ADHD is diagnosed more often in (boys/girls). In the past three decades, the proportion of American children being treated for this disorder (increased/decreased) dramatically. Experts (agree/do not agree) that ADHD is a real disorder.
boys; increased; agree
ADHD (is/is not) thought by some to be heritable, and it (is/is not) caused by eating too much sugar or poor schools.
ADHD is often accompanied by a __ disorder or with behavior that is ___ or temper-prone.
The view that psychological disorders are sicknesses is the basis of the ___ model. According to this view, psychological disorders are viewed as mental ___, or ___, diagnosed on the basis of ___ and cured through ___.
One of the first reformers to advocate this position and call for providing more humane living conditions for the mentally ill was ___.
Today's psychologists recognize that all behavior arises from the interaction of ___ and ___. To presume that a person is "mentally ill" attributes the condition solely to an ___ problem.
nature; nurture; internal
Major psychological disorders such as ___ and ___ are universal; others, such as __ ___ and ___ ___, are culture-bound. These culture-bound disorders may share an underlying ___, such as ___, yet differ in their ___.
Most mental healthy workers today take a ___ approach, whereby they assume that disorders are influenced by ___ ___ and ___ ___, inner ___ ___, and ___ and ___ circumstances.
biopsychosocial; genetic predispositions; physiological states; psychological dynamics; social; cultural
The most widely used system for classifying psychological disorders is the American Psychiatric Association manual, commonly known by its abbreviation, ___. It was developed in coordination with the World Health Organization's ___ ___ of ___. This manual (does/does not) explain the cause of a disorder; rather, it ___ the disorder.
DSM-IV-TR; International Classification; disorder; doesn't; describes
Independent diagnoses made with the current manual generally (show/do not show) agreement.
One criticism of DSM-IV is that the number of disorder categories has (increased/decreased), and the number of adults who meet the criteria for at least one psychiatric ailment has (increased/decreased).
Briefly describe the "unDSM"
The unDSM describes human strengths contributing to a good life, for self and others, and is part of the positive psychology movement.
Studies have shown that labeling has (little/a significant) effect on our interpretation of individuals and their behavior.
Outline the pros and cons of labeling psychological disorders.
pros: communicate cases, comprehend underlying causes, discern effective treatment programs cons: stigmatizing and may lead to self fulfilling bias
Most people with psychological disorders ___ (are/are not) violent. A 1999 study found that 16 percent of US prison inmates had severe ___ ___.
aren't; mental disorders
Anxiety disorders are psychological disorders characterized by ______________.
distressing, persistent anxiety or dysfunctional anxiety
Five anxiety disorders discussed in the text are ___ ___ ___, ___ ___, ___ , ___-____ ___, and ___-___ __ ___.
When a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and physiologically aroused for no apparent reason, he or she is diagnosed as suffering from a ___ ___ disorder. In Freud's term, the anxiety is ___-__.
generalized anxiety; free floating
Generalized anxiety disorder can lead to physical problems, such as ___ ___ ___. In some instances, anxiety may intensify dramatically and unpredictably and be accompanied by heart palpitations or choking, for example; people with these symptoms are said to have ___ ___. This anxiety may escalate into a minutes-long episode of intense fear, or a ___ ___.
high blood pressure; panic disorder; panic attack
People who ___ have an increased risk of a first-time ___ ___ because ___ is a stimulant.
smoke; panic attack; nicotene
When a person has an irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation, the diagnosis is a ___. Although in many situations, the person can live with the problem, some ___ ___, such as a fear of thunderstorms, are incapacitating.
phobia; specific phobias
When a person has an intense fear of being scrutinized by others, the diagnosis is a __ ___. People who fear situations in which escape or help might not be possible when panic strikes suffer from ___.
social phobia; agoraphobia
When a person cannot control repetitive thoughts and actions, an ____-___ disorder is diagnosed.
Older people are (more/less) likely than teens and young adults to suffer from this disorder. (OCD)
Traumatic stress, such as that associated with witnessing atrocities or combat, can produce __-___ ___ disorder. The symptoms of this disorder include __ ___, ___, ___ ___, ___ ___, and ___. People who have a sensitive ___ ___ are more vulnerable to this disorder. Research with identical twins indicates that ___ may also play a role.
post traumatic stress; social withdrawal; insomnia; jumpy anxiety; haunting memories; nightmares; limbic system; genes
Researchers who believe this disorder may be over diagnosed point to the ___ ___ of most people who suffer trauma. Also, suffering can lead to ___-___ ___, in which people experience an increased appreciation for life.
survivor resiliency; post traumatic growth
Freud assumed that anxiety disorders are symptoms of submerged mental energy that derives from intolerable impulses that were ___ during childhood.
Learning theorists, drawing on research in which rats are given unpredictable electric shocks, link general anxiety with ___ conditioning of ___.
Some fears arise from ___ ___, such as when a person who fears heights after a fall also comes fear airplanes.
Phobias and compulsive behaviors reduce anxiety and thereby are ___. Through ___ learning, someone might also learn by seeing others display their own fears.
Humans probably (are/are not) biologically prepared to develop certain fears. Compulsive acts typically are exaggerations of behaviors that contributed to our species' ___.
The anxiety response probably (is/isn't) genetically influenced. There may be an anxiety ___ that affect brain levels of the neurotransmitter ___, which influences mood, as well as the neurotransmitter ___, which regulates the brain's alarm centers.
is; genes; serotonin; glutamate
fMRI scans of persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder reveal excessive activity in a brain region called the ___ ___ cortex. Some antidepressant drugs dampen fear-circuit activity in the ___, thus reducing this behavior.
anterior cingulate; amygdala
In somatoform disorders, symptoms take a ___ form without having an apparent ___ cause.
somatic (bodily); physical
One type of this disorder is ___ ___, in which ___ is presumably converted into a physical symptom. This disorder is (more/less) common today than in Freud's time.
conversion disorder; anxiety; less
People suffering from ___ interpret normal sensations as symptoms of serious disease.