60 terms

A.P. U.S. Government Important Supreme Court Cases and Amendment

This is basically important stuff from the Princeton review book. all states are abreviated without punctuation all cases are v. not vs.
Schenck v. US
clear and present danger for 1st amendment speech
Griswold v. CT
implied right to privacy (about contraceptives)
Mapp v. Ohio
exclusionary rule (no improperly obtained evidence)
Smith v. Allwright
African Americans must be allowed to vote in primary
Wesberry v. Sanders
One man one vote doctrine about district lines (for congress)
Buckley v. Valeo
campaign donations are a form a free speech (case that weakened FECA)
Reynolds v. Sims
voting districts must be roughly equal in population (for state bicameral legislatures)
Shaw v. Reno; Miller v. Johnson
can't use race to draw district lines
Marbury v. Madison
established judicial review (about madision putting in midnight judges right before he left office)
Fletcher v. Peck
judicial review for states
McCulloch v. MD
states can't tax national banks; congress can charter a bank
Gibbons v. Ogden
NY can't control interstate waterway; interstate commerce
Gideon v. Wainwright
incorporated the right to counsel (have a lawyer)
Gitlow v. New York
freedom of speech limited with bad tendency rule
Tinker v. Des Moines
students have freedom of speech in schools; clothing is freedom of speech as well
Texas v. Johnson
flag burning is protected speech
Miller v. CA
3 Part Obscenity Test: 1. normal person would think it's very sexual 2. how much artisitc value it has 3. has offensive sexual depictions
New York Times v. US
limited government's ability/reasons to keep the press from printing information (over the Pentagon Papers)
Boyscouts v. Dale
since it's private group, membership can be discriminated based on sexual orientation
Engel v. Vitale
no state-sanctioned prayer in schools
Epperson v. AR
no banning schools from teaching evolution (religious endorsement/entanglement)
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Lemon Test: 1. action has secular purpose 2. no effect for or against a certain religion 3. no excessive government entanglement
Miranda v. AZ
inform suspect of their rights before arresting them (or else there is self-incrimination, something protected against in the constitution)
Furman v. GA
temporarily suspended all death penalties until a less arbitrary policy was presented
Gregg v. GA
presented a specific system for deciding on death penalty as a sentence so death penalty sentencing resumed
Atkins v. VA
no capital punishment for the mentally retarded
Roe v. Wade
choice for abortion protected as right to privacy; banned any extreme limits that place undue difficulty to get abortion
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
allows stricter abortion limitations
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
woman doesn't have to tell husband first but the other 2 parts of the law--24 hour wiating period and parental consent for minors--upheld
Lawrence v. TX
struck down law criminalizing sodomy
Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. US
hotels and etc. count as public accomodation and can't discriminate
University of California Regents v. Bakke
can't have affirmative action plan based on quotas
Korematsu v. US
upheld executive orders for internment camps
US v. Nixon
executive priviledge does not apply to criminal cases
Clinton v. NY
no line-item vetoes
religion (free exercise; establishment), speech, press, assembly, petition
right to bear arms
protection against unreasonable search and seizure
justice system: grand jury for criminal cases, no double jeopardy, no self incrimination, due process of law, eminent domain
right to a speedy trial, habeas corpus, a lawyer, and to subpoena witnesses
no excessive bail and no cruel and unusual punishment
any right not mentioned in the Constitution goes to the people or the states (way to assure Federalists the Bill of Rights doesn't define the only rights we have)
states have all powers not given to the federal government unless those powers conflict with federal laws or the Constitution
states can't be sued by people from outside the state without the state's consent
in the elctoral college, one vote for president, one vote for vice president
prohibited slavery
guaranteed rights to everyone, incorporation
all men can vote
progressive income tax
direct election of US senators
prohibition (no alcohol)
gave women the vote
set when presidents' terms begin and inauguration (there had been problems with the psace in between each president)
abolished the Prohibition
only two terms per president
D.C. can vote for president and has electoral votes
no poll tax
rules for presidential succession and also removing president from office
the voting age is 18
when congress raises its pay, they don't get paid more until after the next election