance of an X chromosome because only F2 males had white eyes and the trait is recessive.
Which of the following inheritance patterns is matched with an inaccurate molecular basis?
Simple Mendelian inheritance; The protein produced by a single allele cannot produce the dominant phenotype.
You discover a new sunflower that has blue flowers instead of yellow. When you cross this blue variety with a common yellow variety you get blue and yellow speckled flowers. What type of inheritance pattern does this gene exhibit?
co-dominance
Which of these statements INCORRECTLY describes an example of pleiotropy?
A mutation in one allele for phenylalanine hydroxylase results in lower levels of this enzyme in the blood which causes high blood levels of phenylalanine.
When a single-gene mutation can have phenotypic effects at multiple stages of development
it is,pleiotropic
If a pink snapdragon is self-fertilized the offspring are red- pink- or white. What type of inheritance pattern does flower color exhibit in this example?
incomplete dominance
Color blindness is a recessive X-linked trait. A normal couple has a color-blind child. Who else in this family is probably color blind?
the child's maternal grandfather
Two babies are mixed up in the hospital nursery. The blood types of Couple 1 are A and O and the blood types of Couple 2 are AB and B. Baby Joe has blood type O and Baby Jane has blood type A. Who are the parents of Baby Joe and Baby Jane?
Couple 1, Baby Joe or Baby Jane; Couple 2, Baby Jane
What is the difference between the blood types A, B, and O?
A and B individuals have different modifications made to their carbohydrate tree. O individuals have no modifications made to their carbohydrate tree.
A man with pattern baldness and a woman who has no baldness have a son who develops pattern baldness. Their son has a daughter who also develops pattern baldness. They determine that her expression of this trait is not a symptom of a medical condition. If her mother does not have pattern baldness the daughter's genotype is ________ and her mother's genotype is _____________.
BB and/or Bb
A woman visits her doctor's office complaining of pattern baldness. Her mother and father do not have pattern baldness but her brother does. The doctor is concerned that she may have the serious condition of _______ and he immediately orders blood tests to check her ________ levels.
tumor of the adrenal gland, 5-dihydrotestosterone
The color of petunia flower can be changed from red to blue by altering the pH of the soil. This is an example of
norm of reaction
A person who is homozygous for a mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene
can lead a normal life if the environment is controlled.
_________ occurs when 50% of a protein produces a different phenotype than that produced by 100% or 0% of the protein
Incomplete dominance
A couple has five sons. What is the probability that their next child will be a girl?
50%
True or False:The law of independent assortment states that the two alleles of the same gene will segregate from each other during gamete formation.
FALSE
True or False:Offspring receive both the alleles for a given trait from one parent
FALSE
True or False: A locus encodes different genes in different individuals of the same species.
FALSE
True or False:The sex of all animals is determined by chromosomes.
FALSE
True or False:If you were to examine a typical population at a single locus
you would find more copies of the wild-type allele than any other allele.,TRUE
True or False:When some recessive human diseases are present in the heterozygous state
incomplete dominance occurs.,TRUE
True or False: Only fathers can pass on pattern baldness to their sons.
FALSE
True or False:A person with blood type O can donate blood to people of any blood type.
TRUE
True or False:A Punnett square is best used to predict the likelihood of producing many offspring with a particular genotype.
FALSE
True or False:Pea plants cannot self-fertilize because one plant has either ovaries and stamens but not both.
FALSE
You are breeding different varieties of roses in your garden. When you cross a true-breeding yellow "Texas Beauty" rose with a true-breeding "Ruby" red rose you get all red roses. But when you cross a "Texas Beauty" yellow with the yellow variety "Jealousy" you get a 9:7 ratio of red to yellow flowers! What can you conclude from these results?
There are epistatic interactions between at least two genes for rose pigment.
Which of the following statements correctly describes a quantitative trait?
People who are homozygous for the group of genes associated with skin pigment have either lighter or darker skin than those who are heterozygous for those genes
You breed a black long-haired rabbit with a white short-haired rabbit. All of the offspring have long black hair. If the genes for hair color and length are linked .What would be a possible ratio for the F2 population?
5 long-haired black plus 4 short-haired white plus 1 short-haired black and 2 long-haired white
If a testcross for two different traits produces more nonrecombinant than recombinant offspring then the alleles for the two traits, are on the same chromosome. You are mapping the location of two genes in Drosophila= listless l and blind b. (l+ l+ b+ b+) and (l+ l- b+ b-) flies are normal but ( l- l- b- b-) flies don't move around very much and cannot detect the location of a light source. You perform a testcross and get the following results: listless- sighted 100 listless-blind 400 normal activity,-sighted 400 normal activity- blind 100. What is the distance between these two genes on the chromosome?
They are 20 map units apart.
If a plant species exhibits maternal inheritance for leaf pigmentation.What is the phenotype of the parents of a variegated (green and white leaves) plant?
The maternal plant must be variegated and the paternal plant can be any color.
A man has a mutation in the ATP synthase gene. This results in an inability to synthesize ATP properly causing extreme muscle weakness. If this man has children . . .what is the likelihood that they will inherit this disease from him?
0%
A gene for sweat gland production is found on the X chromosome. If a man who lacks sweat glands marries a woman who has normal sweat glands what will be the phenotype of their children?
All the boys will have sweat glands, and the girls will have sweat glands in some areas but not others.
The Xist gene product
A. is never translated into protein.
B. is required for the production of Barr bodies.
C. coats the X chromosome with RNA.
D. associates with proteins to compact the chromosome
E. All of these statements are correct.
All of these statements are correct.
Epigenetic inheritance . . .
can result in the expression of different alleles in different generations.
Bicoid is a maternal effect gene that is essential for the development of head structures in Drosophila. The F1 generation from a cross of two phenotypically normal flies produces normal embryos but in the F2 cross 25% of the embryos lack heads and die. What was the genotype of the mother in the P generation?
Bb
The inheritance pattern where two or more genes do not assort independently because they are close together on the same chromosome is called
linkage.
The inheritance pattern in which the mother provides gene products to the developing egg cells is called A. X inactivation
maternal effects.
Albinism in most animals is an epistatic trait characterized by a lack of melanin pigment in the eyes- skin- and hair. If the allele for albinism is a-the allele for brown coat color is B- and the allele for red coat color is b . . . which of the following genotypes would result in an albino cow?
aaBB and aabb
Quantitative traits
A. are polygenic.
B. encode genes for continuous traits.
C. are influenced by the environment.
D. are both polygenic and influenced by the environment.
E. Are correctly described by all of these statements
E.are correctly described by all of these statements.
Height (tallness) in humans is a polygenic trait. Assume the following: There are 4 genes that determine height (Aa Bb Cc Dd). Each dominant allele adds 2 inches of height to an individual. The height of the recessive individual (aa bb cc dd) is 5 feet. What is the height of a person with the genotype (AA Bb cc DD)?
5′10″
In the sweet pea crossing experiment by Bateson and Punnetthe F2 generation had many more offspring with the phenotypes of purple flowers P, long pollen L and red flowers p, round pollen l than expected from independent assortment. This is because
A. in sweet peas, there are always more PL gametes than Pl ones.
B. in sweet peas, the alleles for flower color and pollen shape are on the same chromosome.
C. there were few recombination events between these genes during meiosis.
D. flower color and pollen shape are within the same linkage group.
E. All of the statements given are true.
E. All of the statements given are true.
Which of the following statements is not part of Morgan's Theory of Independent Assortment?
Linked genes are always inherited together
Barr bodies will be formed in both males and females depending on ?
The number of X chromosomes possessed by an individual.
Which of the following organelle(s) has/have a genome separate from the genome in the cell nucleus?
mitochondria and chloroplast
A plant cell contains _____ genomes and an animal cell contains ______ genomes
3-2
In plants most chloroplasts are inherited from the maternal plant because maternal gametes contribute the most __________ to the zygote
cytoplasm
The genomes of mammalian mitochondria contain
A. a total of 37 genes.
B. genes for proteins used in oxidative phosphorylation.
C. genes whose products are used in translation of mRNA.
D. ribosomal genes
E. All of the items listed are correct
E. All of the items listed are correct.
Which of the following diseases is not caused by a mutation in a mitochondrial gene?
Turner syndrome
A modification of a gene or chromosome that occurs during gamete formation or early development which permanently alters the expression of that gene for the lifetime of the individual is called
epigenetic inheritance
If a male cat with orange fur produces female offspring with calico fur.What color was the mother cat?
black or calico
Which of the following is not evidence supporting the Lyon hypothesis of X inactivation?
A genetically normal male cat can never be calico.
ALD is a fatal disease that results from a lack of peroxisomes in the liver. It is diagnosed by the presence of high levels of very long-chain fatty acids in the blood. The disease results in destruction of brain myelin leading to progressive cognitive impairment coma, and death by the age of 14. There has never been a case of ALD described in girls. You have just started your internship at the Mayo clinic and a 10-year-old girl comes in who is in a coma and having seizures. Blood tests show she has extremely elevated levels of long-chain fatty acids. This looks like ALD, but a girl has never been afflicted. When you go to your supervisor to give your diagnosis.Which of the following hypotheses do you present to support it?
Her mother is a carrier, and she could have genetically normal Barr bodies in the liver or Turner syndrome.
The karyotype of a young patient shows two Barr bodies per cell. What condition might this child have?
Triple X syndrome.
You discover a gene that results in a complete lack of hair in rats and you name the gene "chromedome." A cross of homozygous normal and homozygous bald rats results in all bald rats. You conclude that the baldness allele is dominant but when you repeat the cross with different rats none of the offspring are bald. Extremely puzzled you study your records and discover that in the first cross the bald rat was female, while in the second cross the bald rat was male. What do you conclude from this information?
Chromedome is imprinted in females
DNA methylation of a gene during spermatogenesis would result in . . .
the inactivation of the paternal allele in the offspring.
Which of the following is NOT a type of epigenetic inheritance?
maternal effect
Black-cheeked BC zebra finches are extremely desirable but relatively rare. This phenotype is caused by a recessive mutation but the mating of two BC birds is considered unethical because it results in very small birds. Therefore BC birds are created by crossing carriers of the BC gene. Despite problems with the homozygous recessive some unscrupulous breeders continue to breed them together because of the high prices they fetch. Which of the following statements could explain why BC homozygous birds are unusually small?
The BC gene and growth gene are close together on the same chromosome and/or both of these genes are mutated.
If the recombination frequency between gene A and B is 10 out of 100 offspring gene A and C is 30 out of 100 offspring and gene B and C is 40 out of 100 offspring. What is the location of these genes in relation to each other on a chromosome?
either CAB or BAC
What quality of the traits that Mendel chose to study allowed him to establish the basic laws of inheritance?
The alleles that he studied were either dominant or recessive
A trait that is expressed as a continuum rather than as a few discrete phenotypes is
codominant
A horticulturist is breeding a new variety of houseplant in which two genes control leaf color. G (allele for green) is dominant to g (yellow) and B (second allele for green) is dominant to b (yellow). The recessive homozygous condition of either gene will mask a dominant allele. What color is a plant with the genotype GgAa?
green
An animal cell contains ___________ genome(s) while a plant cell contains ___________ genome(s).
2-3
An experimenter crosses two fruit flies with different phenotypes. The results in the F2 generation are: 478 crooked legs
trembling behavior 372 stumpy legs, circling behavior 175 crooked legs, circling behavior 98 stumpy legs, trembling behavior What were the genotypes / phenotypes in the Parental generation?, Both parents homozygous / Male or female parental phenotype: crooked legs- trembling-Second parental phenotype: stumpy legs-circling
You are trying to improve growth in an economically important fish species. These fish have a gene for large size with two alleles (Ll). You cross a large female (LL) with a small male (ll) and get all large fish! The genotypes of the F1 are 100% Ll so you assume that large size is dominant to small. You then cross a small female with a large male and get all small fish! The genotypes of this F1 are normal. How do you explain this result?
The gene for large size is a maternal effect gene
True or False: Maternal effect genes are inherited via the mitochondria.
FALSE
True or False: Epistasis often involves genes of an enzymatic pathway
TRUE
True or False: The actions of Xist result in an organism that is a phenotypic mosaic.
TRUE
True or False: In biparental inheritance paternal and maternal gametes provide chloroplasts to the zygote.
TRUE
True or False: Genomic imprinting can result in offspring with identical genotypes that have different phenotypes.
TRUE
True or False: Mendel's laws do not adequately explain all the patterns of inheritance.
TRUE
True or False: The DNA methylation state of a zygote will be maintained throughout the life of the organism and then passed on unchanged to its offspring.
FALSE
True or False: Epistatic gene interactions do not follow Mendel's laws of inheritance.
FALSE
True or False: Paternal inheritance occurs in plants but not animals because animals do not have chloroplasts.
FALSE
True or False: Barr bodies are a diagnostic feature of X inactivation
TRUE
What characteristics below are NOT desirable in a model organism to study development?
short life span
You want to determine the function of a vertebrate gene by creating a mutant strain. What model organism would be most suitable?
Drosophila melanogaster
Which of the following model organisms is/are LEAST suited to study the timing of morphological changes during embryonic development?
Mus musculus
Animal bodies are organized along the ____________ axes
dorsoventral anteroposterior and left-right
The body pattern of plants is determined by
the orientation of the first zygotic cell division.
Which of the following lists gives the cellular processes for limb formation in correct order from first to last?
cell division -cell migration- cell differentiation-cell death
Organisms develop a normal morphology because cells can receive and interpret
both extracellular and intracellular positional information.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a morphogen?
A. A morphogen will only elicit effects in areas where it is at a high enough concentration.
B. Morphogens are distributed asymmetrically throughout the cell.
C. Morphogens can be secreted to act on neighboring cells.
D. Morphogens can cause cell death.
E. None of these choices are incorrect
E. None of these choices are incorrect, they are all characteristics of morphogens.
An unusual red sponge is discovered near a deep-sea vent. You want to determine if this is a new species of sponge so you separate the cells for further study. A new lab assistant accidentally adds cells from a blue sponge to your preparation while you are at lunch. When you return you find that the sponge cells have reaggregated into a multicellular organism. What do you see if the red and blue sponges are the same species?
one sponge with blue and red randomly distributed
The axis that determines the pattern of your hand in the direction from your thumb to little finger is the __________ axis
antero-posterior
The organization phases of development are regulated by
morphogens-transcription factors- and segmentation genes.
Stages of Drosophila development are listed here. Which of the following choices lists these stages of Drosophila development in the correct order? a - the three germ cell layers form b - metamorphosis c - the larva hatches d - the syncytial blastoderm forms e - the body is divided into segments f - the pupa forms g - the cellular blastoderm forms
D-G-A-E-C-F-B
A particular segment formed during normal Drosophila development
will always form the same structures in adult flies
In Drosophila a mutation in a gene for a bicoid transporter gene could result in which of the following?
offspring with no head and two spiracles
Nurse cells
transcribe bicoid mRNA and then transport it to the embryo.
The majority of Drosophila embryo segments will become part of the ________ in an adult fly
abdomen
In your fly laboratory you find a larva that is missing segments Lb
T1 T2 and T3. This larva probably has a mutation in a ___________ gene,gap
Which of the following relationships is INCORRECT?
Segment polarity genes activate pair-rule genes.
A mutation of a segmentation gene can result in
A segmentation gene mutation can cause all of these changes.
The colinearity rule describes
the spatial arrangement of homeotic genes along the chromosome.
Which of the following is NOT true concerning homeotic genes?
They are the only types of genes that contain a region of DNA called the homeobox.
Which of the following phrases INCORRECTLY completes the following statement? The Hox complexes of vertebrates
are arranged in groups of four complexes in all organisms that possess them.
Future kidney cells and heart cells can differentiate into their respective specialized cell types because
they express different genes and different transcription factors during development.
Which of the following phrases INCORRECTLY finishes this statement? Stem cells
are only found in embryos
Which of the following types of cells is matched with the wrong stem cell category?
lymphoid progenitor, unipotent
Place the following cell types in the correct order during the differentiation of a hematopoetic stem cell (HSC) into a macrophage. Some may be used once or not at all. I. megakaryocyte II. lymphoid progenitor III. macrophage IV. hematopoetic progenitor V. myeloid progenitor VI. monocyte VII. hematopoetic stem cell
VII- IV- V- VI-III
Davis and Weintraub and Lasser found three genes that are involved in muscle differentiation by
eliminating all the gene candidates that were expressed in both muscle and nonmuscle cells
Fibroblast cells that uptake cloned MyoD DNA
produce protein E -myosi- and myogenic bHLH protein.
Fibroblast cells are a good model system for studying muscle differentiation because
they never differentiate into muscle cells in a normally developing animal.
The morphology of plants is determined
by cell division at both the tip of the shoots and the roots.
The ________________ can differentiate into stems leaves or flowers
apical meristem
Apical-basal patterning genes are expressed in
the apical basal and central regions
Which of the following are incorrectly matched?
. gene B carpel formation, whorl 4
You find an Arabidopsis plant in your greenhouse that lacks stamens and carpels and has two rows of petals and sepals. What happened to cause this abnormal flower development?
a deleterious mutation of C and overexpression of A
If an Arabidopsis plant does not express homeotic genes during flower development
the plant will develop leaves instead of flowers
Some breeds of dogs that are specialized to retrieve objects from bodies of water have webbing between their toes. A change in what cellular response to positional information during digit formation could account for this morphological feature?
Signals to cause apoptosis are not received by cells that become webbing
Which of the following phrases INCORRECTLY finishes the following statement regarding morphogen distribution? Morphogen distribution inside the cell
is neither homogeneous nor dependent on CAMs.
At least some of the cells of a mammalian heart in the final phase of development would most likely be
either undergoing apoptosis or expressing cardiac-specific transcription factors.
Place these genes in their temporal order of expression from earliest to latest during Drosophila development
Bicoid- Gap-Homeotic
You find a mutant Drosophila larva that is lacking anterior structures. You know that this embryo had normal amounts of Bicoid protein. What other type of mutation could cause this result?
A hunchback mutation that inhibits Hunchback production
True or False: Most transcription factors active in early development are morphogens
TRUE
True or False: Adult stem cells are always unipotent
FALSE
True or False: The shoot meristem is totipotent.
FALSE
True or False: A cell's fate is determined while the cell is differentiating
FALSE
True or False: The molecular structure of invertebrate homeotic genes differs significantly from that of mammals
FALSE
True or False: The bicoid gene is a homeotic gene that encodes a transcription facto
FALSE
True or False: Both embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells are pluripotent
TRUE
True or False: A myeloid progenitor cell can differentiate into immune cells of the blood and lymph systems
FALSE
True or False: Davis Weintraub and Lasser demonstrated that MyoA MyoD and MyoH could transform undifferentiated fibroblast cells into muscle cells
FALSE
True or False: There are no federal government funds currently available for stem cell research
FALSE
Which of the following is a possible use for gene cloning? A. Cloned genes can be introduced into bacteria or livestock to make pharmaceutical products such as insulin. B. Cloned genes can be introduced into plants and animals to alter their traits. C. Cloned genes can be used to treat diseases. D. Large amounts of protein can be produced to study structure and function. E. All of the choices are correct
E. All of the choices are correct.
Which of the following acts as a carrier of foreign DNA and is needed to clone a gene?
. plasmid and viral vector
A researcher wants to clone a specific gene of interest. Why would he/she choose a viral vector for introducing the gene of interest into a host cell?
A viral vector can infect living cells and take control of the host cell's metabolic machinery.
Which of the following statements is TRUE of restriction enzymes?
They protect bacterial cells from invasion by foreign DNA.
Which of the following sequence pairs is a palindrome?
5′-TCCGGA-3′; 3′-AGGCCT-5′
After a fragment of DNA containing the gene of interest has been inserted into a vector how are the gaps between the two pieces of DNA sealed together?
DNA ligase catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds in the DNA backbone.
A plasmid vector and chromosomal DNA are treated separately with the same restriction enzyme. Which of the following might occur if the digested plasmid and chromosomal DNA were incubated together?
The two sticky ends of the plasmid could hybridize back together and recircularize as well as hybridize to both ends of a fragment of chromosomal DNA
What is the purpose of a selectable marker such as the antibiotic-resistance gene ampR?
Selectable markers allow a researcher to identify cells that have incorporated the recombinant plasmid
Which of the following is TRUE regarding the step in gene cloning when bacterial cells take up recombinant vector?
The cell is treated with agents that render it permeable to the plasmid
Which of the following is true regarding transformed cells that are plated on growth media containing ampicillin?
Each colony began with one antibiotic resistant cell and all cells in the colony are resistant to the antibiotic ampicillin.
What enzyme does the lacZ gene encode?
β-galactosidase
Which of the following statements about genomic libraries and cDNA libraries is TRUE?
A cDNA library is derived from mRNA and is made using reverse transcriptase.
Which of the following is an advantage of cDNA libraries?
cDNA lacks introns and therefore reflects all the genes expressed by a particular tissue or organism.
A researcher uses a probe complementary to the gene of interest and performs a colony hybridization experiment on a plate containing many bacterial colonies. Each bacterial colony contains a recombinant vector with a different piece of chromosomal DNA. What can be learned from this experiment
The researcher can identify colonies that contain the gene of interest
Which of the following blotting techniques allows a researcher to determine the number of copies of a gene within the genome of an organism?
Southern blotting
Following treatment with restriction enzymes what procedure would be used to isolate DNA fragments of different lengths?
gel electrophoresis
A small amount of DNA is collected from a crime scene. However the amount of DNA collected is insufficient to perform the necessary experiments to link a suspect to the crime. What method could be utilized to increase the amount of DNA?
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Why is Taq polymerase required to perform a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
Taq polymerase is heat stable and can therefore withstand the high temperature steps required of PCR that most other enzymes cannot tolerate.
What type of science is a researcher performing if she were conducting experiments to try and map the location of a gene on a particular chromosome?
structural genomics
What is required for a group of clones to be considered a contig?
The clones should have overlapping regions of DNA
Under what circumstances would a molecular geneticist need to use a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)?
when cloning large eukaryotic genomes
Which of the following procedure-analyses is mismatched?
mass spectrometry-DNA fragment analyses
What method must be performed to produce enough DNA for sequencing?
PCR
Which of the following is NOT added to each of the 4 assay tubes when performing the dideoxy method for DNA sequencing?
DNA polymerase
Which of the following is a possible application of DNA microarrays? A. cell-specific gene expression B. gene regulation C. elucidation of metabolic pathways D. tumor profiling E. All of the choices are correct
E. All of the choices are correct.
The entire collection of a species' proteins is known as its
proteome
When performing 2-D gel electrophoresis what is the purpose of exposing the proteins to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)?
SDS masks all of the proteins' native charge with a negative charge
During the tube gel electrophoresis phase of 2-D gel electrophoresis proteins are separated based on their net charge at a given pH. Each protein will migrate to a point in the gel where its net charge is zero. This process is known as what?
isoelectric focusing
What can be determined about proteins using mass spectrometry?
the amino acid sequence of short regions within a protein
Which of the following pollutants could be reduced with the use of bioremediation?
A. heavy metals
B. petroleum hydrocarbons
C. halogenated organic compounds
D. pesticides
E. All of the choices are correct.
E. All of the choices are correct.
What is it called when a cloned gene recombines with the normal gene on a chromosome to create a genetically modified organism (GMO)?
gene replacement
What can be inferred from an organism that has undergone a gene knockout?
The GMO is a homozygote and the cloned gene carries a mutation.
Which of the following is an advantage of molecular pharming?
The yield of recombinant proteins in mammalian milk is quite large
A researcher wants to introduce the human gene encoding tissue plasminogen activator (used to dissolve blood clots) into a mammal so that the protein will be secreted into the milk of the mammary gland. What is required for the researcher's success?
The gene should be placed next to the promoter of a gene that is expressed in mammary cells.
Why is the production of transgenic plants somewhat easier than the production of transgenic animals?
Plant cells are totipotent
Which of the following is an example of a clone on the organism level?
identical twins
Which would be TRUE of comparing the DNA fingerprints from hair samples of identical twins?
Every band matches
Which of the following is TRUE of short tandem repeat sequences (STRs)?
Their length is variable among different individuals and they can be used for DNA fingerprinting.
True or False:Restriction enzymes bind to specific sequences of DNA to seal them together
FALSE
True or False: Most plasmids used in biotechnology contain a selectable marker such as an antibiotic-resistance (ampR) gene
TRUE
True or False: A DNA library is known as a genomic library when it is derived from mRNA
FALSE
True or False: If a large protein is run on a gel slab and subjected to electrophoresis one would expect to find its band towards the top of the gel.
FALSE
True or False: Restriction enzyme digestion of DNA is NOT required to perform a Southern blotting experiment
FALSE
True or False:The main goal of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is to generate many copies of DNA
TRUE
True or False: DNA microarrays (gene chips) are only capable of monitoring the expression of one gene at a time
FALSE
True or False: 2-D gel electrophoresis separates proteins of interest based solely on molecular weight
FALSE
True or False: Tandem mass spectrometry can be used to determine the amino acid sequence of a peptide
TRUE
True or False: Bioremediation utilizes newly developed synthetic chemicals to decrease pollution in the environment
FALSE
True or False: A GMO is homozygous for a cloned gene. When it carries a mutation that inactivates the gene's function it s termed a gene knockout
TRUE
True or False: Chromosomes within somatic cells of mammals incur irreversible genetic changes rendering them unsuitable for cloning
FALSE
Prokaryotes include
bacteria and archea.
The bacterial genetic material is
localized to a nucleoid region.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of bacterial chromosomes?
they are single stranded
If an E. coli strain typically has 50 loop domains. How many total base pairs might this bacteria have in its chromosome?
200,000-450,000
The chromosome must be ___________ in order to fit into the bacterial cell
supercoiled by topoisomerases
An episome is
a plasmid that can integrate into the bacterial genome
Bacteria contain plasmids because
they provide genes that allow the bacteria to grow and thrive in the presence of potential toxins
Bacterial Strain A divides every 30 minutes. If you require at least 4 billion cells to perform an experiment. How long will you need to incubate a culture tube inoculated with a single cell of Bacteria A to get enough material to perform your experiment?
16
The two daughter cells that are formed as a result of binary fission A. each have about half the number of plasmids as the mother cell. B. are members of the same colony. C. have genetically identical chromosomes. D. Two of the answers are correct. They are members of the same colony and have genetically identical chromosomes. E. All of these statements are correct.
E. All of these statements are correct.
The different strains of a bacterial species
are described accurately by all of these statements.
You discover a bacteria species in a deep ocean sample that can turn olive oil into pure gold. The bacteria do not replicate well at sea level
and one night all of your "Golden" bacteria die. What can you do to possibly retrieve the gold-making gene from the dead Golden bacteria? ,Transform a live bacterial strain with the Golden bacteria's DNA.
How did Davis demonstrate that bacterial cells must be in physical contact in order for genetic exchange to occur?
When two bacterial strains with different nutritional requirements were separated from each other by a selective filter they did not acquire the ability to grow on agar plates that lacked their required nutrients
Lederberg and Tatum's experiments demonstrated that
bacteria can acquire genetic material from each other.
A bacterial cell must have ___________ in order to transfer portions of its chromosome to another cell
an F factor
The donor cell makes ___________ whose function is to bring F- cells close enough to transfer a ___________ to the recipient
a sex pilus - single strand of DNA
A mutation in the gene encoding the enzyme that cuts F factor DNA during conjugation would result in
an inability to separate the recipient DNA from the donor DNA.
A __________ bacterial cell is able to take up DNA from the environment
competent
Place the following events of bacterial conjugation in order from first to last. a - DNA replication b - an enzyme joins F factor DNA ends c - sex pilus shortens d - DNA transfer e - an enzyme cuts F factor DNA
c- e- d- b-a
Transduction is
the transfer of bacterial genes to another bacteria by a virus.
Bacterial infections have become much more of a threat to human health due to
All of the events given have increased the threat of bacterial infections.
Dmitri Ivanovski demonstrated that TMV was not spread via bacteria by
filtering sap from an infected plant through pores smaller than bacteria, and then applying it to a healthy plant.
A particle that consists of nucleic acids surrounded by protein and requires a host organism to replicate is
a virus.
When a virus has a broad host range
it can infect many cell types or species.
Which of the following components of a virus is not encoded by its own DNA?
lipid bilayer of viral envelope
Baculovirus genomes are 133.9 kb long and encode over 150 genes. This suggests that
their protein structures are very complex.
How does the reproduction of HIV and lambda phage differ?
HIV contains reverse transcriptase enzyme, while lambda phage does not.
Which of the following is not a part of the general viral reproductive cycle?
Reverse transcriptase converts RNA to DNA
Integrase
cuts the viral genome and is required for both prophage and provirus formation
Viral release from a eukaryotic cell
requires the production of lysozyme encoded by the viral genome and kills the infected cell.
A scientist has been growing a bacteria strain for some time in culture media containing very few nutrients. The cells are growing slowly so she enriches the media with amino acids and carbohydrates. To her dismay instead of growing faster and to higher densities the bacteria begin to die. What has caused this strange result?
The bacteria is infected with a temperate phage and has switched from the lysogenic cycle to the lytic cycle
While a prophage genome is integrated into the host cell chromosome it is
latenT- lysogenic,-and temperate.
Transduction is the result of what "mistake" that viruses make during replication?
cutting up the bacterial chromosome
A pro- strain of bacteria which has not been in contact with any other strains develops the ability to produce the amino acid proline. This mutant "rescue" could have been caused by
addition of the pro+ gene via transduction
Which of the following is not an emerging virus?
Epstein Barr
Persons infected with HIV often die of opportunistic diseases because
HIV destroys T cells
During HIV reproduction spike glycoproteins
do not enter the cell with the virus
Drugs that are HIV protease inhibitors
prevent HIV protease from degrading host cell proteins.
Which of the following hypotheses proposed to explain the evolutionary origin of viruses does not assume the pre-existence of living cells?
The precursors of cellular DNA genomes may have been RNA molecules
A drug researcher has developed a macromolecule that can bind to scrapie and thus change the prion's conformation. What effect might this have on the actions of scrapie?
The shape change could prevent the scrapie protein from converting normal proteins to scrapie proteins
Which of the following does not contribute to the infectious ability of prions?
Prion proteins are deposited as aggregates.
True or False: Bacterial cells only contain one copy of its circular chromosome
FALSE
True or False: Bacteria can exchange DNA between strains of the same species and between different species
TRUE
True or False: Viroids have a genome but do not translate any of it to protein
TRUE
True or False: Horizontal gene transfer occurs when one species of bacteria takes up the DNA of another species that released the DNA when it died
TRUE
True or False:Bacterial conjugation is also called bacterial sex because there is an equal exchange of genetic information between two cells
FALSE
True or False: Plasmids can help bacteria grow faster
TRUE
True or False: The ability to transfer DNA via conjugation is a universal feature of E. coli strains
FALSE
True or False: Transformation is the transfer of genes from dead bacteria to live bacteria
TRUE
True or False: It has been difficult to create an effective vaccine against HIV because reverse transcriptase cannot correct its errors
TRUE
True or False: Viral genomes must always be excised from the bacterial chromosome before viral components can be produced
FALSE