97 terms

EMT Chapter 7 Vocabulary

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Anatomy
The structure of the body and the relationships of its parts to each other
Physiology
The function of the body and its parts
Anatomical postion
Supine
Lateral Recumbent position
Prone
Fowler's position
45-60˚
Sagittal plane
Frontal plane
Transverse plane
Midline
Midaxillary line
Proximal
Distal
Midclavicular
The skeletal System's four function
1) Giving the body its shape
2) Protecting the vital internal organs
3) Allowing for movements
4) Storing mineral and producing blood cells
The cranium
The spinal column
The thorax
The four quadrants
The pelvis
Malleolus
The skeletal system
Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Circumduction
Pronation
Supination
Ball-and-socket joint
Hinged joint
Permit flexion and extension
Pivot joint
Allows for a turning motion
Gliding joint
one bone slides across another
Saddle joint
Condyloid joint
modified ball-and-socket joint
The basic functions of the respiratory system
•Respiration
•Ventilation
•Oxygenation
•Serving as a buffer to maintain a normal acid-base balance
Respiration
The process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide across membranes
Oxygenation
the form of respiration in which oxygen molecules move across a membrane from an area of high oxygen concentration to an area of low concentration
Ventilation
Mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs
Upper airway
Nose and mouth
Pharynx
Nasopharynx
Larynx
Lower airway
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli
The pharynx
Passageway for food and air.
Oropharynx
The oral portion of the mouth
Nasopharynx
Where the air from the nose enters the pharynx
Esophagus
Leads to the stomach
Trachea
Leads to the lungs
Larynx
voice box
Thyroid cartilage
Adam's apple, covers the larynx
Cricoid cartilage
Ring of cartilage that forms the lower edge of the larynx
Epiglottis
Small leaf-shaped flap that protects the trachea
Bronchi
Two main tubes to the lungs
Bronchioles
Division of the bronchi
Alveoli
Tiny air sacs that are enclosed in a network of capillaries. Site of gas exchange in the lungs
The lungs
The diaphragm
A powerful, dome-shaped muscle essential to breathing
Differences in anatomy of the respiratory system in children
•Mouth and nose are smaller
•The tongue takes up more space in the pharynx
•Narrower tracheas that are softer and more flexible
•Cricoid cartilage is less developed and much less rigid
•Rely more heavily on diaphragm for breathing
Intercostal muscles
The muscles between the ribs
Inspiration
Expiration
Physiology of Respiration
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the thin walls of the alveoli and the capillaries in the lungs.
Alveolar/Capillary gas exchange
Capillary/Cell gas exchange
Inadequate breathing characteristics
•Rates that are either too slow or too fast
•Irregular pattern of breathing
•Diminished or absent breath sounds
•Unequal ches expansion
•Inadequate chest expansion
•Pale or bluish mucous membranes or skin
•Use of accessory muscles
•Nasal flaring
•"Seesaw" breathing in infants
•Head bobbing
•Agonal respirations (occasional gasping breaths)
•Grunting, especially in new borns, heard at the end of inspiration or the beginning of exhalation
The circulatory system
The heart, blood vessels and blood
Functions of the circulatory system
•Providing a medium for perfusion of cells with oxygen and other nutrients and the removal from the cells of carbon dioxide and other waste products
•Transporting blood to cells and the alveoli for gas exchange
•Serving as a reservoir to house blood
•Serving as a medium for buffering the body's acid-base balance
•Providing a mechanism to deliver immune cells and other substances to fight infection
•Containing substances that promote clotting
The heart
Artery
Carries blood Away from the heart
Cardiac conductive system
Arterioles
The smallest kind of artery
Capillaries
Tiny blood vessel that connects a arteriole to a venule. Has walls that allow for the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste at the cellular level
Venules
Smallest branch of veins
Veins
Carries blood back to the heart
Venae cavae
Red blood cells
Give the blood its color, carry oxygen to the cells and carries carbon dioxide away from the cells. Hemoglobin on the surface of the RBC carry oxygen molecules
White blood cells
Part of the body's immune system and help defend against infection
Platelets and other clotting factors
Essential to the formation of blood clots, necessary to stop bleeding
Plasma
Liquid part of the body
The central nervous system
The brain and spinal chord
The peripheral Nervous System
The nerves located outside the spinal cord and brain
The voluntary Nervous System
Influences the activity of skeletal muscles and movements
The Autonomic Nervous System
Influences the activities of smooth muscles and gland
Sympathetic Nervous System
Fight or flight
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Returns body to normal
Endocrine System
Made up of ductless glands that produce hormones which effect the activity of certain organs
The thyroid glad
Regulates metabolism, growth and development and the activity of the nervous system
The adrenal gland
On top of the kidneys secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine.
Islets of Langerhans
In the pancreas make insulin which allows glucose to enter the cells
The functions of the skin
•Protecting the body from the environment, bacteria, and other foreign organisms
•Serving as a receptor for heat, cold, touch, pain and pressure
•Regulating the temperature of the body
•Aiding in the regulation of water and electrolytes
The stomach
A large hollow organ, the main organ of the digestive system
The pancreas
A flat solid organ that lies just inferior and posterior to the stomach. Secretes fluids that aid in digestion of fats, starches, and proteins
The liver
Largest solid organ of the abdomen, lies beneath the diaphragm. Produces bile which aids in the digestion of fats
The Spleen
Solid organ that helps in the filtration of blood and serves as a reservoir of blood the body can use in an emergency such as hemorrhage. HAS NO DIGESTIVE FUNCTION
The gallbladder
A hollow pouch, acts as a reservoir for bile.
Small intestine
Made up of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Receives food from the stomach and secretions from the pancreas and liver. Nutrients are absorbed.
Large intestine
Also called to colon, this organ passes off waste products that cannot be used by the body, as they move through the colon the water is absorbed.
The urinary system
Consists of two kidneys which filter waste from the blood stream and help control fluid balance, two urteres which carry waste from the kidney to the bladder, one bladder which stores urine, and one urethra which carries the urine out of the body

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