Physics Unit Vocabulary
Terms in this set (59)
Anything that has the ability to make matter move or change. The ability to do work.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy changes from one form to another. The total energy of an object never changes.
The process of changing energy from one form to another
Energy that is stored in a system. It is energy that can be released to become kinetic or another form of energy.
The energy an object has because of its motion. Kinetic energy depends upon the mass and velocity of an object.
The energy an object has because of its motion or position ie the total amount of kinetic and potential energy in a system.
Energy caused by the movement of charged particles (Electrons). Easily transported through power lines and can be converted to other forms of energy.
Energy that is available for release from chemical reactions.
Energy that is stored in the nucleus of an atom.
Energy that comes from sources that do not pollute the earth.
The energy a substance has related to its temperature. The faster molecules move the more thermal energy they create. In every energy transfer - some energy is changed to thermal or heat energy.
The form of energy related to the movement of light, electromagnetic waves, or particles.
Energy created by the vibration of a material.
When the net force on an object is zero. There will be no change in the motion of the object. The object is either at rest or maintaining at a constant speed
A push or pull acting on an object.- they act in pairs.
A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching.
Usually defined as the force of attraction between two masses.
Force of attraction or repulsion exerted by a magnet.
Can be defined as mass in motion.
When the net force on an object is greater than zero. There will be a change in the motion of the object. An object at rest will begin to move, while an object already moving will change its speed and or direction.
A state of rest or balance due to opposite forces acting equally.
A force that makes a body follows a curved path.
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
The distance an object travels per unit of time.
Speed does not increase or decrease but remains fixed over time.
Speed in a given direction.
The line or course on which something is moving or is aimed to move or along which something is pointing or facing.
The point or area occupied by a physical object.
The degree or amount of separation between two points.
The steepness of a line or object. The formula for calculating this is
= Rise/ Run
The rate at which velocity changes.
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
Acceleration depends on the object's mass and on the net force acting on the object. F= M x A (Force = Mass x Acceleration)
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
The resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion. Also known as Newton's 1st law of motion.
A change in position
Is a place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion.
The overall rate of speed at which an object moves; calculated by dividing the total distance an object travels by the total time.
A unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second per second.
The overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on it are added together.
Friction that acts on objects that are not moving
Friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another.
Friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface.
Friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid.
The fluid friction experienced by objects falling through the air
The amount of matter in an object
The force exerted on a machine
The force exerted on an object by a machine.
Ideal mechanical advantage
A machine with an efficiency of 100%
Actual mechanical advantage
The measurement of mechanical advantage of a machine. It's always less than 100% because of work wasted due to friction.
Waves that carry electric or magnetic energy through outer space.
The percentage of the input work that is converted to output work.
Different distances traveled in equal times.
A circuit that only allows one path for energy to flow
A circuit that has 2 or more paths for energy to flow.
A simple machine that has a sloped, flat surface.
A simple machine that consists of a grooved wheel with a rope or cable wrapped around it.
A simple machine that consists of a rigid bar that pivots about a fixed point.
Wheel and axle
A simple machine that consists of two attached circular objects that rotate around a common axis.
A device that combines 2 or more simple machines.