Articles of Confederation
Goal that was clearly expressed was a limit on the power of the national government. This document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
British Colony of Virginia in the 17th Century
It was disctive because it had a popularly elected legislature.
The Appalachian Plateau
Was one of the regions of the South that had the strongest pro-Union sentiments at the outbreak of the Civil War.
Stamp Act of 1765
Primarily intended on paying for the military defense of the colonies. Parilament required that all revenue stamps be affixed to all colonial printed matter.
White men of middle income
A group that gained the most political power as a result of the American Revolution.
Were opposed to the ratification of the Constitution because it lacked a bill of rights. Opponents of the Constitution who saw it as a limitation on individual and states' rights, their demands led to the addition of the a Bill of Rights to the document.
William Lloyd Garrison
Was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, voluntaryist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, he promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States.
Was an American abolitionist, who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to end all slavery. He led the Pottawatomie Massacre in 1856 in Bleeding Kansas and made his name in the unsuccessful raid at Harpers Ferry in 1859.
American abolitionist, women's suffragist, editor, orator, author, statesman, minister and reformer. Escaping from slavery, he made strong contributions to the abolitionist movement, and achieved a public career that led to his being called "The Sage of Anacostia" and "The Lion of Anacostia". Is one of the most prominent figures in African American and United States history.
The Gilded Age
Refers to the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction era of the late 19th century (1865-1901). Is most famous for the creation of a modern industrial economy. Characterized by robber barrons, panics, and political corruption.
Migration to the trans-Mississipppi southwest
Increased scale of cotton production during the 1830s and 1840s in the United States.
Was a movement in western Europe and the Americas to end the slave trade and set slaves free. The slave system aroused little protest until the 18th century,
John Mercer Langston
Was an American abolitionist, attorney, educator, and political activist. Together with his older brothers Gideon and Charles, he became active in the Abolitionist movement. He helped runaway slaves to escape to the North along the Ohio part of the Underground Railroad. In 1858 he and Charles partnered in leading the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society.
Favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants. Typically means opposition to immigration or efforts to lower the political or legal status of specific ethnic or cultural groups because the groups are considered hostile or alien to the natural culture, and it is assumed that they cannot be assimilated.
Is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). In other words, it asserts both of the following: Non-interventionism & Protectionism
Political rulers should avoid entangling alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense.
There should be legal barriers to control trade and cultural exchange with people in other states.
Is a social movement against the use of alcoholic beverages. Its movements may criticize excessive alcohol use, promote complete abstinence, or pressure the government to enact anti-alcohol legislation.
Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 - December 6, 1889
Was an American military officer, statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as the president of the Confederate States of America for its entire history, 1861 to 1865.
A Century of Dishonor (1881), by Helen Hunt Jackson,
Chronicles the experiences of Native Americans in the United States, focusing on examples of injustices.
The Last of the Mohicans, James Fenimore Cooper,
The story takes place in 1757, during the French and Indian War (the Seven Years' War), when France and Great Britain battled for control of the North American colonies. During this war, the French called on allied Native American tribes to fight with the more numerous British colonists.
He was a leader of the Mingo Indians. He was a war leader but often urged his fellow natives not to attack whites settling in the Ohio Country. His attitude changed on May 3, 1774, when a group of Virginia settlers murdered approximately one dozen Mingos. Among them were his mother and sister. He demanded that the Mingos and their allies, principally the Shawnee Indians, take revenge for the deaths of his loved ones. He wrote a famous speech and sent it to the English, refusing to come to negotiate peace.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe which inspired people in the North to join antislavery campaigns.
United States and Mexico War in 1846
Was sparked by the factor of a continuing dispute over the southern boundary of Texas.
Dominant agricultural model in the post-Civil War South. Is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (e.g., 50% of the crop).
Is a large farm or estate, usually in a tropical or subtropical country, where crops are grown for sale in distant markets, rather than for local consumption. Dominated southern agriculture from the mid-eighteenth century to the Civil War. These large farms, employing twenty or more slaves, produced staple crops (cotton, rice, tobacco) for domestic and foreign markets.
The Sedition Act of 1918
Imposed harsh punishments for expressing ideas disloyal to the United States.
This group came to the United States between 1815 and 1860 because it was attracted to the availability of inexpensive land and higher wages.
Interstate Commerce Commision
Former independent agency of the U.S. government, established in 1887; it was charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states. Surface transportation under the it's jurisdiction included railroads, trucking companies, bus lines, freight forwarders, water carriers, oil pipelines, transportation brokers, and express agencies. After his election in 1904, Theodore Roosevelt demonstrated support of progressive reforms by strengthening this.
Northern Securities Company
Was an important United States railroad trust formed in 1902 by E. H. Harriman, James J. Hill, J.P. Morgan, J. D. Rockefeller, and their associates. The company controlled the Northern Pacific Railway, Great Northern Railway, Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, and other associated lines. The company was sued in 1902 under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 by President Theodore Roosevelt; one of the first anti-trust cases filed against corporate interests instead of labor.
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
Requires the United States Federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies and organizations suspected of violating the Act. It was the first Federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies, and today still forms the basis for most antitrust litigation by the United States federal government. However, for the most part, politicians were unwilling to use the law until Theodore Roosevelt's Presidency (1901-1908). The purpose of the act was to oppose the combination of entities that could potentially harm competition, such as monopolies or cartels.
INS- (Immigration and Naturalization Service)
Protected and enforced the laws of naturalization, the process by which a foreign-born person becomes a citizen. It also tackled illegal entrance into the United States, preventing receipt of benefits such as social security or unemployment by those ineligible to receive them, and investigated, detained, and deported those illegally living in the United States.
Herbert Hover's initial response to the Great Depression
Voluntary measures by businesses and private relief efforts.
W. E. B. Du Bois
An American civil rights activist. He became the head of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910, becoming founder and editor of the NAACP's journal The Crisis. He rose to national attention in his opposition of Booker T. Washington's ideas of social integration between whites and blacks, campaigning instead for increased political representation for blacks in order to guarantee civil rights, and the formation of a Black elite that would work for the progress of the African American race. He was willing to form alliances with progressive White Americans in pursuit of civil rights.
Inspired by what he heard he returned to Jamaica and established the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and published the pamphlet, The Negro Race and Its Problems. He was influenced by the ideas of Booker T. Washington and made plans to develop a trade school for the poor similar to the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.
Was co-founder and leader of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, an African-American organization established to promote Black Power, civil rights and self-defense.
Was an African-American Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans
Taft Hartley Act (1947)
Passed over President Harry Truman's veto, the law contained a number of provisions to weaken labor unions, including the banning of closed shops. It imposed a federally mandated "cooling-off period" on strikes judged to endanger national security.
The New Deal
Was a series of economic programs passed by Congress during the first term of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States, from 1933 to his reelection in 1937. The programs were responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the 3 Rs: relief, recovery and reform. It attempted to improve the economy through large-scale spending on relief and reform.
Gibbons v. Ogden, (1824)
Was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled against the State of New York's gathering of steamboat monopolies.
Miranda v. Arizona ( 1966 )
U.S. Supreme Court decision required police to advise persons in custody of their rights to legal counsel and agaisnt self-incrimination.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
U.S. Supreme Court decision gauranteeing legal counsel for indigent felony defendents.
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
Was a United States Supreme Court case holding that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the Sixth Amendment.
Social reform movement of the nineteenth century driven by the belief that by establishing small communities based on common ownership of property, a less competitive and individualistic society could be developed.
Term describing decline of manufacturing in old industrial areas in the late twentieth century as companies shifted production to low wage centers in the South and West or in other countries.
The First Great Awakening
Fervent religious revival movement in the 1720s through the 40s that was spread throughout the colonies by ministers like New England Congregationalist Jonathan Edwards and English revivalist George Whitefield. Was a period of heightened religious activity in the British North American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s.
Anti-modernist Protest movement started in the early twentieth century that proclaimed the literal truth of the Bible, the name came from the Fundamentals, published by conservative leaders.
Term that entered the language in the 1820s to describe the increasing emphasis on the pursuit of personal advancement and private fulfillment free of oustide interference.
Treaty with Britain negotitated in 1794 by Chief Justice John Jay; Britain agreed to vacate forts in the Northwest Territories, and festering disagreements (border with Canada, prewar debts, shipping claims) would be settled by commission.
Indian Removal Act ( 1830 )
Signed by President Andrew Jackson, the law premitted the negotiation of treaties to obtain the Indians' lands in exchange for their relocation to what would become Oklahoma.
Originally, political philosophy that emphasized the protection of liberty by limiting power of government interference with the natural rights of citizens; in the twentieth century, belief in an activist government promoting greater social and economic equality.
Phrase first used in 1845 to urge annexation of Texas used thereafter to encourage American settlement of European colonial and Indian lands in the Great Plains and the West and, more generally, as justification for American empire.
Policy of Great Britain and other imperial powers of regulating the economies of colonies to benefit the mother country.
U.S. program for the reconstruction of post-World War II Europe through massive aid to former enemy nations as well as allies.
Led the most important slave uprising in nineteenth-century America. The rebellion he led killed about sixty white people in Virginia in 1831.
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Memorandum written in 1854 from Ostend, Beligium, by the U.S. mininsters to England, France, and Spain recommending purchase or seizure of Cuba in order to increase the United States lave holding territory.
Broad-based reform movement, 1900-1917, that sought governmental action in solving problems in many areas of American life, including education, public health, the economy, the environment, labor, transportation, and politics.
Late-eighteenth-century liberal offshoot of the New England Congregationalist Church; rejecting the Trinity, It professed the oneness of God and the goodness of rational man.
Townshend Acts (1767)
Parliamentary measures (named for the chancellor of the Exchequer) that taxed tea and other commodities, and established a Board of Custom Commisioners and colonial vice-admiralty courts.
President James Monroe's declaration to Congress on December 2, 1823, that the American continents would thenceforth closed to European colonization, and that the U.S. would not interfere in European affairs.
Writers who exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, child labor and more. Primarily in the 20th century, their popular books and magazine articles spurred public interest in reform.
Montgomery bus boycott
Sparked by Rosa Park's arrest on December 1, 1955, for refusing to surrender her seat to a while passenger, a successful year-long boycott protesting segragation on city buses; led by the Reverend Marin Luther King.
Republican term for northerners opposed to the Civil War; it derived from the name of a poisonous snake.
General U.S. strategy in the Cold War that called for containing Soviet expansion; originally devised by U.S. dipolomat George Kennan.
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, the machine separated cotton seeds from cotton fiber, speeding cotton processing and making profitable the cultivation of the more hardy, led to the dramatic nineteenth century expansion of slavery in the South.
Leader of England during the American revolutionary war and was blamed for the loss of the 13 colonies.
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained." Lawyer who defended British soldiers in the Boston Massacre trial.
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Britain was facing serious debt issues, and was in danger of a destabilized economy. These were a series of acts designed to tax the colonies, which included the Stamp Act (1765), Quartering Act (1765), currency act (1764), Declatory Act (1766), and Revenue act (1764).
In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Proclomation of 1763
Law created by British officials that prohibited colonists from settling in areas west of the Appalachian Mountains
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
The first military engagement of the Revolutionary War. It occurred on April 19, 1775, when British soldiers fired into a much smaller body of minutemen on Lexington green.
Treaty of Paris
Agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry
The Federalist Papers
Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists
The Dawes Act
Passed by Congress in 1887. Its purpose was to Americanize the Native Americans. The act broke up the reservations, gave some of the land to Native Americans. The government was to sell the remainder to white settlers and use the income from that sale for Native Americans to buy farm equipment. But by 1932 white settlers had taken 2/3 of reservation territory, and Native Americans received no money from the sale of the reservations.
The Platt Ammendment
Platt Amendment (1901) Amendment to Cuban constitution that reserved the United States' right to intervene in Cuban affairs and forced newly independent Cuba to host American naval bases on the island.
Sensationalism in newspaper publishing that reached a peak in the circulation between Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst in 1890. Each newspaper's accounts events in Havana harbor in 1898 that led to the Spanish-American War.