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Mental health workers label thoughts, feelings, and actions disordered when they are ___, ___, and ___.

deviant; distressful; dysfunctional

This definition emphasizes that standards of acceptability for behavior are (constant/variable).


ADHD, or ____-___ ___ ___, plagues children who display one or more of three key symptoms: ___, ___, and ___.

attention-deficit hyperactive disorder; inattention; impulsivity; hyperactivity

ADHD is diagnosed more often in (boys/girls). In the past three decades, the proportion of American children being treated for this disorder (increased/decreased) dramatically. Experts (agree/do not agree) that ADHD is a real disorder.

boys; increased; agree

ADHD (is/is not) thought by some to be heritable, and it (is/is not) caused by eating too much sugar or poor schools.

is; isn't

ADHD is often accompanied by a __ disorder or with behavior that is ___ or temper-prone.

learning; defiant

The view that psychological disorders are sicknesses is the basis of the ___ model. According to this view, psychological disorders are viewed as mental ___, or ___, diagnosed on the basis of ___ and cured through ___.

medical; illnesses; psychopathology; symptoms; treatment

One of the first reformers to advocate this position and call for providing more humane living conditions for the mentally ill was ___.


Today's psychologists recognize that all behavior arises from the interaction of ___ and ___. To presume that a person is "mentally ill" attributes the condition solely to an ___ problem.

nature; nurture; internal

Major psychological disorders such as ___ and ___ are universal; others, such as __ ___ and ___ ___, are culture-bound. These culture-bound disorders may share an underlying ___, such as ___, yet differ in their ___.

depression; schizophrenia; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; dynamic; anxiety; symptoms

Most mental healthy workers today take a ___ approach, whereby they assume that disorders are influenced by ___ ___ and ___ ___, inner ___ ___, and ___ and ___ circumstances.

biopsychosocial; genetic predispositions; physiological states; psychological dynamics; social; cultural

The most widely used system for classifying psychological disorders is the American Psychiatric Association manual, commonly known by its abbreviation, ___. It was developed in coordination with the World Health Organization's ___ ___ of ___. This manual (does/does not) explain the cause of a disorder; rather, it ___ the disorder.

DSM-IV-TR; International Classification; disorder; doesn't; describes

Independent diagnoses made with the current manual generally (show/do not show) agreement.


One criticism of DSM-IV is that the number of disorder categories has (increased/decreased), and the number of adults who meet the criteria for at least one psychiatric ailment has (increased/decreased).

increased; increased

Briefly describe the "unDSM"

The unDSM describes human strengths contributing to a good life, for self and others, and is part of the positive psychology movement.

Studies have shown that labeling has (little/a significant) effect on our interpretation of individuals and their behavior.

a significant

Outline the pros and cons of labeling psychological disorders.

pros: communicate cases, comprehend underlying causes, discern effective treatment programs
cons: stigmatizing and may lead to self fulfilling bias

Most people with psychological disorders ___ (are/are not) violent. A 1999 study found that 16 percent of US prison inmates had severe ___ ___.

aren't; mental disorders

Anxiety disorders are psychological disorders characterized by ______________.

distressing, persistent anxiety or dysfunctional anxiety

Five anxiety disorders discussed in the text are ___ ___ ___, ___ ___, ___ , ___-____ ___, and ___-___ __ ___.

generalized anxiety disorder; panic disorder; phobias; obsessive-compulsive disorder; post traumatic stress disorder

When a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and physiologically aroused for no apparent reason, he or she is diagnosed as suffering from a ___ ___ disorder. In Freud's term, the anxiety is ___-__.

generalized anxiety; free floating

Generalized anxiety disorder can lead to physical problems, such as ___ ___ ___. In some instances, anxiety may intensify dramatically and unpredictably and be accompanied by heart palpitations or choking, for example; people with these symptoms are said to have ___ ___. This anxiety may escalate into a minutes-long episode of intense fear, or a ___ ___.

high blood pressure; panic disorder; panic attack

People who ___ have an increased risk of a first-time ___ ___ because ___ is a stimulant.

smoke; panic attack; nicotene

When a person has an irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation, the diagnosis is a ___. Although in many situations, the person can live with the problem, some ___ ___, such as a fear of thunderstorms, are incapacitating.

phobia; specific phobias

When a person has an intense fear of being scrutinized by others, the diagnosis is a __ ___. People who fear situations in which escape or help might not be possible when panic strikes suffer from ___.

social phobia; agoraphobia

When a person cannot control repetitive thoughts and actions, an ____-___ disorder is diagnosed.


Older people are (more/less) likely than teens and young adults to suffer from this disorder. (OCD)


Traumatic stress, such as that associated with witnessing atrocities or combat, can produce __-___ ___ disorder. The symptoms of this disorder include __ ___, ___, ___ ___, ___ ___, and ___. People who have a sensitive ___ ___ are more vulnerable to this disorder. Research with identical twins indicates that ___ may also play a role.

post traumatic stress; social withdrawal; insomnia; jumpy anxiety; haunting memories; nightmares; limbic system; genes

Researchers who believe this disorder may be over diagnosed point to the ___ ___ of most people who suffer trauma. Also, suffering can lead to ___-___ ___, in which people experience an increased appreciation for life.

survivor resiliency; post traumatic growth

Freud assumed that anxiety disorders are symptoms of submerged mental energy that derives from intolerable impulses that were ___ during childhood.


Learning theorists, drawing on research in which rats are given unpredictable electric shocks, link general anxiety with ___ conditioning of ___.

classical; fears

Some fears arise from ___ ___, such as when a person who fears heights after a fall also comes fear airplanes.

stimulus generalization

Phobias and compulsive behaviors reduce anxiety and thereby are ___. Through ___ learning, someone might also learn by seeing others display their own fears.

reinforcement; observational

Humans probably (are/are not) biologically prepared to develop certain fears. Compulsive acts typically are exaggerations of behaviors that contributed to our species' ___.

are; survival

The anxiety response probably (is/isn't) genetically influenced. There may be an anxiety ___ that affect brain levels of the neurotransmitter ___, which influences mood, as well as the neurotransmitter ___, which regulates the brain's alarm centers.

is; genes; serotonin; glutamate

fMRI scans of persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder reveal excessive activity in a brain region called the ___ ___ cortex. Some antidepressant drugs dampen fear-circuit activity in the ___, thus reducing this behavior.

anterior cingulate; amygdala

In somatoform disorders, symptoms take a ___ form without having an apparent ___ cause.

somatic (bodily); physical

One type of this disorder is ___ ___, in which ___ is presumably converted into a physical symptom. This disorder is (more/less) common today than in Freud's time.

conversion disorder; anxiety; less

People suffering from ___ interpret normal sensations as symptoms of serious disease.


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