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A community that includes all living and nonliving things found in a certain area.


Animals that each each other.


Animals that other animals hunt for food.


Some organisms must get energy by eating other organisms.


Are organisms that use the Sun's energy to make their own food (all plants).


Animals that eat both plants and other animals.


Animals that eat only plants.


Animals that eat only meat.


Organisms such as fungi, worms, and bacteria get energy by breaking down nutrients in dead organisms.


Is the physical space used by a population.


Is the role each animal has. Sometimes different populations occupy the same area and must compete for resources like food, water, and shelter. Usually the weaker population will die and move to a new area.


A group of organisms of the same species living in the same place.


Is made up of all different kinds of populations living in the same area.

Food Web

A diagram of several connected food chains.

Food Chain

Is a series of organisms through which energy is passed.


When animals go through changes that make them fit in better with the environment around them.


Is to go to sleep for the winter and live on stored food.


Is to move from one place to another, usually with the change of seasons.


Are all living things.


An organism that must live on or inside another organism in order to get energy.


An organism that is infected by a parasite.


Is the way an organism responds to a change in the environment.


Eat the dead flesh of animals.


Include all the living things in an ecosystem (example: Trees, Flowers)


Include all the non-living things in an ecosystem (example: light, temperature, and soil composition).

Limiting Factor

A resource or environmental factor that limits the size of the population.

Forest Ecosystems

Found in areas where the temperature of the air is mild and there is plenty of rainfall.

Temperate Deciduous

Contains trees that lose their leaves each fall. Have animals like bears, rabbits, deer, and snakes. Plants such as ferns and mosses also grow.


Have colder temperatures and contain trees that produce seeds in cones and have leaves shaped like needles (pine trees). Animals include: finches, jays, elk, moose, beavers, and wolves.

Tropical Rainforests

Found in much warmer areas and have plenty of rainfall. Animals include monkeys, reptiles, parrots, and toucans.


Found in warm and temperate area that receives rainfall. They are usually flat or having rollng hills. They are sometimes called prairies, savannahs, plains, and pampas. Animals that live there include: prairie dogs, mice and bison.

Marine Ecosystems: Coral Reefs

Are found in shallow parts of the ocean where it is very warm and sunny.

Marine Ecosystems: Estuaries

Bodies of water found in areas where freshwater from rivers and streams and salt water from the ocean meet. (Shrimp, crabs, clams, reeds, grasses and turtles live here).

Marine Ecosystems: Lakes and Ponds

Freshwater ecosystems, animals include algae, cattails, snails, insects, frogs, and fish.


The clearing of forest lands.


An unwanted change in the environment.


A substance that causes pollution.

Carbon Cycle

The cycle in which carbon flows through the environment and living things.

Nitrogen Cycle

Is the cycle in which nitrogen moves through the environment and living things.

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