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The first line of defense includes...
Epidermis and mucosa, secretions (mucus, saliva, lacrimal, etc.), and normal microbiota on the skin and mucosa
The epidermis and mucosa are...
A good barrier when intact and have ciliated cells (lower respiratory)
Normal microbiota on skin and mucosa...
Colonize niches; out-compete pathogens, disease may result if killed (antibiotics, etc.)
The second line of defense includes...
Inflammatory mediators (bradykinin, histamine, etc.) and complement
Alter blood flow, capillary permeability, etc., and attract phagocytic WBC's by chemotaxis
Later, efficient killers and eaters, release toxic forms of oxygen (NO, nitric oxide), produce interleukins (IL); enhance response
Cell-mediated response (cell-to-cell contact), Kills MO's and regulate immune response, Remove abnormal or virus-infected cells
Antigens are injected; MO's (weakened or dead), components, neutralize toxins; Stimulates immune response (B cells, T cells, and memory cells)
DPT (Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus)
Contains cells fragments from Bordetella pertussisi and toxoids made from Diptheria and Tetanus exotoxins
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