21 terms

Nervous System

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Neuron
A nerve cell
Axon
Long projection that carries information away from the neuron cell body
Dendrite
Extensions of the neuron cell body that receive information from other neurons
Action Potential
Electrical signals to transmit information
Neurotransmitter
Chemicals that cause electrical activity in a neuron
Synapse
Junctions between two neurons
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Neurons outside the central nervous system that connect the brain to the rest of the body
Cerebrum
The largest portion of the brain with a highly folded outer layer and two hemispheres
Brain stem
The link between the cerebrum and spinal cord that relays information entering and exiting the brain
Cerebellum
Coordinates skeletal muscle action
Nerve
Bundled axons and dendrites outside the central nervous system
Sensory receptor
A neuron specialized to detect a stimulus
Motor neurons
A neuron that carries information from the central nervous system to muscles and glands
Interneurons
Neurons that relay information between other neurons
Somatic Nervous System
The system of motor neurons that control the movement of skeletal muscles
Reflex
Involuntary movements that are usually self-protective
Autonomic Nervous System
The system that controls internal body conditions
Sympathetic Division
Controls "fight or flight" responses
Parasympathetic Division
Controls "rest and digest" functions
Sense organs
Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and skin