Dr. Morelli investigates how gene activity is regulated within a cell, including what signals switch genes "on" or "off." In general, she is interested in the mechanisms that control gene expression and its effect on behavior and health. Her area of research is called ___________
Most developmental psychologists today agree that:
The quality of day care is the critical factor that determines whether day care produces beneficial or detrimental effects
Amrita believes that gender roles develop because young children observe others modeling particular gender-appropriate behaviors. She also thinks that children are rewarded when they behave accordingly and are punished when they don't. Amrita's views are most consistent with the __________ of gender-role development
Social Learning Theory
According to Erik Erikson's theory, the key psychosocial task facing adolescents is:
identity versus role confusion
Which of the following statements accurately describes cognitive functioning in healthy adults who are 60 to 70 years old?
There is little or no decline in cognitive ability, especially in adults who are physically and mentally active
Researchers Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess:
Found that most infants can be classified as having one of three basic temperament patterns
Tanisha is a normal infant who learned to walk at age 11 months. She has just celebrated her first birthday. Although she hasn't started talking yet, its very likely that Tanisha will shortly enter the _______ stage of language development
According to _______, every baby comes into the world with an innate ability to understand the basic principles of language organization.
The _______ style of parenting is associated with a wide variety of long-term psychological and behavioral benefits in the development of children
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Women who have multiple, satisfying, and positive roles, but are nonetheless juggling career, marriage, and family responsibilities, are almost certain to experience the very highest levels of stress
In general, the greatest vulnerability to teratogens occurs during:
The embryonic period of prenatal development
Which of the following is NOT a valid criticism of Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
Researchers have been unable to replicate most of Piaget's observations or findings
Universal moral principles are to the _______ level as law and order are to the _______ level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development
On the table were two pieces of string that were identical in length. As Markus watched, one string was rearranged in a circular pattern. Markus then confidently said that the straight piece of string was longer. Markus is:
Displaying cognitive abilities that are typical of the pre-operational level
Which of the following is the correct term for a segment of DNA that encodes the formula for a particular protein molecule?
According to the development psychologist Jerome Kagan, there are two broad tempermental patterns, which are:
High-reactive and low_reactive
A group of 5 year old children are shown pictures of children engaged in activities that violate common gender stereotypes, such as girls playing with toy vehicles and boys playing with dolls. If the children are questioned a few days later, gender schema theory would predict that they:
will tend to recall having seen the boys playing with trucks and cars and the girls playing with dolls
Nine year old Faith patiently helped her four year old brother, Cole, learn how to fold a piece of paper and cut it to make a paper snow flake. This example illustrates which of the following?
Vygotsky's zone of proximal development
Sexual characteristics that develop during puberty and differentiate between the sexes but are not directly involved in reproduction, such as male facial hair and female breast development, are called:
Secondary sex characteristics
Which cultural values are reflected in the US custom of putting infants to sleep in a separate room from their parents?
The need to be independent and self-reliant
Rene Baillargeon has conducted research on the cognitive abilities of very young infants. Baillargeon's research is based on which of the following premises?
Infants will notice and pay attention to events that violate their expectations
In adolescence, negative and stressful family relationships, including absence of the biological father, are associated with:
Earlier puberty and accelerated physical development in both boys and girls
Mark and Mathew are identical twins who developed from a single zygote and share identical DNA. Nevertheless, as they develop, differences in physical and psychological characteristics become evident. These differences are due to ________
Henry and Heidi are proud new parents. Based on the information in Figure 9.3 of the text you can predict that Lauren, their new baby, will most likely:
Be able to roll over before she will be able to sit without support
What changes take place as the human brain matures over the adolescent years into early adulthood?
Unused neurons and neuronal connections are pruned
While writing a paper on the development of moral reasoning, Hugh read that there is not much evidence to support Carol Gilligan's idea that men and women have entirely different approaches to moral reasoning. However, he found that there is empirical evidence that:
Men and women use a mix of both the ethic of individual rights and justice and the ethic of care and responsibility
Parents who explain the reasons for insisting that their children behave in a certain way, including the consequences and effects of misbehavior, are using a form of discipline called:
_______ is to acute stress as _______ is to prolonged stress.
Fight or Flight response; general adaptation syndrome
As compared to members of individualistic cultures, members of collectivistic cultures are more likely to ______ to cope with stress
Seek social support and use emotion-focused coping strategies
The relationship between psychological factors and illness, stress, and coping are all topics that are studied in the field of _______ psychology, which is guided by the ________ model
Health psychology; biopsychosocial
Brenda forgot to set her alarm clock, overslept, missed her train, and was late to work. When she got to her office, she realized that she'd left the power adapter for her laptop at home. By afternoon, Brenda had a mountain of work on her desk and a tension headache. Brenda's high level of stress:
Can be best explained as the cumulative effect of daily hassels
Psychologis Janice Kiecolt-Glaser is known for:
Research demonstrating that even minor stressors, such as taking exams, can reduce the effectiveness of immune system functioning
Research has generally found that people who have many friends, a large social network, and a frequent contact with others are:
Less likely to develop a serious illness than people who have few contacts with others
Walter Cannon identified an endocrine pathway involving the ______ in the stress response, and Hans Selye identified an endocrine pathway involving the ______ in the stress response
Adrenal medulla; Adrenal cortex
Investigating the relationship between stress and susceptibility to the common cold, psychologist Sheldon Cohen and his colleagues found that
the higher a person's level of stress, the higher rate of respiratory infections and colds
Which of the following are the four emotion-focused coping strategies discussed in the text book?
denial, distancing, seeking social support, and positive reappraisal
You know that your friend Jeffrey's wife has left him and that his company has just been bought out by a big corporation, meaning that his job is in jeopardy. You stop over at Jeffrey's apartment after work one evening and notice that he is gulpin coffee and chain-smoking cigarettes. He explains that the stress is getting to him and that he's had trouble sleeping. Because you've read the advice in "Minimizing the Effects of Stress," you know that common stimulants like nicotine and caffeine:
Should be avoided, because they cause physiological arousal and will only increase his feelings of nervousness and stress
According to Martin Seligman, people who use stable, internal, and global explanations for negative events:
Have a pessimistic explanatory style
Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in the effects of social support TRUE?
Women are more likely to suffer from the stress contagion effect
According to the textbook's suggestions for providing effective social support, you are most likely to be perceived as helpful if you:
Ask questions in a way that encourages the other person to express his or her feelings and emotions
Prolonged stress, or chronic stress, triggers the production of _____ by the ______.
Corticosteroids; adrenal cortex
Mary has a large and diverse network of social relationships. She may be potentially vulnerable to some of the problematic aspects of social support because:
Women in general are more likely than men to suffer from the stress contagion effect
According to psychologist Shelley Taylor, the hormone _____ is higher in females than males and may promote the ______ response to threats
People in collectivistic cultures tend to use _______ and people in individualistic cultures tend to use ________.
Problem focused coping strategies; emotion focused coping strategies
When you are confronted with a threatening event, you will experience stress if:
You think you are unable to cope with the event or situation
_____ discovered that the immune system could be affected by psychological processes, such as classical conditioning, launching the field of _______.
Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen; psychoneuroimmunology
Gertrud participated in a research study at her nursing home where she was given many choices over her daily activities, including what to eat, which activities to attend, and so forth. According to research by Judith Rodin and Ellen Langer, Gertrud is likely to:
be healthier than nursing home residents in a matched control group who were not given the opportunity to make choices about their daily activities
After Clarissa broke her foot durin a karate tournament, her friend Emma drover her to the clinic for doctor's appointments, brought her home-cooked meals and groceries, helped her make up the class work she'd missed, and called her at least once a day just to keep Clarissa's spirits up. Emma is:
providing tangible AND emotional social support
Walter Cannon identified an endocrine pathway involving the ____ in the stress response, and Hans Selye identified an endocrine pathway involving the ____ in the stress response.
Adrenal Medulla; Adrenal Cortex
According to your text, which pattern of adaptation is taken by the person who lacks cultural and psychological contact with both her traditional cultural group and her new, adopted culture?
A PET scan study that was featured in the Focus on Neuroscience box demonstrated that a placebo painkiller:
activates the same brain areas as genuine painkillers
According to Martin Seligman, people who exhibit _____ are more likely to ______
An optimistic explanatory style; be healthier and persist despite setbacks
According to your text, which of the following is the BEST definition of stress?
a negative emotional state that occurs when events are perceived as exceeding a person's resources or ability to cope
Angie's husband Hal was badly injured in a motorcycle accident. For the first few weeks after the accident, Angie spent virtually every waking hour at the hospital as Hal hovered between life and death in intensive care. Angie seemed to be handling the stress well. At this point, Angie is probably in the ____ stage of the _____.
Resistance stage of the general adaptation syndrome
Regarding the Type A behavior pattern, most health psychologists today would agree that:
A sense of hostility is strongly linked to the development of heart disease, while time urgency, competitiveness, and achievement motivation are not
describes the symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for more than 300 different specific psychological disorders
In the months following her graduation from college, Amber has grappled with feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness, and despair. In the last several weeks, these feelings have intensified, and Amber has withdrawn from all interaction with her friends and family. Based on this short description, it would appear that Amber is:
experiencing major depression
______ is a medication that is commonly used to help control the symptoms of bipolar disorder
One theory of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is that some children are born with a biologically sensitive temperament that makes them more vulnerable to develop the disorder, especially when they are raised by caregivers who do not teach them how to control their impulsiveness or help them to learn how to understand, regulate, and appropriately express their emotions. This theory is called:
The biosocial developmental theory of BPD
Which of the following statements is TRUE
Of the different categories of people portrayed on television shows, people with psychological disorders are the most stigmatized
Agoraphobia is a type of specific phobia characterized by the intense fear of:
having a panic attack in a situation in which the person would be unable to escape or get help
According to one explanation, dissociative identity disorder:
represents a way to cope with extreme abuse or trauma that occurred during childhood
Although he has never told anyone about the thoughts, Russ is often troubled by vivid and gory mental images of cutting and stabbing the person with whom he is talking. Although he tries to suppress the thoughts, they keep coming back to him. Russ's symptoms are an example of:
A person who feels driven to perform repetitive behaviors in a particular sequence or pattern in order to reduce anxiety is said to be experiencing:
About _______ of people who experience an initial episode of schizophrenia will develop a chronic, ongoing form of the disease that severely impairs their ability to function
Which of the following statements is true?
When major depression recurs, them symptoms tend to increase in severity
Compared to the spring months, during the winder months the number of suicide in the United States:
is at its lowest rate
A(n) ______ is a brief, sudden, uncontrollable episode of acute anxiety and fear that rapidly escalates in intensity and usually includes physical symptoms like a pounding heart, rapid breathing, trembling, and feeling as if you are choking or cannot breathe
Which of the following statements about the Jerusalem syndrom is true?
Most people who experience symptoms of the Jerusalem syndrome have a prior history of serious psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder
As a toddler, Sean's language development was seriously delayed. As he grew older, it became clear that his social and communication skills were severely impaired. He often sits in the corner of his room, rocking back and forth, lost in his own inner world. When he plays, he exhibits an intense preoccupation with mechanical toys. Sean appears to be displaying qualities that characterize
Dr. Zink explains to his patient Dave about his attacks when walking up stairs
Catastrophic congitions theory of panic disorder
Eating disorder in which the individual refuses to maintain a minimally normal body weight and afraid of gaining weight or becoming fat, and has a distorted perception about the size of his or her body is called _______
In terms of suicidal behavior, one consistent gender difference is that:
men outnumber women in suicide deaths
Viral infection theory of schizophrenia
contends that the development of schizophrenia is related to exposure to the flu virus during prenatal development or early infancy
Which of the following statments about social phobia is true?
more women than men experience social phobia