17 terms


Replacement level
Def: the tfr level needed for a generation to replace itself (zero population growth)
Ex: 2.1 in the developed world
Total Fertility Rate
Def: likely number of a woman will have during child-bearing years
Sig: a TFR above 2.1 indicates that the society is growing; below 2.1 indicates a society in decline
Carrying capacity
Def: the number of people a unit of land can sustain without degrading its future capacity
Sig: varies on the land's natural characteristics and the type of agriculture
Thomas Malthus
Def: argued that population grows exponentially while agricultural output only grows arithmetically (i.e. not enough food)
Sig: critics point to slowing population and agricultural revolutions
Ester Boserup
Def: argues that as societies will find ways to feed growing populations (additional land, technology)
Sig: challenges neo-Malthusians
Crude Birth Rate
Def: number of babies born in a population per 1,000 people [births/total pop. x 10]

Ex: MDC = 10, LDC=25+, World=20
Crude Death Rate
Def: number of deaths in a population per 1,000 people

Ex: MDC=10, LDC=8, World=8
Natural Increase Rate
Def: CBR minus CDR. Divide it by 10 to make it a percentage. It doesn't include migration.
Ex: MDC=.1, LDC=1.7+, World=1.2
Doubling Time
Def: the amount of time before a population doubles (70 divided by the natural increase rate)
Ex: MDC=700 yrs, LDC=41+ yrs, World=58 yrs
Demographic Transition Model
Def: a model that helps us understand the change in population over time
Sig: populations rise as they develop and then stabilize (or even fall) once they're developed
Dependency Ratio
Def: the number of young and old compared to the working population (higher ratio puts pressure on society & hurts development)
Sig: MDCs with the elderly, LDCs with kids
Population Pyramids (4)
Def: visual representation of the age-sex ratio (correlated to stages of development &
Demographic Momentum
Def: the tendency for populations to continue to grow after it reaches or drops below replacement level (time lag until CDR catches up with CBR)
Ex: China's NI is .5 despite a 1.7 TFR
Infant & Child Mortality Rate
Def: deaths per 1,000 people (infant includes those from birth to age 1 & child is from age 1 to 5)
IM: MDC=5, LDC=45, World=41
Life Expectancy
Def: average number of years a person can expect to live at birth
Ex: MDC=78, LDC=66, World=70
Epidemiological Transition
Def: the tendency for societies to move from communicable to non communicable diseases as they move through the DTM
Sig: stages 1 & 2 (cholera), stages 3 & 4 (heart disease)
Antinatalist & Pronatalist Policy
AP: Gov't policy to limit population growth (e.g. China's One Child)
PP: Gov't policy to encourage pop. growth
Ex: China's "One Child" policy or India's sterilization policies (e.g. paid leave for mothers)