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Ch. 4 Nuclear Chemistry

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A positron is a particle emitted from the nucleus that has the same mass as a/an
electron but has a positive charge
Iodine-131 decays by beta emission to
xenon-131
When a gamma ray is emitted from the nucleus of an atom, the nuclear mass
remains the same
A wooden object from a prehistoric site has a carbon-14 activity of 10 counts per minute (cpm) compared to 40 cpm for new wood. If carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 years, what is the age of the wood?
11,500 years
The following symbol is called a/an °+e
positron
The most widely used medical isotope in nuclear medicine is
Tc-99m
Sodium-24 has a half-life of 15 hours. How many hours is three half-lives?
45 hours
What is the radiation particle used in the bombardment of nitrogen-14? ¹⁴₇N + ? → ¹⁴₆C + ¹₁H
neutron
Why is it important that radioisotopes used in diagnostic tests have short half-lives?
This minimizes the harmful side effects of the radiation
⁸⁵₃₈Sr has how many protons and neutrons?
38 protons and 47 neutrons
A person begins to suffer radiation sickness at exposure level of
100 rem
An imaging technique that detects the energy emitted by hydrogen atoms in a magnetic field is known as
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
The damaging effects of radiation on the body are a result of
the formation of unstable ions or radicals in the body
Krypton-79 has a half-life of 35 hours. How many half-lives have passed after 105 hours?
3 half-lives
Radium-226 decays by alpha emission to
radon-222
One symptom of mild radiation sickness is
a lowered white cell count
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have
the same atomic numbers but different numbers of neutrons
The half-life of a radioisotope is
the time it takes for one-half of the sample to decay
Gamma rays require the heaviest shielding of all the common types of nuclear radiation because gamma rays have the
highest energy
An imaging technique in which a computer monitors the degree of absorption of X-ray beams is known as
computerized tomography (CT)
In the sun, nuclei of hydrogen combine to form a larger nucleus and release a great amount of energy. This process is known as
fusion
²₄He.
The above nuclear symbol of helium is also the symbol for designating a/an
alpha particle
When a positron is emitted from the nucleus of an atom, the nuclear mass
remains the same
The symbol; ⁰₋e is a symbol used for a/an
beta particle
The half-life of Bromine-74 is 25 min. How much of a 4.0 mg sample is still active after 75 min?
0.50 mg
When an alpha particle is emitted from the nucleus of an atom, the nuclear mass
decreases by four units
When an atom of Uranium-235 is bombarded with neutrons, it splits into smaller nuclei and produces a great amount of energy. This nuclear process is called
fission
Which of the following is suitable as a minimum shielding for beta particles?
gloves
Which of the following types of radiation has the highest energy?
y-rays
Gamma rays may be detected using
all answers are correct
Iodine-123, which is used for diagnostic imaging in the thyroid, has a half-life of 13 hours. If 50.0 mg of I-123 were prepared at 8:00 a.m. on Monday, how many mg remain at 10:00 a.m. on the following day?
12.5 mg
The common unit of radioactivity used to measure the biological damage is called
rem
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