976 terms

Life in the UK, 3rd edition (2013)

Questions derived for study from the text of "Life in the United Kingdom: A Guide for Residents", 3rd edition (2013). Questions and answers are phrased as closely as possible to the text in the book, and in cases where examples are listed (i.e., the plays of Shakespeare), only those included in the book are included here. There are quite a lot of cards in this set, I know. I didn't break the information up into chapters, because it helps me to shuffle the cards so that bits of information are co…
The fundamental principles of British life include:
The rule of law
Individual liberty
Tolerance of those with different faiths and beliefs
Participation in community life
Responsibilities and freedoms enjoyed by citizens and residents of the UK:
Respect and obey the law
Respect the rights of others, including th eright to their own opinions
Treat others with fairness
Look after yourself and your family
Look after the area in which you live and the environment.
Freedoms and rights offered to citizens and residents of the UK:
Freedom of belief and religion
Freedom of speech
Freedom from unfair discrimination
Right to a fair trial
Right to join in the election of a government
What is the origin of the fundamental principles of British life?
"...[B]ased on history and traditions and are protected by law, customs and expectations".
Which countries comprise the United Kingdom?
Northern Ireland
To which countries does 'Great Britain' refer?
What relationship do the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man have to the UK?
They are closely linked with the UK but are not part of it.They have their own governments and are called 'Crown dependencies'.
City in England (Capitol)
City in England
City in England
City in England
City in England
City in England
City in England
City in England
Newcastle Upon Tyne
City in England
City in England
City in England
City in England
City in Wales (Capitol)
City in Wales
City in Wales
City in Northern Ireland (Capitol)
City in Scotland (Capitol)
City in Scotland
City in Scotland
City in Scotland
First people to live in Britain, in what period?
Hunter-gatherers, in the Stone Age
When did Britain become permanently separated from the continent by the Channel?
About 10,000 years ago
When did the first farmers arrive in Britain, and from where?
About 6,000 years ago, probably from south-east Europe
Where is Stonehenge?
In what is now the English county of Wiltshire
What is Stonehenge?
Monument built probably as a special gathering place for seasonal ceremonies.
What and where is Skara Brae?
The best-preserved prehistoric village in northern Europe, in Orkney, off the north coast of Scotland. Has helped archaeologists to understand more about how people lived near the end of the Stone Age.
When did the Bronze Age begin?
About 4,000 years ago
What were Bronze Age houses called?
What were Bronze Age tombs called?
Which Age followed the Bronze Age?
The Iron Age
What is Maiden Castle?
Very impressive Iron Age hill fort, in the English county of Dorset.
What language did Iron Age people speak
Celtic (or in the Celtic family)
What marks the beginnings of British history?
Sophisticated culture and economy of the Iron Age
When did Julius Caesar lead his unsuccessful Roman invasion of Britain?
55 BCE
Which Roman emperor successfully invaded Britain and when?
Emperor Claudius, 43 CE
Queen of the Iceni (eastern England), tribal leader who fought against Emperor Claudius's invasion. Statue of her on Westminster Bridge in London, near the Houses of Parliament
Hadrian's Wall
Emperor Hadrian built a wall inthe north of England to keep out the Picts. Today, UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Housesteads and Vindolanda
Forts along Hadrian's Wall which can still be seen
Approximately how long did the Romans remain in Britain?
400 years (left in 410 CE)
What contributions did the Romans make to Britain?
Built roads and public buildings, created a structure of law, and introduced new plants and animals.
When did the first Christian communities begin to appear in Britain?
Around the 3rd and 4th centuries CE
Jutes, Angles and Saxons
Tribes from northern Europe who invaded Britain after the Romans left.
By approximately what date had Anglo-Saxon kingdoms been established in Britain?
600 CE
Sutton Hoo
In modern Suffolk, burial place of one of the Anglo-Saxon kings
How were Anglo-Saxon kings buried?
With treasure and armour, all placed in a ship which was then covered by a mound of earth.
Which regions (in modern-day terms) remained relatively free of Anglo-Saxon rule?
Parts of the west of Britain, including much of what is now Wales, and Scotland.
Were the Anglo-Saxons Christians?
Not when they came to Britain, but during the period of their reign, Christian missionaries came to Britain. Missionaries from Ireland spread the religion in the north.
St. Patrick
Patron saint of Ireland; the most famous of missionaries from Ireland during Anglo-Saxon rule.
St. Columba
Missionary from Ireland during Anglo-Saxon rule who founded a monastery on the island of Iona, off the coast of what is now Scotland
St. Augustine
First Archbishop of Canterbury; led missionaries from Rome during Anglo-Saxon rule; spread Christianity in the south of Britain
From where did the Vikings come?
Denmark and Norway
When and why did the Vikings first come to Britain?
789 CE, to raid coastal towns and take away goods and slaves
Which Anglo-Saxon king defeated the Vikings?
King Alfred the Great
Area in the east and north of England where Viking invaders settled after being defeated by King Alfred the Great
Cnut (Canute)
First of the Danish kings, whose rule was interspersed with that of the Anglo-Saxon kings
Kenneth MacAlpin
King under whom people of the north united for protection from Viking attacks; area under his rule began to be referred to as Scotland
In what year did the Norman Conquest occur?
Bayeux Tapestry
Piece of embroidery in which the Battle of Hastings is commemorated; located in France today.
Battle of Hastings
Invasion led by William, the Duke of Normandy (William the Conqueror), in which he defeated Harold, the Saxon king, and became king of England
What was the last successful foreign invasion of England?
The Norman Conquest
Did the Normans invade Scotland?
The Scots and Normans fought on the border between England and Scotland; the Normans took over some land on the border but did not invade Scotland
Did the Normans invade Wales?
Initially the Normans conquered Wales, but the Welsh gradually won territory back.
The Domesday Book
Collection of information about all the English towns, the people who lived in them, who owned the land and what animals they owned. Commissioned by William the Conqueror and gives a picture of society in England just after the Norman Conquest
Approximately what period of time is known as the Middle Ages?
Norman Conquest (1066) until about 1485
Statute of Rhuddlan
Introduced in 1284 by King Edward I; annexed Wales to the Crown of England
Conwy and Caernarvon
Huge castles (among many) built to maintain the power of the Statute of Rhuddlan
When were English laws and language introduced to Wales?
Around the middle of the 15th century, when the last Welsh rebellions had been defeated
Battle of Bannockburn
In 1314 the Scottish, led by Robert the Bruce, defeated the English, and Scotland remained unconquered by the English
Why did the English first go into Ireland?
As troops to help the Irish king. Remained to build their own settlements.
The Pale
An area of Ireland around Dublin, which, by 1200, the English ruled
The Crusades
European Christians fought for control of the Holy Land; many English knights participated
The Hundred Years War
War with France that actually lasted 116 years. The English left France in the 1450s
Battle of Agincourt
In 1415, where King Henry V's vastly outnumbered English army defeated the French.
System of land ownership used by the Normans in England and southern parts of Scotland, in which the king gave land to his lords in return for help in war
Prominent families in northern Scotland and Ireland whose members owned the land (rather than a feudal system)
When did the Plague first come to Britain?
Approximately what proportion of the population of Britain died in the Plague?
What were some implications of the smaller population following the Plague?
Labour shortages
Peasants demanded higher wages
New social classes (like the gentry - owners of large areas of land)
People left the countryside to live in towns
In towns, growing wealth led to the development of a 'middle class'
Origins of Parliament
Can be traced to the medieval kings' council of advisers, which included important noblemen and the leaders of the Church
Magna Carta
In 1215, King John was forced by noblemen to agree to a number of demands, resulting in this charter of rights. Established the idea that even the king was subject to the law. Restricted the king's power.
House of Lords (medieval Parliament)
Nobility, great landowners and bishops
House of Commons (medieval Parliament)
Representatives elected by a small part of the population, consisting of knights (smaller landowners) and wealthy people from towns and cities.
Three houses (Estates) in Scotland's medieval Parliament
Common law
Used in England, law developed by a process of precedence and tradition. In Scotland, the legal system developed slightly differently, and laws were codified (written down).
What language(s) were spoken in Britain after the Norman Conquest
King and his noblemen: Norman French
Peasants: Anglo-Saxon
By 1400, these two languages had gradually combined to become one English language, preferred for official documents, in the royal court and in Parliament

Scotland: Gaelic
Geoffrey Chaucer
In the years leading up to 1400, wrote 'The Canterbury Tales', a series of poems in English about a group of people going to Canterbury on a pilgrimage and the stories they told for amusement.
William Caxton
First person in England to print books using a printing press; one of the first books he printed was 'The Canterbury Tales'.
John Barbour
Poet who wrote in the Scots language; wrote 'The Bruce' about the Battle of Bannockburn
Windsor and Edinburgh castles
Two examples of medieval castles still in use; many are in ruins
York Minster
Medieval cathedral which boasts famous example of of stained-glass windows telling stories about the Bible and Christian saints
English wool
Very important export in medieval trading
In Middle Ages, common skill of French traders in England
In Middle Ages, common skill of German traders in England
In Middle Ages, common skill of Italian traders in England
Glass manufacturing
In Middle Ages, common skill of Dutch traders in England
Canal building
When did the Wars of the Roses begin?
Whose supporters fought the Wars of the Roses?
House of York and House of Lancaster
What was the symbol of the House of Lancaster?
A red rose
What was the symbol of the House of York?
A white rose
Battle of Bosworth Field
1485 battle which ended the Wars of the Roses, in which King Richard III was killed and Henry Tudor (leader of the House of Lancaster) became King Henry VII.
How were the Houses of York and Lancaster united?
King Henry VII married King Richard III's niece, Elizabeth of York
What symbol signified the alliance between the Houses of York and Lancaster?
The symbol of the House of Tudor was a red rose with a white rose inside it.
What steps did Henry VII to attempt to secure peace in England and his position as king?
Deliberately strengthened central administration of England
Reduced power of the nobles
Built monarchy's financial reserves
For what was Henry VIII the most famous?
Breaking away from the Church of Rome
Marrying six times
Six wives of Henry VIII
Catherine of Aragon
Anne Boleyn
Jane Seymour
Anne of Cleves
Catherine Howard
Catherine Parr
Catherine of Aragon
First wife of Henry VIII
Spanish princess
One child - Mary
Anne Boleyn
Second wife of Henry VIII
One child - Elizabeth
Executed at Tower of London
Jane Seymour
Third wife of Henry VIII
One child - Edward
Died shortly after Edward's birth
Anne of Cleves
Fourth wife of Henry VIII
German princess
Married for political reasons, but divorced soon after
No children
Catherine Howard
Fifth wife of Henry VIII
Executed at Tower of London
No children
Catherine Parr
Sixth wife of Henry VIII
Why did Henry VIII establish the Church of England?
To divorce his first wife, Henry needed the approval of the Pope, who refused. In the new Church Henry established, the king, not the Pope, would have the power to appoint bishops and order how people should worship.
What was the Reformation?
A movement across Europe against the authority of the Pope and ideas and practices of the Roman Catholic Church
In which century did Protestant ideas gradually gain strength in England, Wales and Scotland?
How were attempts to impose Protestantism in Ireland met?
Rebellion from Irish chieftains and much brutal fighting
Act for the Government of Wales
During the reign of King Henry VIII, Wales became formally united with England. The Welsh sent representatives to the House of Commons and the Welsh legal system was reformed
Who succeeded Henry VIII?
His son Edward VI, son of Jane Seymour
What were Edward VI's religious views?
Strongly Protestant
Book of Common Praryer
Written during Edward VI's reign to be used in the Church of England. A version of this book is still used in some churches today
How old was Edward VI when he died?
Fifteen; he reigned for just over six years
Who succeeded Edward VI?
His half-sister Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon
What were Mary's religious views?
Devout Catholic
Why was Queen Mary also known as Bloody Mary?
Her persecution of Protestants
Who succeeded Queen Mary?
Her half-sister Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn
What were Elizabeth I's religious views?
Who re-established the Church of England as the official Church in England?
Queen Elizabeth I
How did Elizabeth I avoid any serious religious conflict within England?
She succeeded in finding a balance between the views of the Catholics and the more extreme Protestants by passing laws about the type of religious services and prayers which could be said, but did not ask about people's real beliefs.
Spanish Armada
Large fleet of ships sent by Spain in 1588 to conquer England and restore Catholicism, defeated by the English fleet during the reign of Elizabeth I
What religious actions did the Scottish Parliament take in 1560?
The predominantly Protestant Scottish Parliament:
- abolished the authority of the Pope in Scotland
- made Roman Catholic religious services illegal
- established a Protestant Church of Scotland with elected leadership (not a state Church like in England)
Who was the Queen of Scotland when Catholicism was outlawed there?
Mary Stuart (Mary Queen of Scots)
What was the religion of Mary Queen of Scots?
Why did Mary Queen of Scots flee to England?
When her husband was murdered, Mary was suspected of involvement.
Who succeeded Mary Queen of Scots?
Her son James VI of Scotland
What was James VI's religious affiliation?
What was the relationship between Mary Queen of Scots and Elizabeth I?
They were cousins, and Mary had hoped to receive aid from Elizabeth, but Elizabeth suspected Mary wanted to take the throne, so imprisoned her for 20 years before executing Mary for plotting against her.
Sir Francis Drake
One of the commanders in the defeat of the Spanish Armada
One of the founders of England's naval tradition
One of the first to circumnavigate the globe in his ship 'The Golden Hind'.
The Golden Hind
Ship in which Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe
During which monarch's reign did English settlers first begin to conolise the eastern coast of America?
Elizabeth I, though colonisation greatly increased in the next century by people who disagreed with the religious views of the next two kings
What are hallmarks of the Elizabethan period?
Growing patriotism
Richness of poetry and drama
William Shakespeare
Playwright, poet, actor
Born in Stratford-upon-Avon
Most famous plays include 'A Midsummer Night's Dream', 'Hamlet', 'Macbeth' and 'Romeo and Juliet'
One of the first to portray ordinary Englishment and women
Invented many words and phrases still common today
'A Midsummer Night's Dream'
Play by William Shakespeare
Play by William Shakespeare
Play by William Shakespeare
'Romeo and Juliet'
Play by William Shakespeare
'Once more unto the breach'
Often-quoted line from 'Henry V', a play by William Shakespeare
'To be or not to be'
Often-quoted line from 'Hamlet', a play by William Shakespeare
'A rose by any other name'
Often-quoted line from 'Romeo and Juliet', a play by William Shakespeare
'All the world's a stage'
Often-quoted line from 'As You Like It', a play by William Shakespeare
'The darling buds of May'
Often quoted line from 'Sonnet 18 - Shall I compare Thee to a Summer's Day', a sonnet by William Shakespeare
The Globe Theatre
The modern theatre in London is a copy of the theatres in which William Shakespeare's plays were first performed.
In what year did Queen Elizabeth I die?
Who succeeded Queen Elizabeth I?
James I of England (James VI of Scotland), her cousin and the son of Mary Queen of Scots
What is the name for the English translation of the Bible commissioned by James I?
King James Version (or the Authorised Version).
Which monarchs extended English control outside The Pale in Ireland, to establish English authority over the whole country?
Kings Henry VII and Henry VIII
Who first took the title 'King of Ireland'?
King Henry VIII
Why were there a number of rebellions in Ireland during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I?
Many people in Ireland opposed rule by the Protestant government in England.
Plantations (Ulster)
During the Irish rebellions to the Protestant governments of Elizabeth I and James I, the English government encouraged Scottish and English Protestants to settle in Ulster, the northern province of Ireland, taking over the land from Catholic landholders. These settlements were known as plantations
Why was Elizabeth I considered skilled at managing Parliament?
She was successful in balancing her wishes and views against those of the House of Lords and those of the House of Commons
Divine Right of Kings
The idea that the king was directly appointed by God to rule
Why were James I and Charles I not considered skilled at managing Parliament?
Both believed in the Divine Right of Kings and thought the king should be able to act without having to seek approval from Parliament
Why did the Scottish army invade England during Charles I's reign?
Charles I tried to impose a revised Prayer Book on the Presbyterian Church in Scotland, which led to serious unrest.
Why did Parliament refuse to give King Charles I money to fight Scotland, even after the Scottish army invaded England?
Many in Parliament were Puritans, who did not agree with the king's religious views and disliked his reforms of the Church of England
Group of Protestants who advocated strict and simple religious doctrine and worship.
Why did rebellion begin in Ireland during Charles I's reign?
Roman Catholics in Ireland were afraid of the growing power of the Puritans
Why did Charles I enter the House of Commons and try to arrest five parliamentary leaders?
Because Parliament used the Irish rebellions as an opportunity to demand control of the English army - a change that would have transferred substantial power from the king to Parliament.
Who was the last monarch to set foot in the House of Commons?
Charles I
When did the English Civil War begin?
Supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War
Supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War
Battles of Marston Noor and Naseby
Battles during the English Civil War in which the king was defeated
In what year did it become clear that the English Civil War had been won, and by whom?
By 1646, it was clear that Parliament had won the war
In what year was Charles I executed?
What was the name for the republic of England following the Civil War?
The Commonwealth
Why is Oliver Cromwell a controversial figure in Ireland?
Because of the violence with which he successfully established the authority of the English Parliament there following the Civil War
Why was Oliver Cromwell sent to Ireland following the Civil War?
Because the revolt which had begun in 1641 still continued and there was still a Royalist army there.
How did the Scots respond to the execution of Charles I?
They had not agreed to his execution, and declared his son, Charles II to be king.
Battles of Dunbar and Worcester
Battles in which Oliver Cromwell defeated Charles II of Scotland's army's advance into England.
What happened to Charles II after being defeated in the battle of Worcester?
Fled to Europe
Who was recognised as the leader of the new republic after the English Civil War?
For a time it was not clear how the country would be governed and the army was in control. After the Battles of Dunbar and Worcester, Oliver Cromwell was recognised as leader.
Lord Protector
Title given to Oliver Cromwell during his leadership over the republic.
When did Oliver Cromwell's rule end?
Upon his death in 1658?
Who succeeded Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector?
His son Richard
Why did people begin to talk about the need for a king after 11 years as a republic?
After Oliver Cromwell's death, his son Richard was not able to control the army or the government. There was no clear leader or system of government, and the people wanted stability.
Where was Charles II exiled while England was a republic?
The Netherlands
The Restoration
In May 1660, Parliament invited Charles II to come back from exile, and he was crowned King Charles II of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
Which groups were kept out of power following the restoration?
Roman Catholics and Puritans
What two catastrophes occurred in London during King Charles II's reign?
Major outbreak of plague (1665)
Great fire (1666)
Who designed the new St. Paul's Cathedral after the original was destroyed in the Great Fire of London?
Sir Christopher Wren
Samuel Pepys
Recorded the events surrounding the Plague outbreak of 1665 and the Great Fire of 1666 in his diary.
The Habeas Corpus Act
Became law in 1679, and remains relevant today. The Act guaranteed that no one could be held prisoner unlawfully. Every prisoner has a right to a court hearing.
Isaac Newton
Born in Lincolnshire
Studied at Cambridge University
Most famous published work is 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica' ('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy')
Discovered white light is made up of the colours of the rainbow
'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica' ('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy')
Most famous published work of Isaac Newton
Showed how gravity applied to the whole universe
When did Charles II die?
Who succeeded Charles II?
His brother, James, who became King James II in England, Wales and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland.
Who did James II allow to become army officers, defying an Act of Parliament?
Roman Catholics
To whom was James II's elder daughter married?
Her cousin, William of Orange, the Protestant ruler of the Netherlands
What did important Protestants in England ask of William of Orange in 1688, and why?
To invade England and proclaim himself king, because they feared James II's son and heir would be Catholic like his father, and continue driving toward making England a Catholic country again.
Why was the invasion of William of Orange called 'The Glorious Revolution'?
Because when he arrived in England, there was no resistance and no fighting in England. James II fled to France and William took the throne, becoming William III (William II in Scotland).
With whom did William III rule jointly?
Mary, his wife and the daughter of James II
How did James II attempt to regain the throne following the Glorious Revolution?
He invaded Ireland with the help of a French army
Battle of the Boyne
Battle in Ireland in 1690, where William III defeated James II's attempt to regain the throne.
Location of a quick defeat over an armed rebellion in support of James II in Scotland.
The MacDonalds of Glencoe
Scottish clan which was late in taking a required oath formally accepting William III as king. All members of the clan were killed, leading some Scots to distrust the new government.
Supporters of James II following the Glorious Revolution
Declaration of Rights (read at the coronation of William and Mary)
Confirmed that the king would no longer be able to raise taxes or administer justice without agreement from Parliament.
The Bill of Rights of 1689
Confirmed the rights of Parliament and the limits of the king's power.
Parliament took control of who could be monarch
A new Parliament had to be elected at least every three years (later seven years, now five years)
Every year the monarch had to ask Parliament to renew funding for the army and the navy.
Who were the two main groups in Parliament at the beginning of party politics?
Whigs and Tories
From when were newspapers allowed to operate without a government license?
Constitutional Monarchy
The king or queen does not rule the country but appoints the government, which the people have chosen in a democratic election.
The bill of Rights and the laws passed after the Glorious Revolution meant that the monarch remained very important but was no longer able to insist on particular policies or actions if Parliament did not agree
Why was the shift of power to Parliament after the Glorious Revolution still not considered a democracy in the modern sense?
Very few people had the right to vote, limiting elected ministers only represented men who owned property of a certain value. Some constituencies were limited to a single wealthy family.
Pocket boroughs (rotten boroughs)
Constituencies which were limited to a single wealthy family, because of the limited number of people who could vote.
Where did the first Jews to come to Britain since the Middle Ages settle, and when?
London, 1656
When did Huguenot refugees come to Britain from France?
Between 1680 and 1720
Who succeeded William and Mary?
Queen Anne
The Act of Union (in Scotland, The Treaty of Union)
Queen Anne had no surviving children, creating uncertainty over the succession in England, Wales and Ireland, and Scotland. The Act of Union in 1707 therefore created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Though Scotland was no longer an independent country following the Act of Union, what pieces of its infrastructure did it maintain?
Legal and education systems and the Presbyterian Church
When did Queen Anne die?
Whom did Parliament choose to succeed Queen Anne?
George I, a German, because he was Anne's nearest protestant relative.
For what reason did George I need to rely on ministers more heavily than previous monarchs?
He did not speak very good English
By what title was the most important minister in Parliament become known?
The Prime Minister
Who was the first man to hold the title 'Prime Minister', and when?
Sir Robert Walpole, from 1721 to 1742
What rebellious attempt was defeated following Queen Anne's death?
Scottish Jacobites attempted to put James II's son on the throne
Bonnie Prince Charlie
Charles Edward Stuart, grandson of James II. Supported by clansmen from the Scottish highlands, he raised an army in an attempt to take the throne from George II (son of George I).
Battle of Culloden
In 1746, battle in which George II's army defeated Bonnie Prince Charlie's attempt to take the throne.
What happened to the Scottish clans following the Battle of Culloden?
The clans lost a lot of their power and influence. Chieftains became landlords if they had the favour of the English king, and clansmen became tenants who had to pay for the land they used
Highland Clearances
Many Scottish landlords destroyed individual small farms ('crofts') to make space for large flocks of sheep and cattle. Evictions became very common in the early 19th century. Many Scottish people left for North America at this time.
Small farms in the Scottish highlands, which were destroyed by Scottish landlords to make space for large flocks of sheep and cattle
Robert Burns
Scottish poet, known in Scotland as 'The Bard'
Best-known work is probably the song 'Auld Lang Syne'
'Auld Lang Syne'
Best-known work of Scottish poet Robert Burns
Sung by people in the UK (and other countries) when celebrating New Year
Term for the New Year in Scotland
The Enlightenment
The time during the 18th century, in which new ideas about politics philosophy and science were developed.
Adam Smith
Scot whose Enlightenment ideas about economics are still referred to today.
David Hume
Scot whose Enlightenment ideas about human nature continue to influence philosophers
James Watt's
Scot whose work on steam power during the Enlightenment helped the progress of the Industrial Revolution
What was one of the most important principles of the Enlightenment?
That everyone should have the right to their own political and religious beliefs and that the state should not try to dictate to them.
The Industrial Revolution
The rapid development of industry in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries
What developments enabled the Industrial Revolution?
The development of machinery and the use of steam power
What caused many people to move from the countryside to start working in mining and manufacturing industries?
The need for coal and other raw materials to power the new factories during the Industrial Revolution.
Bessemer process
Enabled mass production of steel and led to the development of the shipbuilding industry and the railways
What was the main source of employment in Britain during the Industrial Revolution?
Manufacturing jobs
Richard Arkwright
Improved the original carding machine (for preparing fibres for spinning into yarn and fabric)
Developed horse-driven spinning mills that used only one machine
Used the steam engine to power machinery
Particularly remembered for the efficient and profitable way he ran his factories
Why were canals built?
To link factories to towns and cities to ports, in order to provide better transport links needed to transport raw materials and manufactured goods
What were working conditions like during the Industrial Revolution and why?
Very poor. There were no laws to protect employees. Long hours, dangerous situations and children were treated as adults (or sometimes even more harshly)
What regions of the globe were beginning to be colonised during the Industrial Revolution?
Australia, Canada, India, southern Africa
James Cook
Mapped the coast of Australia during the time of the Industrial Revolution
What goods were imported from North America and the West Indies during the time of the Industrial Revolution?
Sugar and tobacco
What goods were imported from India and the area known today as Indonesia during the time of the Industrial Revolution?
Textiles, tea and spices
Sake Dean Mahomet
Came to Britain from native Bengal in 1782
In 1810 he opened the Hindoostane Coffee House in George STreet, London. It was the first curry house to open in Britain
Also introduced 'shampooing', the Indian art of head massage, to Britain
Slave trade was illegal in Britain. (True or False?)
What role did Britain play in the world slave trade?
Slaves were carried on British ships, primarily from West Africa, to America and the Carribean.
When were the first formal anti-slavery groups established in Britain?
In the late 18th century by the Quakers, who petitioned Parliament to ban the practice
William Wilberforce
Evangelical Christian and member of Parliament who played an important role in changing the law to ban slavery in Britain, and aided in turning public opinion against the slave trade.
In what year did it become illegal to trade slaves in British ships or from British ports?
What did the Emancipation Act of 1833 do?
Abolished slavery throughout the British Empire
After the Emancipation Act of 1833, who was employed - and in what roles - to replace the freed slaves?
Two million Indian and Chinese workers, who worked on/in:
- sugar plantations in the Caribbean
- mines in South Africa
- railways in East Africa
- the army in Kenya
What actions soured the relationship between the British government and the American colonies in the 1760s?
Parliament wanted to tax the colonies, and the colonists saw this as an attack on their freedom, saying there should be 'no taxation without representation' in Parliament. Though Parliament tried to compromise by repealing some of the taxes, relations continued to worsen.
When did the American colonies declare independence?
When did Britain recognise the independence of the American colonies?
1783, after the colonists defeated the British army
With which country did Britain fight a number of wars during the 18th century?
Battle of Trafalgar
In 1805, Britain's navy fought against French and Spanish fleets to win this battle.
Admiral Nelson
In charge of the British fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar. Though the British won, he was killed in the Battle.
Nelson's Column
Monument to Admiral Nelson, located in Trafalgar Square, London
HMS Victory
Admiral Nelson's ship, which can be visited in Portsmouth.
What ended the French Wars?
The defeat of the Emperor Napoleon in 1815 by the Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo.
Duke of Wellington
Defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Known as the Iron Duke and later became Prime Minister.
Battle of Waterloo
In 1815, the battle in which the Duke of Wellington defeated French Emperor Napoleon to end the French Wars
The three crosses of the Union Flag
The cross of St. George - red cross on white ground
The cross of St. Andrew - diagonal white cross on blue ground
The cross of St. Patrick - diagonal red cross on white ground
In what year did Ireland become unified with England, Scotland and Wales?
1801, after the Act of Union of 1800
What country's flag is not represented in the Union Jack, and why?
Wales, because when the first Union Flag was created in 1606 from the flags of Scotland and England, the Principality of Wales was already united with England.
What emblem appears on the Welsh flag?
Welsh dragon
Who became monarch in 1837?
Queen Victoria
How old was Queen Victoria when she became monarch?
Which monarch has ruled for the longest period of time (as of 2013)?
Queen Victoria, almost 64 years (1837-1901)
In what year did Queen Victoria die?
What are some hallmarks of the Victorian Age?
Britain increased in power and influence abroad
Within the UK, middle classes became increasingly significant
Number of reformers led moves to improve conditions of life for the poor.
What was the estimated population of the British Empire during the Victorian Age?
Over 400 million people
What large groups came to Britain between 1870 and 1914 and why?
Around 120,000 Russian and Polish Jews, to escape persecution
Corn Laws
Repealed in 1846, because they had prevented the import of cheap grain. The repeal was one of many meant to promote free trade and facilitate development of British industry.
When did working conditions for women and children improve, and how?
In 1847, the number of hours that women and children could work was limited by law to 10 hours per day.
Who pioneered the railway engine, spurring major expansion of the railways in the Victorian period?
Father and son George and Robert Stephenson
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Engineer who built tunnels, bridges, railway lines and ship
Responsible for constructing the Great Western Railway, the first major railway built in Britain.
Many of his bridges are still in use today
Great Western Railway
Built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Runs from Paddington Station in London to the southwest of England, the West Midlands and Wales.
In the 19th century, the UK contributed more than half of the world's production of which goods?
Iron, coal and cotton cloth
The Great Exhibition
Opened in Hyde Park in the Crystal Palace in 1851. Exhibits ranged from huge machines to handmade goods. Countries from all over the world showed their goods, but most were made in Britain.
Who were Britain's allies in the Crimean War?
Turkey and France
Against which country did Britain and her allies fight in the Crimean War?
In which years was the Crimean War fought?
What was the significance of the Crimean War in the media?
It was the first war to be extensively covered by the media through news stories and photographs.
Which medal did Queen Victoria introduce during the Crimean war, and for what is it awarded?
The Victoria Cross medal, which honours acts of valour by soldiers.
Florence Nightingale
Regarded as founder of modern nursing.
Trained as a nurse in Germany
In 1854, went to Turkey and worked in military hospitals.
Improved conditions of the hospital and reduced mortality rate.
In 1860, established the Nightingale Training School for nurses at St. Thomas' Hospital in London
What was a large part of the Irish diet in the 19th century?
In the middle of the 19th century, which Irish crop failed, and what were the results?
Potato crops failed, and Ireland suffered a famine. A million people died from disease and starvation. Another million and a half left Ireland, many settling in Liverpool, London, Manchester and Glasgow.
The Fenians
Faction of the Irish Nationalist Movement in the 19th century which favoured complete independence from the UK
Charles Stuart Parnell
Representative of the group in the Irish Nationalist Movement in the 19th century who favoured 'Home Rule', in which Ireland would remain in the UK but have its own Parlliament.
The Reform Act of 1832
Greatly increased the number of people with the right to vote, abolishing the old pocket and rotten boroughs. Also gave more parliamentary seats to cities and towns
Which Act gave cities and towns more parliamentary seats and increased the number of people with the right to vote?
The Reform Act of 1832
The Chartists
Campaigners, following the Reform Act of 1832, for the right to vote for the working classes and other people without property
Their six goals:
for every man to have the vote
elections every year
for all regions to be equal in the electoral system
secret ballots
for any man to be able to stand as an MP
for MPs to be paid.
The Reform Act of 1867
Built on the Reform Act of 1832 by creating still more urban seats in Parliament and reducing the amount of property needed to be owned before a man had a right to vote. Still excluded the majority of men and all women.
What gave wives the right to keep their own earnings and property?
Acts of Parliament of 1870 and 1882
Women who campaigned and demonstrated for the right to vote.
Emmeline Parkhurst
Set up the Women's Franchise League in 1889, which fought to get the vote in local elections for married women.
Helped found the Women's Social and Political Union in 1903, the first group whose members were called suffragettes. This group used civil disobedience as part of their protests
When were women first given the right to vote?
In 1918, women over the age of 30 were given the right to vote.
When were women given the right to stand for Parliament?
1918 (women over the age of 30)
When were women under the age of 30 given the right to vote?
In 1928, the voting age for women was changed to match that of men's - 21.
How did supporters of expansion argue the Empire benefited Britain?
Through increased trade and commerce.
How did opponents of expansion argue the Empire hurt Britain?
It was over-expanded and frequent conflicts in many parts of the Empire were a drain on resources.
The Boer War
British went to war in South Africa with settlers from the Netherlands called the Boers.
Significant in that public sympathy for the Boers made many question whether the Empire could continue.
What contributed to the decline of the Empire
The Boer War made many question whether the Empire could continue.
As different parts of the Empire developed, they won greater freedom and autonomy.
By the second half of hte 20th century, there was, for the most part, an orderly transition from Empire to Commonwealth, with countries being granted their independence.
Rudyard Kipling
Author of books and poems set in both India and the UK.
Poems and novels reflected idea that Empire was a force for good.
Awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1907
'Just So Stories'
Book by Rudyard Kipling
'The Jungle Book'
Book by Rudyard Kipling
Poem by Rudyard Kipling
What were some hallmarks of the early 20th century?
Expansive Empire
Well-admired navy
Thriving industry
Strong political institutions
When was salary for members of Parliament introduced, and what was the benefit?
Early 20th century; it made i teasier for more people to take part in public life
What was the catalyst for World War I
On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated.
Who were the Allied Powers in the First World War?
Britain, France, Russia, Japan, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Italy, Romania and the US.
Who were the Central Powers in the First World War?
Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
How many British casualties were in the First World War
More than 2 million
When did the First World War end?
11.00 am in 11th November 1918, with victory for Britain and its allies.
What did the British government promise Ireland in 1913?
Home rule - a self-governing Ireland with its own parliament, but was still part of the UK
Which group opposed Home Rule for Ireland in 1913?
The Protestants of the north of Ireland, who threatened to resist Home Rule by force.
What was the 'Easter Rising'?
In 1916, there was an uprising against the British in Dublin, because the outbreak of the First World War led the British government to postpone any changes in Ireland regarding home rule.
What was the result of the Easter Rising?
The leaders of the uprising were executed under military law. A guerrilla war against the British army and the police in Ireland followed. In 1921, a peace treaty was signed, and in 1922 Ireland became two countries.
When did Ireland become two separate countries?
In 1922 the six counties in the north, which were mainly Protestant, remained part of the UK under the name Northern Ireland. The rest of Ireland became the Irish Free State.
When did the Irish Free State become a republic?
The 'Troubles'
Following the split of Ireland and Northern Ireland, this refers to the conflict between those wishing for full Irish independence and those wishing to remain loyal to the British government.
How did the Great Depression affect industry in Britain?
The traditional heavy industries such as shipbuilding were badly affected, but new industries like the automobile and aviation industries, developed.
John Maynard Keynes
Economist who published influential new theories of economics in the period following the First World War.
When did the BBC start radio broadcasts and regular television service?
1922 and 1936, respectively
Why did Britain and France declare war on Adolf Hitler, and when?
In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland and Britain and France declared war to stop his agression.
Who were the Axis powers in the Second World War?
Germany, Italy and the Empire of Japan
Who were the Allied powers in the Second World War?
UK, France, Poland, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the Union of South Africa.
Who became Prime Minister in 1940, during the Second World War?
Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Elected as conservative MP in 1900
Lost general election in 1945, but returned as Prime Minister in 1951
Was an MP until he stood down at the 1964 General Election
Who was voted the greatest Briton of all time in a 2002 public poll?
Winston Churchill
'I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat'.
From Winston Churchill's first speech to the House of Commons after he became Prime Minister in 1940
'We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender'.
From Winston Churchill's speech to the House of Commons after Dunkirk, 1940
'Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few'.
From Winston Churchill's speech to the House of Commons during the Battle of Britain, 1940
During the Second World War, as France fell, the British decided to evacuate British and French soldiers from France in a huge naval operation. Many civilian volunteers in small pleasure and fishing boats from Britain helped the Navy to rescue more than 300,000 men from the beaches around Dunkirk.
Battle of Britain
The Germans waged an air campaign against Britain, but the British resisted with their fighter planes and eventually won this crucial aerial battle against the Germans in the summer of 1940.
Spitfire and Hurrican
The most important planes used by the Royal Air Force inthe Battle of Britain, designed and built in Britain.
The Blitz
Despite the victory in the Battle of Britain, Germany was still able to continue bombing London and other British cities at night-time.
'The Blitz Spirit'
Despite the destruction of the Blitz, there was a strong national spirit of resistance in the UK. This phrase is used to describe Britons pulling together in the face of adversity.
When did the United States enter the Second World War?
In December 1941, when the Japanese bombed its naval base at Pearl Harbour
Why was Germany's invasion of Russia a pivotal point in the Second World War?
German forces were ultimately repelled by the Soviets, and the damage they sustained allowed the Allied forces to gradually gain the upper hand.
On 6 June 1944, Allied forces landed on the beaches at Normandy , and following a victory there, pressed on through France and eventually into Germany.
When did the Allies comprehensively defeat Germany?
May 1945
Ernest Rutherford
Led a team of scientists working at Manchester and Cambridge Universities, that were the first to split the atom. Took part in the Manhattan Project in the US
Alexander Fleming
Doctor who, when researching influenza in 1928, discovered penicillin
Howard Florey and Ernst Chain
Scientists who developed penicillin into a usable drug.
Clement Atlee
Prime Minister when Labour government was elected in 1945, following Second World War. Promised to introduce the welfare state outlined in the Beveridge Report
Aneurin (Nye) Bevan
The Minister for Health who, in 1948, led the establishment of the National Health Service
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an alliance of nations set up to resist the perceived threat of invasion by the Soviet Union and its allies.
Also aims to maintain peace between all its members.
Harold Macmillan
Prime Minister during the 1950s; famous for his 'wind of change' speech about decolonisation and independence for the countries of Europe
William Beveridge
British economist and social reformer.
Best known for the 1942 report 'Social Insurance and Allied Services' (known as the Beveridge Report), which provided the basis for the welfare state
'Social Insurance and Allied Services' (The Beveridge Report)
Published in 1942
Recommended tha tthe government should find ways of fighting the five 'Giant Evils': Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness.
Provided the basis for the welfare state implemented by Clement Atlee's government.
R.A. Butler
Richard Austen Butler
Oversaw the introduction of the Education Act of 1944 (The Butler Act) which introduced free secondary education in England and Wales
Education Act of 1944
Also known as the Butler Act; introduced free secondary education in England and Wales
Dylan Thomas
Welsh poet and writer
Several memorials to him in Swansea (his birthplace), including a statue and The Dylan Thomas Centre
Died in New York at the age of 39
'Under Milk Wood'
Radio play written by Dylan Thomas, first performed in 1954, after his death
'Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night'
Poem written by Dylan Thomas in 1952, for his dying father
Why did the UK encourage immigration - and from where - after the Second World War?
There were labour shortages and help was needed rebuilding Britain and the economy. Initially, workers from Ireland and other parts of Europe were encouraged to come to the UK, and in 1948, people from the West Indies were also invited to come to work.
In the 1950s, to encourage immigration to the UK, centres were set up in the West Indies to recruit people to do what job?
Drive buses
In the 1950s, to encourage immigration to the UK, textile and engineering firms from the north of England and hte Midlands sent agents where to find workers?
India and Pakistan
'Swinging Sixties'
Refers to the 1960s, a period of significant social change
What areas of British culture saw growth in the 1960s?
Fashion, cinema and popular music
In what decade did Parliament pass new laws giving women the right to equal pay and making it illegal for employers to discriminate against women because of gender?
What was the name of the world's only supersonic commercial airliner?
The Concorde, developed by Britain and France in the 1960s and retired in 2003
The use of what building materials because common in the 1960s?
Concrete and steel
Why did the number of people migrating from the West Indies, Inidaia, Pakistan and what is now Bangladesh fall in the late 1960s?
Because the government passed new laws to restrict immigration to Britain. Immigrants were required to have a strong connection to Britain through birth or ancestry
Despite stricter immigration laws passed in the 1960s, why did Britain admit large numbers of people of Indian origin in the early 1970s?
28,000 people of Indian origin had been forced to leave Uganda.
John Logie Baird
Scotsman who developed the television in the 1920s. In 1932, made the first television broadcast between London and Glasgow
Sir Robert Watson-Watt
Scotsman who proposed the use of radio waves to detect enemy aircraft
Sir Bernard Lovell
Built a radio telescope at Jodrell Bank in Cheshire which was for many years the largest in the world; used radar and radio waves to make new discoveries in astronomy
Alan Turing
British mathematician in the 1930s influential in the devleopment of computer science and the modern-day computer
Turing Machine
Theoretical mathematical device invented by Alan Turing
John Macleod
Scottish physician and researcher who was the co-discoverer of insulin
Francis Crick
British scientist and co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule.
Sir Frank Whittle
A British Royal Air Force engineer officer who developed the jet engine in the 1930s
Sir Christopher Cockrell
British inventor of the hovercraft in the 1950s
Harrier jump jet
Aircraft capable of taking off vertically, designed and developed in the UK
James Goodfellow
Invented the cash-dispensing ATM, or cashpoint.
What is the significance of Barclays Bank in Enfield, north London?
Site of the first ATM put into use, in 1967
Sir Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe
Pioneers in the field of in-vitro fertilisation for the treatment of infertility
When and where was the world's first 'test-tube' baby born?
Oldham, Lancashire in 1978
Sir Ian Wilmot and Keith Campbell
Led the team which was the first to succeed in cloning a mammal, Dolly the sheep, in 1996
Dolly the sheep
First successful clone of a mammal; the team was led by British scientists Sir Ian Wilmot and Keith Campbell
Sir Peter Mansfield
Co-inventor of the MRI scanner
Sir Tim Berners-Lee
The inventor of the world-wide web
Describe the economy in Britain in the 1970s
In the late 1970s, the post-war economic boom came to an end. Prices of goods and raw materials began to rise sharply and the exchange rate between the pound and other currencies was unstable. This caused problems with the 'balance of payments': imports of goods were valued at more than the price paid for exports.
Why did people begin to argue in the 1970s that the trade unions were too powerful and that their activities were harming the UK?
Many industries and services were affected by strikes and this caused problems between the trade unions and the government.
What characterised the 1970s in Northern Ireland?
Serious unrest. In 1972, the Northern Ireland Parliament was suspended and Northern Ireland was ruled directly by the UK government.
Mary Peters
Won an Olympic god medal in the pentathloin in 1972
Raised money for local athletics and continues to promote sport and tourism in Northern Ireland
Was made Dame of the British Empire in 2000 in recognition of her work
European Economic Community
Formed in 1957 by West Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands
When did the UK join the European Economic Community?
1973. The UK is a full member of the European Union but does not use the Euro currency.
Who was Britain's first woman Prime Minister?
Margaret Thatcher, from 1979-1990
How did the government under Margaret Thatcher make structural changes to the economy?
Through the privatisation of nationalised industries
Imposed legal controls on trade union powers
Increased London's role as an international centre for investments, and insurance and other financial services through deregulation
Falkland Islands
British territory in the south Atlantic, invaded by Argentina in 1982. A naval taskforce was sent from the UK and military action led to the recovery of the islands.
Who succeeded Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister?
John Major
Who helped establish the Northern Ireland peace process in the 1990s?
John Major
Margaret Thatcher
Daughter of a grocer from Grantham in Lincolnshire
Trained as a chemist and lawyer
Elected as Conservative MP In 1979
Elected Leader of Conservative Party in 1975; became Prime Minister in 1979
Who was the longest-serving Prime Minister of the 20th century?
Margaret Thatcher
Roald Dahl
Welsh author most well-known for his children's books, though he also wrote for adults.
Best known works: 'Charlie and the Chocolate Factory' and 'George's Marvellous Medicine'
'Charlie and the Chocolate Factory'
Book written by Welsh author Roald Dahl
'George's Marvellous Medicine'
Book written by Welsh author Roald Dahl
What party and leader was elected to government in 1997?
Labour Party and Tony Blair
Which government introduced the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly?
The Blair government, elected in 1997
Good Friday Agreement
In Northern Ireland, the Blair government was able to build on the peace process, resulting in the this 1998 agreement
When was the Northern Ireland Assembly elected?
1999, but was suspended in 2002 and reinstated in 2007
Who succeeded Tony Blair as Prime Minister?
Gordon Brown
Throughout the 1990s, in what countries did British forces play a leading role?
In the liberation of Kuwait following the Iraqi invasion in 1990
The conflict in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia
Against what have British armed forces been engaged in fighting since 2000?
International terrorism
Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction
When did British combat troops leave Iraq?
In what capacity does the UK currently (2013) operate in Afghanistan?
As part of the United Nations mandated 50-nation International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) coalition, and at the invitation of the Afghan government, to ensure the Afghan territory can never again be used as a safe haven for international terrorism.
Who won the overall majority in the General Election of 2010?
No one. For the first time since 1974, a coalition government was formed between the Conservative and Liberal Democrat Parties
Who became Prime Minister over the coalition government following the General Election of 2010?
David Cameron
What percentage of today's UK population has a grandparent or parent born outside the UK?
What is the longest distance on the mainland of the UK?
From John O'Groats on the north coast of Scotland to Land's End in the southwest corner of England, approximately 870 miles (~1400 km)
Why do many people visit the British countryside?
Holidays and leisure activities (walking, camping, fishing)
What denomination of coins are there in today's British currency?
1p (pence)
What denominations of notes are there in today's British currency?
Which UK countries have their own banknotes?
Northern Ireland and Scotland. Their notes are valid everywhere in the UK, but shops and businesses do not have to accept them.
Though there are many different languages spoken by various groups in the UK, there are three languages (apart from English) native to the countries of the UK. What are they?
Wales - Welsh
Scotland - Gaelic (some parts of the Highlands and Islands)
Northern Ireland - Irish Gaelic
What was the population of the UK in 1600?
Just over 4 million
What was the population of the UK in 1700?
5 million
What was the population of the UK in 1801?
8 million
What was the population of the UK in 1851?
20 million
What was the population of the UK in 1901?
40 million
What was the population of the UK in 1951?
50 million
What was the population of the UK in 1998?
57 million
What was the population of the UK in 2005?
Just under 60 million
What was the population of the UK in 2010?
Just over 62 million
What are two main factors causing population growth to be faster in recent years?
Migration into the UK
Longer life expectancy
England's population makes up what percentage of the total population of the UK?
Wales's population makes up what percentage of the total population of the UK?
Scotland's population makes up what percentage of the total population of the UK?
Northern Ireland's population makes up what percentage of the total population of the UK?
What factors contribute to increased life expectancy in the UK?
Improved living standards and better health care
On average, do girls or boys leave school with better qualifications?
In the 2009 Citizenship Survey, what percentage of people identified themselves as Christian?
In the 2009 Citizenship Survey, what percentage of people identified themselves as Muslim?
In the 2009 Citizenship Survey, what percentage of people identified themselves as Hindu?
In the 2009 Citizenship Survey, what percentage of people identified themselves as Sikh?
In the 2009 Citizenship Survey, what percentage of people identified themselves as Jewish?
In the 2009 Citizenship Survey, what percentage of people identified themselves as Buddhist?
In the 2009 Citizenship Survey, what percentage of people identified themselves as following a religion not categorised as Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, Jewish or Buddhist?
In the 2009 Citizenship Survey, what percentage of people identified themselves as having no religion?
What is the relationship between the church and the state in the UK?
In England, there is a constitutional link between Church and State; the official Church is the Church of England, and the monarch is the head of the Church.
In Scotland, the national Church is the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, which is governed by ministers and elders.
There is no established Church in Wales or Northern Ireland.
Though England and Scotland have official state churches, everyone has the right to choose his or her own religion, or to have none at all.
Who is the spiritual leader of the Church of England?
The Archbishop of Canterbury
Who is the chairperson of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland?
The Moderator, who is appointed for one year only and often speaks on behalf of the Church.
Who are the patron saints of the countries of the UK, and when are the patron saints' days celebrated in each country?
Wales - St. David - 1 March
Northern Ireland - St. Patrick - 17 March
England - St. George - 23 April
Scotland - St. Andrew - 30 November
Which countries observe their patron saints' days as official holidays?
Northern Ireland and Scotland
How are patron saints' days generally celebrated?
Parades and small festivals
Christmas Day
25 December
Christian festival celebrating birth of Jesus Christ
Public holiday
Boxing Day
26 December
Christian festival the day after Christmas
Public holiday
Takes place in March or April
Christian festival marking the death of Jesus Christ and Good Friday and his rising from the dead on Easter Sunday
Good Friday and the following Monday (Easter Monday) are public holidays
The 40 days before Easter
Time for Christians to reflect and prepare for Easter, traditionally fasting.
Shrove Tuesday
Or Pancake Tuesday
The Tuesday before Lent starts
Pancakes traditionally made to use up foods such as eggs, fat and milk before Lenten fasting
Ash Wednesday
First day of Lent
Christians are marked with an ash cross on their forehead as a symbol of death and sorrow for sin
Normally falls in October or November and lasts for five days
Often called the Festival of Lights
Celebrated by Hindus and Sikhs
Celebrates the victory of good over evil and the gaining of knowledge
Famous Diwali festival in Leicester
In November or December and celebrated for eight days
Remembrance of the Jews' struggle for religious freedom
Eid al-Fitr
The date changes every year
Celebrates the end of Ramadan, when Muslims have fasted for a month and thank Allah for giving them strength to complete the fast.
Eid ul Adha
Remembers that the prophet Ibrahim was willing to sacrifice his son when God ordered him to, and reminds Muslims of their own commitment to God. Many Muslims sacrifice an animal to eat during the festival, which in Britain must be done in a slaughterhouse.
Vaisakhi (Baisakhi)
14 April
Sikh festival which celebrates the fuounding of the Sikh community known as the Khalsa
Celebrated with parades, dancing and singing.
New Year
1 January
Public holiday
Called Hogmanay in Scotland
Valentine's Day
14 February
Lovers exchange cards and gifts
April Fool's Day
1 April
People play jokes on each other until midday
Television and newspapers often run April Fools Day joke stories
Mothering Sunday (Mother's Day)
The Sunday three weeks before Easter
Father's Day
Third Sunday in June
31 October
Ancient festival with pagan roots to mark the beginning of winter
Bonfire Night
5 November
Origin is from 1605, when a group of Catholics led by Guy Fawkes failed to in their plan to kill the Protestant king with a bomb in the Houses of Parliament.
Remembrance Day
11 November
Commemorates those who died fighting for the UK and its allies.
People wear poppies (the red flower found on the battlefields of th eFirst World War)
At 11.00 am there is a two-minute silence and wreaths are laid at the Cenotaph in Whitehall, London
Bank Holidays
Beginning of May
Late May or early June
In Northern Ireland, the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne in July is also a public holiday
There are public holidays each year that don't mark a festival or special occasion, when banks and many other businesses are closed for the day.
Wembley Stadium
Stadium in London that hosts many sporting events
Millennium Stadium
Stadium in Cardiff that hosts many sporting events
What are some famous sports that have begun in Britain?
Football, cricket, lawn tennis, golf, rugby
In which years has London hosted the Olympic games?
1908, 1948, 2012
Where was the main site for the Olympic games in 2012?
Stratford, East London
How did the British team fare in the 2012 Olympic games?
Very successful, across a wide range of sports, finishing third in the medal table
What is the origin of the Paralympics?
Dr. Sir Ludwig Guttman, at the Stoke Mandeville hospital in Buckinghamshire, developed new methods of treatment for people with spinal injuries and encouraged patients to take part in exercise and sport.
Sir Roger Bannister
First man in the world to run a mile in under four minutes, in 1954
Sir Jackie Stewart
Scottish former racing driver who won the Formula 1 world championship three times
Bobby Moore
Captained the English football team that won the World Cup in 1966
Sir Ian Botham
Captained the English cricket team and holds a number of English Test cricket records, both for batting and for bowling
Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean
Won gold medals for ice dancing at the Olympic Games in 1984 and in four consecutive world championships
Sir Steve Redgrave
Won gold medals in rowing in five consecutive Olympic Games and is one of Britain's greatest Olympians
Baroness Tanni Grey-Thompson
Athlete who uses a wheelchair and won 16 Paralympic medals, including 11 gold medals, in races over five Paralympic Games. She won the London Marathon six times and broke a total of 30 world records
Dame Kelly Holmes
Won two gold medals for running in the 2004 Olympic Games. She has held a number of British and European records
Dame Ellen MacArthur
Yachtswoman and in 2004 became the fastest person to sail around the world single-handed.
Sir Chris Hoy
Scottish cyclist who has won six gold and one silver Olympic medals. He has also won 11 world championship titles.
David Weir
Paralympian who uses a wheelchair and has won six gold medals over two Paralympic Games. He has also won th eLondon Marathon six times.
Bradley Wiggins
Cyclist. In 2012, he became the first Briton to win the Tour de France. He has won seven Olympic medals, including gold medals in the 2004, 2008 and 2012 Olympic Games
Mo Farah
British distance runner, born in Somalia. He won gold medals in the 2012 Olympics for the 5,000 and 10,000 metres and is the first Briton to win the Olympic gold medal in the 10,000 metres.
Jessica Ennis
Won the 2012 Olympic gold medal in the heptathlon, which includes seven different track and field events. Holds a number of British athletics records.
Andy Murray
Scottish tennis player who in 2012 won the men's singles inthe US Open. He is the first British man to win a singles title in a Grand Slam tournament since 1936. In the same year, he won Olympic gold and silver medals and was runner-up in the men's singles at Wimbledon.
Ellie Simmonds
Paralympian who won gold medals for swimming at the 2008 and 2012 Paralympic Games and holds a number of world records. She was the youngest member of the British team at the 2008 Games.
What about the game of cricket is said to reflect the best of the British character and sense of fair play?
The idiosyncratic nature of the game and its complex laws.
The Ashes
The most famous cricket competition, which is a seris of Test matches played between England and Australia.
What is the UK's most popular sport?
When were the first professional football clubs formed?
Late 19th century
For which league in the UK do many of the world's best football players play?
The English Premier League
Union of European Football Associations
In which league do many UK football teams compete against other teams from Europe?
Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League
Which teams from the UK compete in tournaments such as the FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) World Cup and the UEFA (Union of European Football Associations) European Football Championships?
National teams representing each country in the UK
What was England's only international football tournament victory?
1966 World Cup, hosted inteh UK.
When and where did rugby originate?
Early 19th century, in England.
What are the two different types of rugby, and what differentiates them?
Union and League. Each type has different rules.
Six Nations Championship
The most famous rugby competition, between England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, France and Italy.
The Super League
The most well-known rugby league (club) competition
How far does evidence suggest horse-racing in Britain goes back?
To Roman times.
Which sport has a long association with royalty?
What are the most famous horse-racing events?
Royal Ascot, a five-day race meeting in Berkshire attended by members of the Royal Family
The Grand National at Ainstree near Liverpool
The Scottish Grand National at Ayr
Where is the National Horseracing Museum?
Newmarket, Suffolk
To which century and country can the modern game of golf be traced?
15th-century Scotland
What city is known as the home of golf?
St. Andrews in Scotland
When and where did modern tennis evolve?
England inthe late 19th century
When and where was the first tennis club founded?
In the Leamington Spa in 1872
Wimbledon Championships
Most famous tennis tournament, hosted in Britain each year at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club. It is the oldest tennis tournament, and the only 'Grand Slam' event played on grass.
Which popular sport reflects the British maritime heritage?
Sir Francis Chichester
First person to sail single-handed around the world, in 1966-67.
Sir Robert Knox-Johnston
First person to sail single-handed around the world without stopping, in 1969
Where is the most famous sailing event held in the UK?
At Cowes on the Isle of Wight
Who competes in the yearly rowing race on the Thames?
Oxford and Cambridge Universities
When did motor-car racing in the UK start?
Who are recent (as of 2013) British winners of the Formula 1 World Championship?
Damon Hill, Lewis Hamilton and Jensen Button
Where is Europe's longest dry ski slope?
Near Edinburgh
The Proms
Eight-week summer season of orchestral classical music that takes place in various venues, including the Royal Albert Hall in London.
Organised by the BBC since 1927.
The Last Night of the Proms is the most well-known concert.
Henry Purcell
Organist at Westminster Abbey.
Wrote church music, operas and other pieces.
Developed a British style distinct from elsewhere in Europe, and continues to be influential on British composers
George Frederick Handel
German composer
Spent many years in the UK and became a British citizen in 1727
Wrote 'Water Music' for King George I and 'Music for the Royal Fireworks' for George II and 'Messiah', which is sung regularly by choirs
'Water Music'
Composition by Handel for George I
'Music for the Royal Fireworks'
Composition by Handel for George II
Oratorio composed by Handel which is sung regularly by choirs, often at Easter time
Gustav Holst
Composed 'The Planets', a suite of pieces themed around hte planets of the solar system
Sir Edward Elgar
Best-known work is probably the 'Pomp and Circumstance Marches
'March No.1 (Land of Hope and Glory'
'Pomp and Circumstance' March composed by Sir Edward Elgar and played on the last night of the Proms at the Royal Albert Hall.
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Wrote music for orchestras and choirs. He was strongly influenced by traditional English folk music.
Sir William Walton
Wrote marches for the coronations of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II
Best known works are 'Façade', which became a ballet and 'Balthazar's Feast', intended to be sung by a large choir
Work composed by Sir William Walton which became a ballet
'Balthazar's Feast'
Work composed by Sir William Walton which is intended to be sung by a large choir
What are some important factors on Britain's impact on popular music around the world?
The wide use of the English language
The UK's cultural links with many countries
British capacity for invention and innovation
Where is the O2 Stadium?
Greenwich, south-east London
Famous music festivals that takes place every summer
Glastonbury, Isle of Wight Music Festival, V Festival
The National Eisteddfod of Wales
Annual cultural festival which includes music, dance, art, poetry and original performances largely in Welsh.
Mercury Music Prize
Awarded each September for the best album from the UK and Ireland
Brit Awards
Annual event that gives awards in a range of categories such as best British group and best British solo artist
London's West End, a particularly well-known community where both professional and amateur theatre productions are shown.
Which play has the longest initial run of any show in history?
'The Mousetrap', by Dame Agatha Christie, which has been running in the West End since 1952
Gilbert and Sullivan
Wrote comical operas in the 19th century, often making fun of popular culture and politics
'HMS Pinafore'
19th century opera by Gilbert and Sullivan
'Pirates of Penzance'
19th century opera by Gilbert and Sullivan
'The Mikado'
19th century opera by Gilbert and Sullivan
Andrew Lloyd Webber
Written music for shows which have been popular throughout the world, including, in collaboration with Tim Rice, 'Jesus Christ Superstar' and 'Evita', and 'Cats' and 'The Phantom of the Opera'
Based on fairy stories and are light-hearted plays with music and comedy. Traditional characters are the Dame, a woman played by a man; and the horse or cow, where two actors are in the same costume.
Edinburgh Festival
Series of different arts and cultural festivals, with the biggest and most well-known being the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, a showcase of mainly theatre and comedy performances often showing experimental work. Takes place in Edinburgh every summer.
'The Fringe'
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe, a showcase of mainly theatre and comedy performances often showing experimental work.
The Lawrence Olivier Awards
Take place annually at different venues in London. There are a variety of categories, including best director, best actor and best actress.
Sir Lawrence Olivier
Later Lord Olivier, British actor best known for his roles in various Shakespeare plays.
Benjamin Britten
Best known for his operas.
Wrote 'A Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra', which is based on a piece of music by Purcell and introduces the listener to the various different sections of an orchestra.
Founded the Aldeburgh festival in Suffolk, which continues to be a popular music event of international importance.
What was the focus of most art in the Middle Ages?
When did British artists start to become well-known, and for what types of paintings in particular?
18th century onwards, particularly for portraits and landscapes
What are some of the most well-known art galleries in the UK?
The National Gallery
Tate Britain
Tate Modern, based in the former Bankside Power Station in central London
National Museum in Cardiff
The National Gallery of Scotland in Edinburgh
Thomas Gainsborough
Portrait painter who often painted people in country or garden scenery
David Allan
Scottish painter who was best known for painting portraits. One of his most famous works is called 'The Origin of Painting'.
'The Origin of Painting'
Work by Scottish painter David Allan
Joseph Turner
Influential landscape painter in a modern style. Considered the artist who raised the profile of landscape painting.
John Constable
Landscape painter most famous for his works of Dedham Vale on the Suffolk-Essex border in the east of England.
The Pre-Raphaelites
Important group of artists in the second half of the 19th century, who painted detailed pictures on religious or literary themes in bright colours. The group included Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Sir John Millais.
Sir John Lavery
Very successful Northern Irish portrait painter whose work included painting the Royal Family.
Henry Moore
English sculptor and artist best known for his large bronze abstract sculptures
John Petts
Welsh artist, best known for his engravings and stained glass
Lucian Freud
German-born British artist best known for his portraits
David Hockney
Important contributor to the 'pop art' movement of the 1960s and continues to be influential today
The Turner Prize
Established in 1984
Celebrates contemporary art.
Named after Joseph Turner.
Four works are shortlisted every year and shown at Tate Britain before the winner is announced.
One of the most prestigious visual art awards in Europe.
Previous winners include Damien Hirst and Richard Wright.
What are some cathedrals built in the Middle Ages that still stand today?
Cathedrals in Durham, Lincoln, Canterbury and Salisbury
The White Tower
In the Tower of London; an example of a Norman castle keep, built on the orders of William the Conqueror.
Hardwick Hall
In Derbyshire, an example of great country houses which were built, after the Middle Ages, as the countryside became more peaceful, landowners became richer, and the houses of the wealthy became more elaborate.
Inigo Jones
In the 17th century, took inspiration from classical architecture to design the Queen's House at Greenwich and the Banqueting House in Whitehall in London.
Sir Christopher Wren
Famous architect who designed the new St. Paul's cathedral after the London Fire in 1666.
Helped develop a British version of the ornate styles popular in Europe
Robert Adam
Scottish architect
Influenced the development of architecture in the UK, Europe and America.
Designed the inside decoration as well as the building itself in great
houses such as Dumfries House in Scotland.
Influenced architects in cities such as Bath, where the Royal Crescent was built.
On what type of buildings was the Gothic style of architecture used in the 19th century?
As cities expanded, many great public buildings were built in this style. The Houses of Parliament and St Pancras Station were built at this time, as were the town halls in cities such as Manchester and Sheffield
Sir Edwin Lutyens
Designed New Delhi to be the seat of government in India.
After the First World War, he was responsible for many war memorials throughout the world, including the Cenotaph in Whitehall.
Sir Norman Foster
Modern British architect
Lord (Richard)
Modern British architect
Dame Zaha Hadid
Modern British architect
Lancelot 'Capability' Brown
In the 18th century, designed the grounds around country houses so that the landscape appeared to be natural, with grass, trees and lakes.
Gertrude Jekyll
Often worked with Edwin Lutyens to design colourful gardens around the houses he designed.
Chelsea Flower Show
Annual showcase of garden design from Britain and around the world.
Thomas Chippendale
Designed furniture in the 18th century
Clarice Cliff
Designed art deco ceramics
Sir Terence Conran
20th-century interior designer
Leading British fashion designers of recent years include:
Mary Quant
Alexander McQueen
Vivienne Westwood
Leading British authors who have won the Nobel Prize in Literature:
Rudyard Kipling
Sir William Golding
Poet Seamus Heaney
Playwright Harold Pinter
Agatha Christie
Author of famous detective stories
Ian Fleming
Author of James Bond novels
J.R.R. Tolkien
Author of the 'Lord of the Rings' series
In 2003, what was voted the country's best-loved novel?
J.R.R. Tolkien's 'Lord of the Rings'
The Man Booker Prize for Fiction
Awarded annually since 1968 for the best fiction novel written by an author from the Commonwealth, Ireland or Zimbabwe
Past winners include Ian McEwan, Hilary Mantel and Julian Barnes.
Jane Austen
English novelist who wrote primarily about marriage and family relationships
'Pride and Prejudice'
Novel by writer Jane Austen
'Sense and Sensibility'
Novel by writer Jane Austen
Charles Dickens
Author who wrote a number of very famous novels
'Oliver Twist'
Novel by writer Charles Dickens
'Great Expectations'
Novel by writer Charles Dickens
Common term, taken from a work of Charles Dickens, used to describe a mean person.
Mr. Micawber
Common term, taken from a work of Charles Dickens, used to describe a person who is always hopeful.
Robert Louis Stevenson
Wrote books which are still read by adults and children today.
Most famous books include 'Treasure Island', 'Kidnapped' and 'Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde'.
'Treasure Island'
Novel by writer Robert Louis Stevenson
Novel by writer Robert Louis Stevenson
'Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde'
Novel by writer Robert Louis Stevenson
Thomas Hardy
Author and poet.
Best-known novels focus on rural society and include 'Far from the Madding Crowd' and 'Jude the Obscure'
'Far from the Madding Crowd'
Novel by writer Thomas Hardy
'Jude the Obscure'
Novel by writer Thomas Hardy
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Scottish doctor and writer. He was best known for his stories about Sherlock Holmes, who was one of the first fictional detectives.
Evelyn Waugh
Wrote satirical novels, including 'Decline and Fall' and 'Scoop'.
He is perhaps best known for 'Brideshead Revisited'.
'Decline and Fall'
Novel by writer Evelyn Waugh
Novel by writer Evelyn Waugh
'Brideshead Revisited'
Novel by writer Evelyn Waugh
Sir Kingsley Amis
English novelist and poet who wrote more than 20 novels. The most well known is 'Lucky Jim'.
'Lucky Jim'
Novel by Sir Kingsley Amis
Graham Greene
Wrote novels often influenced by his religious beliefs, including 'The Heart of the Matter', 'The Honorary Consul', 'Brighton Rock' and 'Our Man in Havana'.
'The Heart of the Matter'
Novel written by Graham Green
'The Honorary Consul'
Novel written by Graham Green
'Brighton Rock'
Novel written by Graham Green
'Our Man in Havana'
Novel written by Graham Green
J K Rowling
Wrote the Harry Potter series of children's books, which have enjoyed huge international success. She now writes fiction for adults as well.
Anglo-Saxon poem that tells of its hero's battles against monsters
'Sir Gawain and the Green Knight'
Poem about one of the knights at the court of King Arthur
'Paradise Lost'
Poem written by John Milton, which is an example of a number of poems inspired by religious views as Protestant ideas spread.
William Wordsworth
Poet inspired by nature
Sir Walter Scott
Wrote poems inspired by Scotland and the traditional stories and songs from the area on the borders of Scotland and England.
Also wrote novels, many of which were set in Scotland.
Popular British poets of the 19th century:
William Blake
John Keats
Lord Byron
Percy Shelley
Alfred Lord Tennyson
Robert and Elizabeth Browning
Wilfred Owen
Poet inspired by experiences in the First World War
Siegfried Sassoon
Poet inspired by experiences in the First World War
Sir Walter de la Mare
Popular modern poet
John Masefield
Popular modern poet
Sir John Betjeman
Popular modern poet
Ted Hughes
Popular modern poet
Where are some of the best-known poets buried?
Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey
Oh, to be in England now that April's there
And whoever wakes in England sees, some morning, unaware
That the lowest boughs and the brushwood sheaf
Round the elm-tree bole are in tiny leaf
While the Chaffinch sings on the orchard bough
In England - Now!
Robert Browning, 1812-89
'Home Thoughts from Abroad'
She walks in beauty, like the night
Of cloudless climes and starry skies,
All that's best of dark and bright
Meet in her aspect and her eyes
Lord Byron, 1788-1824
'She Walks in Beauty'
I wander'd lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o'er vales and hills
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host of golden daffodils
William Wordsworth, 1770-1850
'The Daffodils'
Tyger! Tyger! Burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
William Blake, 1757-1827
'The Tyger'
What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?
Only the monstrous anger of the guns.
Only the stuttering rifles' rapid rattle
Can patter out their hasty orisons.
Wilfred Owen, 1893-1918
'Anthem for Doomed Youth'
Additional land some people rent to grow fruits and vegetables
Kew Gardens, Sissinghurst and Hidcote
Famous gardens in England
Crathes Castle and Inveraray Castle
Famous gardens in Scotland
Bodnant Garden
Famous gardens in Wales
Mount Stewart
Famous gardens in Northern Ireland
The countries that make up the UK all have flowers which are particularly associated with them and which are sometimes worn on national saints' days. What flower represents each country?
England - the rose
Scotland - the thistle
Wales - the daffodil
Northern Ireland - the shamrock
For most towns and cities, what is the central shopping area called?
The town centre
Most shops in the UK are closed on Sunday (True/False?)
False, though most shops have reduced hours on Sundays
Why is there a wide variety of foods eaten in the UK?
Because of the country's rich cultural heritage and diverse population.
What foods are traditionally associated with England?
Roast beef, which is served with potatoes, vegetables, Yorkshire puddings (batter that is baked in the oven) and other accompaniments. Fish and chips are also popular.
What foods are traditionally associated with Scotland?
Haggis - a sheep's stomach stuffed with offal, suet, onions and oatmeal.
What foods are traditionally associated with Wales?
Welsh cakes - a traditional Welsh snack made from flour, dried fruits and spices, and served either hot or cold.
What foods are traditionally associated with Northern Ireland?
Ulster fry - a fried meal with bacon, eggs, sausage, black pudding, white pudding, tomatoes, mushrooms, soda bread and potato bread.
When were film first shown publicly in the UK?
For what did British film makers become famous?
Clever special effects
Sir Charles (Charlie) Chaplin
Became famous in silent movies for his tramp character and was one of many British actors to make a career in Hollywood.
Sir Alexander Korda
Eminent British film director
Sir Alfred Hitchcock
Eminent British film director
What was an important role of British films during the Second World War?
Boosted morale
'In Which We Serve'
Film during the Second World War which served to boost morale.
Sir David Lean
British film director
Ridley Scott
British film director
Which decades are considered the high point for British comedy films?
1950s and 1960s
'Passport to Pimlico'
British comedy film
'The Ladykillers'
British comedy film
'Carry On'
Series of British comedy films
By whom are many of the films now produced in
the UK are made?
Foreign companies, using British expertise
What are the two highest-grossing film franchises of all time (as of 2013)?
James Bond and Harry Potter
What is the oldest continuously working film studio facility in the world.
Ealing Stuidos
Nick Park
Filmmaker who has won four Oscars for his animated films, including three for films featuring Wallace and Gromit.
David Niven
British actor
Sir Rex Harrison
British actor
Richard Burton
British actor
Recent British actors to have won Oscars include:
Colin Firth
Sir Antony Hopkins
Dame Judi Dench
Kate Winslet
Tilda Swinton
British Academy of Film and Television Arts
What awards are the British equivalent of the Oscars?
British Academy Film Awards
'The 39 Steps'
1935 film directed by Alfred Hitchcock
'Brief Encounter'
1945 film directed by David Lean
'The Third Man'
1949 film directed by Carol Reed
'The Belles of St Trinian's'
1954 film directed by Frank Launder
'Lawrence of Arabia'
1962 film directed by David Lean
'Women in Love'
1969 film directed by Ken Russell
'Don't Look Now'
1973 film directed by Nicolas Roeg
'Chariots of Fire'
1981 film directed by Hugh Hudson
'The Killing Fields'
1984 film directed by Roland Joffé
'Four Weddings and a Funeral'
1994 film directed by Mike Newell
'Touching the Void'
2003 film directed by Kevin MacDonald
What about the traditions of comedy and satire make them an important part of the UK character?
The ability to laugh at ourselves
Told jokes and made fun of people in the Court for medieval kings and rich nobles
When did political cartoons begin to increase in popularity?
18th century
When did satirical magazines begin to be published?
19th century
What was the most famous satirical magazine, and when was it first published?
'Punch', published for the first time in the 1840s
'Private Eye'
Satirical magazine which publishes political cartoons
British music hall
Form of variety theatre which was very common until television became the leading form of entertainment in the UK.
Morecambe and Wise
Performed in the music halls in the 1940s and 1950s and later became stars of television.
'That Was The Week That Was'
Satire television show broadcast in the 1960s
'Spitting Image'
Satire television show broadcast in the 1980 and '90s
'Monty Python's Flying Circus'
In 1969, introduced a new type of progressive comedy
'Coronation Street'
Popular television soap opera
Popular television soap opera
Who is required to have a television license?
Everyone in the UK with a TV, computer or other medium which can be used for watching TV
How many pieces of equipment does one television license cover?
One licence covers all of the equipment in one home, except when people rent different rooms in a shared house and each has a separate tenancy agreement - those people must each buy a separate licence.
Who is eligible for free and discounted TV licenses?
People over 75 can apply for a free TV licence and blind people can get a 50% discount.
What is the fine for watching TV without a license?
Up to £1,000
What is the money from TV licenses used for?
To pay for the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
The British Broadcasting Corporation
Provides television and radio programmes
Largest broadcaster in the world
The only wholly state-funded media organisation that is independent of government
How are UK television channels, apart from the BBC, funded?
Primarily through advertisements and subscriptions.
Public houses
Most communities will have a 'local' pub that is a natural focal point for
social activities.
Pub quizzes are popular.
Pool and darts are traditional pub games.
How old must you be to buy alcohol?
At what age, if under the age of 18, might some people be allowed into a pub if accompanied by an adult?
Under what conditions may someone under the age of 18 consumer alcoholic beverages?
Must be aged 16 or older
Can drink wine or beer
Must be consumed with a meal in a hotel or restaurant
Must be accompanied by someone who is 18 or older.
Who decides the hours that a pub or night club is open?
The licensee
At what age is a person allowed to go into betting shops or gambling clubs?
National Lottery
Lottery which draw every week
Can buy a ticket or a scratch card
Anyone under 16 cannot participate in the National Lottery
What must all dogs in public places wear?
A collar showing the name and address of the owner
What is a dog owner's responsibility when out with the dog?
Keep the dog under control
Clean up after the animal
How many national parks are in England Scotland and Wales?
What is a national park?
Areas of protected countryside that everyone can visit, and where people live, work and look after the landscape.
National Trust / National Trust for Scotland
Charities that work to preserve important buildings, coastline and countryside in the UK. Founded in 1895 by three volunteers. There are now more than 61,000 volunteers.
Big Ben
Big Ben is the nickname for the great bell of the clock at the Houses of Parliament in London. Many people call the clock Big Ben as well. The clock is over 150 years old
Elizabeth Tower
Named in honour of Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee in 2012, the clock tower which houses Big Ben.
The Eden Project
Located in Cornwall.
Its biomes, which are like giant greenhouses, house plants from all over the world.
Is also a charity which runs environmental and social projects internationally.
Edinburgh Castle
Dates to the early Middle Ages.
Looked after by Historic Scotland, a Scottish government agency.
The Giant's Causeway
Located on the north-east coast of Northern Ireland
Land formation of columns made from volcanic lava.
Formed about 50 million years ago.
Many legends about the Causeway and how it was formed
Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park
National park which covers 720 square miles (1,865 square kilometres) in the west of Scotland.
Loch Lomond is the largest expanse of fresh water in mainland Britain
and probably the best-known part of the park.
London Eye
On the southern bank of the River Thames
Ferris wheel that is 443 feet (135 metres) tall.
Originally built as part of the UK's celebration of the new millennium and continues to be an important part of New Year celebrations.
Snowdonia is a national park in North Wales.
Covers an area of 838 square miles (2,170 square kilometres).
Most well-known landmark is Snowdon, which is the highest mountain in Wales.
The Tower of London
The Tower of London was first built by William the Conqueror after he
became king in 1066.
Tours are given by the Yeoman Warders, also known as Beefeaters, who tell visitors about the building's history.
People can also see the Crown Jewels there.
The Lake District
England's largest national park, covering 885 square miles (2,292 square kilometres).
Famous for its lakes and mountains
Very popular with climbers, walkers and sailors.
The biggest stretch of water is Windermere.
In 2007, television viewers voted Wastwater as Britain's favourite view.
Franchise (democracy)
The number of people who have the right to vote
Why is Britain's constitution unwritten?
Mainly because the UK, unlike America or France, has never had a revolution which led permanently to a totally new system of government. Our most important institutions have developed over hundreds of years.
Why do proponents argue an unwritten constitution is best?
Allows for more flexibility and better government
Devolved governments
Governments in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland that have the power to legislate certain regional issues
Each devolved administration has its own civil service
Who is the head of state in the UK?
The monarch. Queen Elizabeth II (as of 2013)
Who is the head of state for many countries in the Commonwealth?
The monarch of the UK
Whom does the monarch invite to become Prime Minister?
The leader of the party with the largest number of MPs, or the leader of a coalition between more than one party
What is the monarch's role in making government decisions?
The monarch has regular meetings with the Prime Minister and can advise, warn and encourage, but the decisions on government policies are made by the Prime Minister and cabinet
Since when has Queen Elizabeth II reigned?
Diamond Jubilee
Celebration of 60 years as monarch. Queen Elizabeth II's was in 2012
To whom is Queen Elizabeth II married?
Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh
Who is the current heir to the throne (as of 2013)?
Queen Elizabeth II's eldest son, Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales
Who opens the parliamentary session each year?
The monarch, with a speech which summarises the government's policies for the year ahead.
In whose name are all Acts of Parliament made?
The monarch
What does the text say are the benefits to the country of the monarch?
The Queen has an important role in providing stability and continuity. While governments and Prime Ministers change regularly, the Queen continues as head of state. She provides a focus for national identity and pride, which was demonstrated through the celebrations of her Jubilee.
What is the National Anthem of the UK?
'God Save the Queen'
God save our gracious Queen!
Long live our noble Queen!
God save the Queen!
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us,
God save the Queen! (First verse)
House of Commons (modern Parliament)
Parliamentary house in which all members (MPs) are democratically elected
Responsibilities of Members of Parliament (MPs)
Represent everyone in their constituency
Help to create new laws
Scrutinise and comment on what the government is doing
Debate important national issues
What are members of the House of Lords known as?
Who do the members of the House of Lords represent?
No specific constituency
Until 1958, all peers in the House of Lords were:
Hereditary (they inherited their title OR
Senior judges OR
Bishops of the Church of England
Since 1958, who has had power to nominate peers to the House of Lords just for their own lifetime?
The Prime Minister, or leaders of the other main political parties or by an independent Appointments Commission for non-party peers
What are peers nominated to the House of Lords just for their own lifetime called?
Life peers
Who appoints life peers to the House of Lords?
The monarch, on the advice of the Prime Minister
When did hereditary peers lose the automatic right to attend the House of Lords?
What is the role of the House of Lords
Suggest amendments or propose new laws, which are then discussed by MPs.
Checks laws that have been passed by the House of Commons to ensure they are fit for purpose.
Holds the government to account to make sure that it is working in the best interests of the people.
Who has the power to overrule the House of Lords?
The House of Commons
The Speaker
Chairs debates in the House of Commons
Chief officer for the House of Commons
Neutral and does not represent a political party, even though he or she is an MP, represents a constituency and deals with constituents' problems like any other MP
Chosen by other MPs in a secret ballot
Represents Parliament on ceremonial occasions
What is the General Election
Election of Members of Parliament
How often is a General Election held?
At least once every five years
Held if an MP resigns or dies, in that MP's constituency
What is the electoral system in which the candidate who
gets the most votes is elected called?
First past the post
How is a government formed following a General Election?
By the party that wins the majority of constituencies. If no party wins a majority, two parties may join together to form a coalition.
How often are elections for the European Parliament held?
Every five years
What is an MEP?
Elected member of the European Parliament
Proportional representation
Seats are allocated to each party in proportion to the total number of votes it has won.
What electoral system is used in elections for the European Parliament?
Proportional representation
Prime Minister (modern government)
Leader of the political party in power
Appoints members of cabinet and has control over many important public appointments
What is the official home of the Prime Minister?
10 Downing Street
Also, a country house outside London called Chequers
Can the serving Prime Minister be changed without a general election?
Yes, if the MPs in the governing party decide to do so, or if the Prime Minister wishes to resign
Chancellor of the Exchequer
Cabinet member responsible for the economy
Home Secretary
Cabinet member responsible for crime, policing and immigration
Foreign Secretary
Cabinet member responsible for managing relationships with foreign countries
Secretaries of State
Cabinet members responsible for subjects such as education, health and defence
A committee whose members are appointed by the Prime Minister.
Usually meets weekly and makes important decisions about government policy.
Ministers of State / Parliamentary Under-Secretaries of State
Ministers within each Cabinet department, who take charge of particular areas of the department's work
The Opposition
The second-largest party in the House of Commons
Shadow Ministers
Appointed by the leader of the Opposition, and form the shadow cabinet. Their role is to challenge the government and put forward alternative policies
Prime Minister's Questions
Takes place every week while Parliament is sitting
Opportunity for the leader of the opposition to point out what they see as the government's failures and weakness
At what age can a person stand for election as an MP?
What are the major political parties today?
Conservative Party
Labour Party
Liberal Democrats
Parties representing Scottish, Welsh or Northern Irish interests
The main political parties actively look for members of the public to do what?
Join their debates
Contribute to their costs
Help at elections for Parliament or for local government
How often do the main political parties hold policy-making conferences?
Every year
Pressure groups / Lobby groups
Organisations which try to influence government policy
Confederation of British Industry
Pressure group which represents the views of British businesses.
Pressure group which campaigns for the environment
Liberty (group)
Pressure group with campaigns for human rights
What is the role of civil servants?
Support the government in developing and implementing its policies
Deliver public services
To whom are civil servants accountable
Cabinet ministers
How are civil servants chosen?
People can apply to join the civil service, and are chosen on merit. They are politically neutral and are not political appointees.
What are the core values of the civil service?
Impartiality (including being politically neutral)
Local authorities
Democratically elected councils that govern towns, cities and rural areas in the UK.
Some areas have both district and county councils, which have different functions.
Most large towns and cities have a single local authority
How are local authorities funded?
Money from central government
Local taxes
How is a mayor selected?
Not all towns have mayors, but of those that do, many local authorities papoint a mayor, who is the ceremonial leader of the council. In some towns, a mayor is elected to be the effective leader of the administration.
How many local authorities does London have?
What people or entities coordinate policies across the local authorities of London?
The Greater London and Authority and the Mayor of London
When are elections held for most local authorities?
May of each year
Welsh Assembly
Devolved administration in Wales since 1999
Scottish Parliament
Devolved administration in Scotland since 1999
Northern Ireland Assembly
Devolved administration in Northern Ireland since 1998
How many members are in the Welsh Assembly (the National Assembly)
60 Assembly Members (AMs)
How often are elections held for the Welsh Assembly?
Every four years
What electoral process is used in elections for the Welsh Assembly?
Proportional representation
Four areas (of twenty) the Welsh Assembly has the power to legislate:
Education and training
Health and social services
Economic development
When was the Welsh Assembly given the power to pass laws, regarding the twenty topics they can legislate, without having the agreement of the UK Parliament?
How many members of the Scottish Parliament are there?
129 members (MSPs)
On what matters can the Scottish Parliament pass laws?
All matters that are not specifically reserved to the UK Parliament. Includes:
Civil and criminal law
Additional tax-raising powers
How many members are there in the Northern Ireland Assembly?
108 members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs)
What electoral process is used in elections for the Northern Ireland Assembly?
Proportional representation
What electoral process is used in elections for the Scottish Parliament?
Proportional representation
What is the purpose of the power-sharing agreement in place in the Northern Ireland Assembly?
Distributes ministerial offices amongst the main parties
What are some issues on which the Northern Ireland Assembly can make decisions?
The environment
Social services
In what instances has the UK government used its power to suspend all devolved assemblies?
Several times in Northern Ireland when local political leaders found it difficult to work together.
Official reports publishing proceedings in Parliament
Where do most people get information about political issues and events?
Newspapers, television, radio and the internet
Free press
What is written in newspapers is free from government control
What is an important legal requirement of radio and television coverage of political parties?
By law, it must be balanced, so equal time has to be given to rival viewpoints.
Since 1969, who has the right to vote in all public elections?
All UK-born and naturalised adult citizens (over the age of 18)
Adult citizens of the Commonwealth and the Irish Republic who are resident in the UK
In which elections can adult citizens of other EU states who are resident in the UK vote?
All except General Elections
What must you do in order to be able to vote in a parliamentary, local or European election?
Have your name on the electoral register
If you are eligible to vote, how can you register?
By contacting your local council electoral registration office
How often is the electoral register updated?
Every year in September or October
How is the electoral register updated (except in Northern Ireland)?
An electoral registration form is sent to every household and this has to be completed and returned with the names of everyone who is resident in the household and eligible to vote
How is the electoral register updated in Northern Ireland?
Individual registration - all those entitled to vote must complete their own registration form, and once registered, people stay on the register provided their personal details do not change.
Where can the electoral register for each local authority be viewed
By law, it has to be available to look at, though this has to be supervised. The register is kept at each local electoral registration office (or council office in England and Wales). It is also possible to see the register at some public buildings such as libraries
Where do people vote?
Polling stations, or polling places in Scotland. Before the election, voters are sent poll cards telling them where their polling station or place is and when the election will take place
What hours are polling stations or places open?
7.00 am to 10.00 pm
What must you provide when you arrive at the polling station?
Name and address, and in Northern Ireland, photographic identification.
What should you do if it is difficult to get to a polling station or place?
Register for a postal ballot, which will be sent to your home before the election, where it can be completed and posted back. The choice to register for a postal ballot can be made when you register to vote.
Who can stand for public office?
Most citizens of the UK, the Irish Republic or the Commonwealth, aged 18 or over. Exceptions include:
Members of the armed forces
Civil servants
People found guilty of certain criminal offences
Members of the House of Lords may not stand for election to the House of Commons but are eligible for all other public offices
How can members of the public listen to debates in the Palace of Westminster?
From the public galleries in both the House of Commons and the House of Lords
Can write to local MP in advance to ask for tickets OR
Queue on the day at the public entrance.
Entrance is free
How can members of the public listen to debates at the Northern Ireland Assembly at Stormont, in Belfast?
Either contact the Education Service OR
Contact an MLA
How can members of the public listen to debates at the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood, in Edinburgh?
Get information, book tickets or arrange tours through visitor services via post, telephone or email
How can members of the public listen to debates at the Welsh Assembly in the Senedd in Cardiff Bay?
The Senedd is an open building.
Book guided tours or seats in the public galleries by contacting the Assembly Booking Service via phone or email
The Commonwealth (modern)
Association of countries that support each other and work together towards shared goals in democracy and development. Most member states were once part of the British Empire, although a few countries which were not have also joined.
How many member states does the Commonwealth currently have (as of 2013)?
What powers does the Commonwealth have over its members?
Only that it can suspend membership
What are the core values upon which the Commonwealth is based?
Good government
Rule of law
Members of the Commonwealth (A-C) (11)
Antigua ad Barbuda
The Bahamas
Brunei Darussalam
Members of the Commonwealth (D-K) (10)
Fiji (currently suspended)
The Gambia
Members of the Commonwealth (L-N) (11)
New Zealand
Members of the Commonwealth (O-S) (14)
Papua New Guinea
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
South Africa
Sri Lanka
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Members of the Commonwealth (T-Z) (8)
Trinidad and Tobago
United Kingdom
What was the European Union originally called?
European Economic Community (EEC)
Which six western European countries first set up the European Economic Community?
The Netherlands
When was the European Economic Community first set up?
Upon the signing of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957
When did the UK become a member of the European Economic Community?
How many member states are in the European Union?
27 (Croatia to become a member in 2013, making it 28)
EU Member states (A-F) (9)
Belgium Bulgaria
Czech Republic
EU Member States (G-M) (9)
EU Member States (N-Z) (9)
United Kingdom
What are European laws called?
Directives,regulations or framework decisions
The Council of Europe
Separate from the EU, responsible for protection and promotion of human rights in member countries.
How many member countries are in the Council of Europe?
47, including the UK
What are the laws of the Council of Europe called?
Actually, they don't have the power to make laws, but they draw up conventions and charts.
What is the most well-known of the Council of Europe charters?
The European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, usually called the European Convention on Human Rights.
The United Nations
Set up after the Second World War and aims to prevent war and promote international peace and security
How many countries are members of the United Nations?
More than 190
How many members are on the UN Security Council?
15; the UK is one of five permanent members
UN Security Council
Recommends action when there are international crises and threats to peace
Into what categories can law be divided?
Civil law and criminal law
To what does criminal law relate?
Crimes, usually investigated by the police or another authority such as a council, and which are punished by the court
To what does civil law relate?
Disputes between individuals or groups
Civil or criminal law: Carrying a weapon?
Criminal - it is an offence to carry a weapon of any kind, even if for self-defence.
Civil or criminal law: Drugs?
Criminal - Selling or buying drugs is illegal in the UK.
Civil or criminal law: Racial harrassment?
Criminal - It is an offence to cause harassment, alarm or distress to someone because of their religion or ethnic origin
Civil or criminal law: Selling tobacco to someone under 18?
Civil or criminal law: Smoking in public places?
Criminal - Against the law to smoke tobacco products in nearly every enclosed public space. Signs are displayed to tell you where you cannot smoke
Civil or criminal law: Buying alcohol for or selling to someone under age 18?
Criminal - With the exception that people aged 16 or over can drink alcohol with a meal in a hotel or restaurant, it is illegal to provide alcohol to minors
Civil or criminal law: Drinking in public?
Criminal - Some places have alcohol-free zones where you cannot drink in public. The police can confiscate alcohol, and you can be fined or arrested
Civil or criminal law: Housing law?
Civil - includes disputes between landlords and tenants over issues such as repairs and eviction.
Civil or criminal law: Consumer rights?
Civil - an axemple of this is a dispute about faulty goods or servies
Civil or criminal law: Employment law?
Civil - includes disputes over wages and cases of unfair dismissal or discrimination in the workplace
Civil or criminal law: Debt?
Civil - people might be taken to court if they owe money to someone
What is the job of the police in the UK?
Protect life and property
Prevent disturbances (keep the peace)
Prevent and detect crime
What is the title given to the head of each separate police force?
Chief Constables
Police and Crime Commissioners
In England and Wales, directly elected individuals who are responsible for the delivery of an efficient and effective police force that reflects the needs of their local communities. Set local police priorities and the local policing budget.
Who appoints the local Chief Constable in England and Wales?
The Police and Crime Commissioners
Police Community Support Officers
Have different roles according to the area, but usually patrol the streets, work with the public and support police officers at crime scenes and major events
Who can make a complaint about the police and how?
Anyone, by going to a police station or writing to the Chief Constable of the police force involved. Or, complaints can also be made to an independent body:
the Independent Police Complaints Commission in England and Wales
The Police Complaints Commissioner for Scotland
Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland
From whom is the most serious terrorism threat to the UK?
Al Qa'ida, its affiliates and like-minded organisations
What should you do if you think someone is trying to persuade you to join an extremist or terrorist cause?
Notify your local police force
The judiciary
The collective of judges responsible for interpreting the law and ensuring that trials are conducted fairly.
What is the government's role in the interpretation of the law by the judiciary?
None - the government cannot interfere.
What happens if a judge agrees with a claim that the actions of the government are illegal?
The government must either change its policies or ask Parliament to change the law.
What happens if judges find that a public body is not respecting someone's legal rights?
They can order that body to change its practices and/or pay compensation.
Magistrates' Courts
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland - the courts in which most minor criminal cases are dealt with.
Justice of the Peace Courts
In Scotland, the courts in which minor criminal offences are dealt with.
What qualifications are necessary to be a magistrate or a justice of the peace?
In England, Scotland and Wales, they usually work unpaid and do not need legal qualifications. They receive training to do to the job and are supported by a legal adviser.
In Northern Ireland, cases in the Magistrates' Courts are heard by a District Judge or Deputy District Judge, who is legally qualified and paid.
District Judge / Deputy District Judge
Preside over Magistrates' Courts in Northern Ireland
Legally qualified and paid
The Old Bailey
One of hte most famous criminal courts in the world
Crown Court
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland - court in which serious offences are tried in front of a judge and jury.
Sheriff Court
In Scotland, court in which serious offences are heard with either a sheriff or a sheriff with a jury.
High Court
In Scotland, court in which the most serious cases, such as murder, are heard with a judge and jury
How are jurors chosen?
Chosen at random from the individuals between the ages of 18 and 70 on the electoral register
How many members serve in a jury in England, Wales and Northern Ireland?
How many members serve in a jury in Scotland?
What verdicts can a jury decide?
Not Guilty
In Scotland only: Not Proven
Who decides the penalty when a jury delivers a guilty verdict?
The judge
Where is a case heard if an accused person is aged 10 to 17?
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, a Youth Court, in front of up to three specially trained magistrates or a District Judge. The most serious cases will go to the Crown Court.
In Scotland, a system called the Children's Hearings System is used.
What restrictions are placed on the public with regard to Youth Courts?
Members of the public are not allowed in Youth Courts, and the name or photographs of the accused young person cannot be published in newspapers or used by the media.
How is it decided in Northern Ireland how a child should be dealth with when they have committed an offence?
System of youth conferencing.
Where are most civil disputes dealt with?
County Courts.
In Scotland, most in Sheriff Court
Where are serious civil cases (such as when a large amount of compensation is being claimed) dealt with?
In England, Wares and Northern Ireland, in the High Court
In Scotland, in the Court of Session in Edinburgh
What is an informal way of helping people to settle minor disputes without spending a lot of time and money using a lawyer?
The small claims procedure
The small claims procedure is limited claims of what amount of money?
In England and Wales - £5,000
In Scotland and Northern Ireland - £3,000
What is a hearing in the small claims procedure like?
Held in front of a judge in an ordinary room, and people from both sides of the dispute sit around a table.
Small claims can also be issued online through Money Claims Online
Where can you go to get details about the small claims procedure?
Local County Court or Sheriff Court
Trained lawyers who give advice on legal matters, take action for their clients and represent their clients in court.
How can you find a solicitor to help you?
Many advertise inthe yellow pages
Citizens Advice Bureau can give names and specialisations
Law Society can give names and specialisations
On what are a solicitor's charges usually based?
How much time they spend on the case.
When was the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed by the UK?
What are some of the principles included in the European Convention on Human Rights?
Right to life
Prohibition of torture
Prohibition of slavery and forced labour
Right to liberty and security
Right to a fair trial
Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
Freedom of expression (speech)
What Act incorporated the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law?
The Human Rights Act 1998
If you face problems with discrimination, from which agencies can you seek advice and information?
The Citizens Advice Bureau
In England and Wales: Equality and Human Rights Commission
Scotland: Equality and Human Rights Commission in Scotland
Scotland: Scottish Human Rights Commission
Northern Ireland: Equality Commission for Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission
From where can you seek advice for shelter from domestic violence?
Citizens Advice Bureau
In some areas, there are refuges/shelters
Emergency telephone numbers in the helpline section at the front of the Yellow Pages
Women's centres
24-hour National Domestic Violence Freephone Helpline
Female Genital Mutilation - also known as female circumsicion. In the UK, it is a serious offence to practice FGM, or to take a girl or woman abroad for FGM.
Civil or criminal law: Forcing another person to marry?
Criminal - both parties in a marriage must give their consent to enter into the partnership.
When were protection orders against forced marriages introduced?
England, Wales, Northern Ireland: Forced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007
Scotland: November 2011
Who can apply for a protection order against forced marriage?
A potential victim, or someone acting for them
What is the penalty for breaching a court order protecting against forced marriage
Can be jailed for up to two years for contempt of court.
What are some types of income that are taxed?
Wages from paid employment
Profits from self-employment
Taxable benefits
Income from property, savings and dividends
For what does money raised from income tax pay?
Government services such as roads, education, police and the armed forces
HM Revenue and Customs, the government department that collects taxes
'Pay As You Earn'
The system in which the right amount of income tax is automatically taken from a person's employment income by their employer and paid directly to HMRC
If you are self-employed, how do you pay your own taxes?
Through a system called 'self-assessment', which includes completing a tax return.
National Insurance Contributions
Separate from income tax, and must be paid by almost everybody in the UK who is in paid work.
For what does the money raised from National Insurance Contributions pay?
State benefits and services such as the state retirement pension and the National Health Service
Anybody who does not pay enough National Insurance Contributions will not be able to receive what?
Certain contributory benefits such as Jobseeker's Allowance or a full state retirement pension.
Some workers, such as part-time workers, may not qualify for statutory payments such as maternity pay if they do not earn enough.
National Insurance Number
Unique personal account number that makes sure the National Insurance Contributions and tax paid are properly records against your name.
When do most people in the UK receive their National Insurance number?
Young people in the UK are sent a National Insurance number just before their 16th birthday
If you do not have a National Insurance number, how do you get one?
If you have permission to work in the UK, telephone the Department for Work and Pensions. You may be required to attend and interview.
How old must you be to drive a car or motor cycle in the UK?
What must you do to get a UK driving licence?
Pass a driving test, which tests both knowledge and practical skills
How old must you be to rode a moped in the UK?
Until what age may drivers use their driving licence?
How frequently must a driving license be renewed following a person's 70th birthday?
Every three years
What must a newly qualified driver do in Northern Ireland?
Display an 'R' plate (for restricted driver) for one year after passing the test.
If a licence is from these countries, a person may drive in the UK for as long as the license is valid:
Any country in the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein or Norway
For how long may a person drive in the UK using a licence that is not from a country in the EU, Iceland Liechtenstein or Norway?
12 months
With what agency must a car or motor cycle in the UK be registered?
Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA)
What must be displayed on the windscreen of a car or motor cycle?
The tax disc, which shows that the annual road tax has been paid.
Without what is it a serious criminal offence to drive?
How often does a vehicle over three years old be taken for a Ministry of Transport test?
Every year
What are some benefits of getting to know your neighbours?
Can help you to become part of the community and make friends. Neighbours can also be a good source of help or information
What are some ways to help prevent problems and conflicts with your neighbours?
Respect their privacy
Limit how much noise you make
Try to keep your garden and property tidy
What are some benefits of volunteering?
Enable you to integrate and get to know other people
Helps make community a better place
Helps fulfill duties as a citizen, such as behaving responsibly and helping others
What are some ways you can help and participate in your community?
Jury service
Helping in schools
Supporting political parties
Helping with local services
Blood and organ donation
What are some ways in which parents often help in classrooms?
Supporting activities or listening to children read.
Parent-teacher associations; often organise events to help raise money for extra equipment or out-sof school activities
School governors (Members of the school board in Scotland)
People from the local community who wish to make a positive contribution to children's education.
Who can serve as school governor?
Anyone aged 18 or over at the date of their election or appointment. There is no upper age limit.
What are three key roles of school governors and school boards?
Setting strategic direction of the school
Ensuring accountability
Monitoring and evaluating school performance
How can you determine whether your local school needs a new governor or school board member?
Contact the local school.
In England, can also apply online at the School Governors' One-Stop Shop.
What is one way to demonstrate your support for certain views and to get involved in the democratic process?
Join a political party
What do members of political parties do?
Work hard to persuade people to vote for their candidates; for example, hand out leaflets on the street or by knocking on people's doors and asking for their support (canvassing).
Which people who are not UK citizens may be able to stand for office in the UK (excluding standing to be an MP)?
Eligible Commonwealth citizens
Citizen of another EU country
What are some activities you can do as a volunteer?
Working with animals
Youth work
Helping improve the environment
Working with the homeless
Work in health and hospitals
Helping older people (such as in a residential care home)
Age UK
Charity who works with older people
National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, charity group.
Crisis and Shelter
Charity group who works with homeless people
People's Dispensary for Sick Animals
National Citizen Service programme
Gives 16- to 17-year-olds the opportunity to enjoy outdoor activities, develop their skills and take part in a community project
What are some benefits of using recycled materials?
Uses less energy
Do not need to extract more raw materials from the earth
Less rubbish is created, so amount being put into landfill is reduced
What is a way to help business and farmers in your area and support your local community?
Shop for products locally when possible
How does shopping for products locally reduce your carbon footprint?
The products bought will not have had to travel as far
What is a benefit of walking and using public transport?
Protects the environment by creating less pollution than when using a car.

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