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47 terms

DNA and RNA

DNA and RNA
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Transformation
Process in which one strain of bacteria changes into another
Bacteriophage
Virus that infects and kills bacteria
Helix
Shape formed by each strand of DNA
Replication
Process in which DNA makes a copy of itself
DNA polymerase
The principal enzyme involved in DNA replication
Histone
Protein that DNA wraps around in eukaryotic chromosomes
Promoter
Signal in DNA that indicates to enzymes where to bind to make RNA
Introns
Sections of RNA molecules that are removed before a eukaryotic gene becomes functional
Codon
Three nucleotides that specify a single amino acid to be added to a polypeptide
Mutation
A change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information
Expressed gene
Gene that in transcribed into RNA
Operon
A group of genes that is operated together
mRNA
tRNA
rRNA
A _____ is made up of three parts: a deoxyribose molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
Nucleotide
The principle of _______ states that hydrogen bonds can form only between certain bases in DNA.
Base pairing
Genetic information is altered when changes in the DNA sequence, called _________ occur.
Mutations
Changes in the DNA of a single gene are called ________.
Point mutations
The DNA sequence of an entire chromosome is affected be a(an) __________.
Frameshift mutation
Deletion
One part of a DNA sequence disappears
Duplication
A segment of a DNA is duplicated
Inversion
An entire section of DNA is reversed
Translocation
The movement of a gene fragment from one chromosomal location to another
Anticodon
Nucleotides in the tRNA
Nucleotide
The basic unit of a nucleic acid
Ribosome
A protein producing molecule
Transcription
mRNA is produced to take the DNA code to the ribosome
Translation
tRNA reads codon sequence and carries appropriate amino acids to the ribosomes
Purines
Adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines
Cytosine and thymine
The shape of DNA is a________.
Double helix
The shape of mRNA is a__________.
SIngle strand
The shape of tRNA is a _________.
Cloverleaf
___________ make up the structure of DNA.
Nucleotides
Recombinant DNA
Splicing a foreign gene into the DNA of an organism
Plasmid
Extra strand of double stranded DNA found in bacteria
The steps of the transformation of bacteria are:
1) Isolate gene of interest 2) Use a restriction enzyme 3) Open up the plasmid with the restriction enzyme 4) Insert the plasmid into the bacteria
Selective breeding
The intentional breeding of organisms with desirable trait in an attempt to produce offspring with similar desirable characteristics or with improved traits
Inbreeding
The mating of two closely related persons. Also called consanguinity. The act of mating closely related individuals.The mating of organisms between relatives, which usually decreases heterozygosity in the gene pool and done by selective breeders to produce hybrids
Hershey and Chase tried to see if______.
It was the DNA in a virus (a bacteriophage) or the virus' protein coat that entered the bacteria and destroyed it. They found that the protein contained no phosphorus and the DNA contained no sulfur. The DNA did contain phosphorus though, and when the virus was injected into the bacteria, all the radioactivity was phosphorus.
Griffith's experiment was to see___________:
How bacteria make people sick: He discovered smooth colonies (diseased) and rough colonies (harmless) and discovered the idea of transformation
Avery's experiment took Griffiths one step forward by ______.
Finding that DNA stores and transmits information to the other bacteria colonies
Chargaff discovered
the percentage of guanine => cytosine the percentage of adenine => thymine
Chargaff's rule
Adenine and thymine always match up and guanine and cytosine always match up.
James Watson and Francis Crick discovered___________.
The structure of DNA
DNA fingerprinting
taking genes from someones fingerprints