Chapter 6 Industrialization

Key vocabulary terms and concepts regarding the study of Industrialization.
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Edwin L. Drake
Successfully used a steam engine to drill for oil near Titusville, PA. Started an oil boom across Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and Texas
Bessemer Process
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Helped produce cheaper, easier and stronger substance. This process was used to create more than 90% of the nations steel.
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing and patenting the electric light bulb. Established the world's first research laboratory. His invention of electricity changed the business world forever, enabled industry to grow more.
Also, allowed electricity to be available in homes, business to run multiple machines and locate plants anywhere.
Christopher Sholes
invented the typewriter in 1867
Alexander Graham Bell
He was an American inventor who was responsible for developing the telephone. This greatly improved communications in the country.
transcontinental railroad
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
George M. Pullman
invented the sleeping cars for trains and built a town to house his workers in Pullman, Illinois
Credit Mobilier
1872, A fraudulent construction company took the profits of the Union Pacific Railroad. Using government funds for the railroad, the Union Pacific directors gave padded construction contracts to Congress members
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Union Pacific Railroad
Railroad begun in Omaha, Nebraska and headed west, meeting the Central Pacific Railroad in Promontory Point, Utah, to form the first US transcontinental railroad
Central Pacific Railroad
The California-based railroad company, headed by Leland Stanford, that employed Chinese laborers in building lines across the mountains
Andrew Carnegie
Controlled the steel industry, used both vertical and horizontal integration. Built a palace on peace, created many libraries. Inspired workers to start unions and fight for their rights but he later cut his own employees wages.
vertical integration
Buying out supplies to control all steps in the production process.
horizontal consolidation
The process of bringing together many firms in the same business to form one large company
Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Monopoly
(economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
John D. Rockefeller
formed Standard Oil Trust and brought order back to the oil business and made millions while monopolizing the oil industry. He was a very religious man who believed in giving back to charity and created the University of Chicago, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
trust
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors
Sherman Antitrust Act
law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trusts that restrained free trade
Eugene V. Debs
Formed American Railroad Union, became a spokesman for the socialist party.
Factors that led to and industrial boom
-Natural resources
-Government support for business
-Growing urban population
Mary Harris (Mother Jones)
Organized women's labor and worked for united mine workers, she also lead a children's march
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
Fire took the lives of 146 women and made people start to reform safety procedures.
Goals of the Interstate Commerce Act
Put in place for government to supervise railroad activities.
Great Strike of 1877
Baltimore and Ohio railroad strike spreads to other lines
Governors say impending interstate commerce.
Collective Bargaining
Negotiating between representation of labor and management to reach written agreements on wages and working conditions.
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