Campbell Biology Chapter 15
The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Terms in this set (37)
Chromosome theory of inheritance
Mendelian genes have specific loci on chromosomes, and it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment during meiosis.
Thomas Hunt Morgan
United States biologist who formulated the chromosome theory of heredity with the help of fruit flies("Drosophila") (1866-1945)
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in natural populations
due to alleles assumed to have originated as changes, or mutations, in the wild-type allele
A gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome
A gene located on the X chromosome; such genes show a distinctive pattern of inheritance.
possessing a gene on the X chromosome of a male where there is no equivalent on the Y chromosome
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
A human genetic disease caused by a X-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue
an X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.
A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells, representing an inactivated X chromosome.
Genes located close enough together on a chromosome to be usually inherited together.
the production of offspring with combinations of traits differing from those found in either parent
offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.
when offspring display phenotypes that are different than parents
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
Alfred H. Sturtevant
- student of T.H. Morgan
-1911 - generated first map of chromosome based on recombination frequency
-said that frequency of recombination could be used to determine the physical distance separating two genes on a chromosome
an ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.
a measurement of the distance between genes; one map unit is equivalent to a 1 percent recombination frequency.
A chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to chromosomal features distinguishable in a microscope.
the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis or meiosis II
A chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number.
A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be monosomic for that chromosome.
A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be trisomic for that chromosome.
a chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.
change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed
change in chromosome structure in which a particular segment is present more than once in the same chromosome
change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the original chromosome is reversed
change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
A human genetic disease resulting from having an extra chromosome 21, characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects.
a chromosomal trisomy in which males have an extra X chromosome resulting in an XXy condition; affected individuals typically have reduced fertility
Chromosome disorder in females. a x chromosome is missing or part of one x is deleted. short stature and webbed neck.
cri du chat
a chromosomal deletion in chromosome 5 that results in children who are mentally retarded, have small heads, and have a cry that sounds like a loud cat; they die at a young age
chronic myelogenous leukemia
in this disease, a portion of chromosome 22 gets swapped with a piece of chromosome 9. its a cancer affecting white blood cells
a phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent
Genes found in organelles other than the nucleus (chloroplasts and mitochondria). It is maternally inherited, since the egg donates the cytoplasm to the zygote in fertilization.
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy
mitochondrial. progressive loss of central vision and eventual blindness due to degeneration of optic nerve.. NADH dehydrogenase (complex 1) deficiency
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