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Process in which one strain of bacteria changes into another


Virus that infects and kills bacteria


Shape formed by each strand of DNA


Process in which DNA makes a copy of itself

DNA polymerase

The principal enzyme involved in DNA replication


Protein that DNA wraps around in eukaryotic chromosomes


Signal in DNA that indicates to enzymes where to bind to make RNA


Sections of RNA molecules that are removed before a eukaryotic gene becomes functional


Three nucleotides that specify a single amino acid to be added to a polypeptide


A change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information

Expressed gene

Gene that in transcribed into RNA


A group of genes that is operated together

A _____ is made up of three parts: a deoxyribose molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.


The principle of _______ states that hydrogen bonds can form only between certain bases in DNA.

Base pairing

Genetic information is altered when changes in the DNA sequence, called _________ occur.


Changes in the DNA of a single gene are called ________.

Point mutations

The DNA sequence of an entire chromosome is affected be a(an) __________.

Frameshift mutation


One part of a DNA sequence disappears


A segment of a DNA is duplicated


An entire section of DNA is reversed


The movement of a gene fragment from one chromosomal location to another


Nucleotides in the tRNA


The basic unit of a nucleic acid


A protein producing molecule


mRNA is produced to take the DNA code to the ribosome


tRNA reads codon sequence and carries appropriate amino acids to the ribosomes


Adenine and guanine


Cytosine and thymine

The shape of DNA is a________.

Double helix

The shape of mRNA is a__________.

SIngle strand

The shape of tRNA is a _________.


___________ make up the structure of DNA.


Recombinant DNA

Splicing a foreign gene into the DNA of an organism


Extra strand of double stranded DNA found in bacteria

The steps of the transformation of bacteria are:

1) Isolate gene of interest 2) Use a restriction enzyme 3) Open up the plasmid with the restriction enzyme 4) Insert the plasmid into the bacteria

Selective breeding

The intentional breeding of organisms with desirable trait in an attempt to produce offspring with similar desirable characteristics or with improved traits


The mating of two closely related persons. Also called consanguinity. The act of mating closely related individuals.The mating of organisms between relatives, which usually decreases heterozygosity in the gene pool and done by selective breeders to produce hybrids

Hershey and Chase tried to see if______.

It was the DNA in a virus (a bacteriophage) or the virus' protein coat that entered the bacteria and destroyed it. They found that the protein contained no phosphorus and the DNA contained no sulfur. The DNA did contain phosphorus though, and when the virus was injected into the bacteria, all the radioactivity was phosphorus.

Griffith's experiment was to see___________:

How bacteria make people sick: He discovered smooth colonies (diseased) and rough colonies (harmless) and discovered the idea of transformation

Avery's experiment took Griffiths one step forward by ______.

Finding that DNA stores and transmits information to the other bacteria colonies

Chargaff discovered

the percentage of guanine => cytosine the percentage of adenine => thymine

Chargaff's rule

Adenine and thymine always match up and guanine and cytosine always match up.

James Watson and Francis Crick discovered___________.

The structure of DNA

DNA fingerprinting

taking genes from someones fingerprints

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