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Chinese Exclusion Act

(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.

Rocky Mountain Fur Company

Founded in St. Louis in 1822 by William Ashley & Andrew Henry, their mountain men lived rugged lives


Indians were promised gifts and payments; meant to cut down intertribal warfare and enable government negotiations with separate tribes

Sand Creek

was an incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the eastern plains.

Bozeman Trail

In attempts to block the construction of this road to MT, Sioux massacred and mutilated 81 soldiers under Capt. Fetterman's command

Red Cloud

leader of the Oglala who resisted the development of a trail through Wyoming and Montana by the United States government (1822-1909)

Black Hills Indian Reservation

gold was found and indians were forced to move

George Custer

an American general/colonel that took part in the Sioux War and ultimately died in an engagement at the Big Horn.

Crazy Horse

a chief of the Sioux who resisted the invasion of the Black Hills and joined Sitting Bull in the defeat of General Custer at Little Bighorn (1849-1877)

Sitting Bull

American Indian chief, he lead the victory of Little Bighorn

Custer's Last Stand

when there was a gold rush in the reservations and the sioux tribe lead by chief crazy horse and cheif sitting bull tried to hold back the rush and georage a custer and his troops got trapped with his 264 troops all were killed

Nez Percé

Led by Chief Joseph, they fled to Canada after the U.S. authorities tried to put them in a reservation. They eventually surrendered and where placed in a reservation in Kansas, where most of them died. After that they were allowed to live in a reservation in Idaho

Chief Joseph

Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations

Dawes Severalty Act of 1887

dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government's official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.

Comstock Lode

first discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.

Timber Culture Act

1873-act of Congress added to the Homestead Act stating a person who planted 40 acres of trees and maintained timber for 10 years were granted 160 acres of land

Homestead Act

Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.

bonanza farms

large farms that came to dominate agricultural life in much of the West in the late 1800s; instead of plots farmed by yeoman farmers, large amounts of machinery were used, and workers were hired laborers, often performing only specific tasks(similar to work in a factory).

Pacific Railway Act of 1862

provides federal subsidies in land and loans for the construction of a transcontinental railroad by companies (mainly Union Pacific and Central Pacific)

James J. Hill

driving force of the Gr. Northern Railway , Became a Shipping Agent For Winnipeg Merchants Nicknamed the "Empire Builder"

Joseph McCoy

a cattle trader who built large cattle pens called stockyards near some railroad tracks in Abilene, Kansas

Open Range Ranching

people weren't buying land and fencing it off, they were branding their stock and letting them roam free, they would drive them to the cattle towns

John Wesley Powell

explorer and geologist who warned that traditional agriculture could not succeed west of 100th meridian

Desert Land Act

1906, Federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within 3 years.

Barbed Wire Wars

cowboys started roping off area around water and grazing areas that only their cattle could use, lead to decline of that market

Robber Barons

Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.

Essentials of Industrial Growth

REASONS: new natural resources: gold, silver, oil, iron; Growth of population added to market; Protective tariffs. LED TO: huge immigrant work force; tech growth; cut throat businesses; displacement; "New Industry" = Railroads; business genius

Cornelius Vanderbilt

made fortune in shipping business: a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.

Jay Gould

dominant system builder, who would put together properties just to unload them for a profit

Air brakes

enabled longer and heavier trains

George Pullman

made his fortune by designing and building sleeper cars that made long distance rail travel more comfortable. Built a company town near Chicago for his employees.

Sleeping Car

a passenger car that has berths for sleeping

Bessemer Process

A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.

Edwin Drake

American pioneer in oil industry; became first to drill for petroleum


Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.

Graham Bell

invented telephone

long haul/short haul evils

Different railroad companies charged separate rates for hauling goods a long or short distance. The Interstate Commerce Act made it illegal to charge more per mile for a short haul than a long one.


JP Morgan's process of taking over troubled businesses to reorganize them. Morgan reorganized business structures and management in order to return them to profitability. His reputation as a banker and financier also helped bring interest from investors to the businesses he took over


Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.

General Electric

Edison's company; in fear of technological competition, they created one of the first corporate laboratories in 1900, increasing corporate research and development labs, but causing a decline in government support in research. This attracted more skillful researchers and decentralized the sources of research funding.

Progress and poverty

Written by Henry George, critical of entreprenuers, after studying poverty in America, determined that rich didn't pay fair share of taxes and proposed "Single Tax" on incremental value of land

Andrew Carnegie

Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"

United States Steel

was the first billion-dollar super corporation and was created by Carnegie.

Standard Oil Company

Rockefeller's trust company w/monopoly on refining oil using horizontal integreation; Supreme Ct. ordered to be dissolved

John Rockefeller

Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.

William Graham Sumner

He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.


restrictions; limitations imposed on a person or institution's freedom


policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy

social DArwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

Gospel of Wealth

This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.

Henry George

wrote Progress and Poverty, an attack on the uneven distribution of wealth. Proposed a property tax

single tax

flat tax proposed by Henry George. (A flat tax is one in which every person pays the same amount, regardless of whether they are rich or poor.)

Looking Backward

written in 1888 by Edward Bellamy, tells the story of a young man who wakes in 2000

Henry Demarest Lloyd

He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.

Socialist LAbor PArty

founded in the 1870s and led for many years by Daniel De Leon (immigrant from teh WEst Indies)-he attracted a modest following in the industrial cities but failed to become a major political force-never polled more than 82000 votes-it appealed more to intellectuals than to workers

Karl Marx

German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.

Daniel De Leon

leader of the socialist labor party during the 1890s. He believed in military labor activities and created an union.

Knights of LAbor

one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories; replaced by AF of L after a botched protest

National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry

This organization better known as the Grange, was organized in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley; its objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities; the Grangers gradually raised their goals from individual self-improvement to the farmer' collective plight

Munn v. Illinois

1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.

Pacific Railroad v. Illinois

declared unconstitutional an Illinois regulation outlawing the long-and-short-haul evil

Interstate Commerce Act

prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line; Set up ICC.

Sherman Antitrust Act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

US v. EC Knight Company

Court undermined the authority of the fed to act against monopolies; said that the American Sugar Refininng Company had not violated the law by taking over a number of important competitors

National Labor Union

1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers

Haymarket Square

Labor disorders had broken out and on May 4 1886, the Chicago police advanced on a protest; alleged brutalities by the authorities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was thrown that killed or injured dozens, including police. It is still unknown today who set off the bomb, but following the hysteria, eight anarchists (possibly innocent) were rounded up. Because they preached "incendiary doctrines," they could be charged with conspiracy. Five were sentenced to death, one of which committed suicide; the other three were given stiff prison terms. Six years later, a newly elected Illinois governor recognized this gross injustice and pardoned the three survivors. Nevertheless, the Knights of Labor were toast: they became (incorrectly )associated with anarchy and all following strike efforts failed.

American Federation of LAbor

Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor; had some utopian ideas

Samuel Gompers

United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)


In 1894, a strike at this location was ordered to halt and was told that their striking violation the Sherman anti-trust act of 1890. This led to people like Gompers being very upset with the judge. The Sherman anti-trust at was created to stop monopolies from limiting competition. Instead it was used against labor unions, saying that they limited competition, and forcing workers to avoid unions.torkers

Money Trust

any decision that J. P. Morgan made had such a great impact on the economy that he pretty much controls the economy giving him a money trust

Luisa May Alcott

Little Women; novelist whose tales of family life helped economically support her and her own struggling transendentalist family

Middle Class Life

lost reform zeal with the civil war, smaller families, children were treasured and well supervised, marriage for love, women remained home, fashionable clothes, "culture of consumption"

Thorstein Veblen

economist, wrote Theory of the Leisure Class, condemned conspicuous consumerism, where status is displayed and conveyed through consumption.

blue collar

member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage; began to rise in industrial hierarchy because large corporations were employing management


name for rural farmers. came about because the farmers place in the economy is declining, as is the percentage of people who live in rural areas


wages varied greatly and some were well off others were not; diverse group of opinions: some content, some wanted graduated income tax, some wanted child labor to end; overall dissatisfaction although living conditions had improved; able to work ones way up; rags to riches myth; focus on education to improve working opportunities

New Immigration

Italians and Greeks; Southern and Eastern Europe; mostly peasants; some didn't plan to stay but to earn money and return to Europe; faced discriminiation

Padrone System

Or labor boss, met immigrants upon arrival and secured jobs for them in New York, Chicago, or wherever there was an immediate demand for industrial labor. (Usually Italians)


a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones; in US disliked Catholics and other minority groups more than immigrants

Grand Army of the Republic

Civil war Vets who grumbled about foreign born radicals

American Protective Association

an American anti-Catholic society (similar to the Know Nothings) that was founded on March 13, 1887 by Attorney Henry F. Bowers in Clinton, Iowa

Immigration Restriction League

A Nativist group who wanted to restrict immigration into the U.S. to certain groups they deemed desirable. Because of them congress passed a bill in 1897 requiring a literacy test for immigrants.


a rundown apartment house barely meeting minimal standards

John Sullivan

the most popular sports hero of the ninetheenth century; a heavywieght boxer. He came out of retirement to defend a win the Police Gazette's championship belt from his rival kilrain.

Social Gospel

focused on improving living conditions rather than on saving souls; advocated civil service reform, child labor legislation, regulation of big corporations, and heavy taxes on incomes and inheritance

washington gladden

Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel and supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper cloumns and many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement.

Louis Sullivan

United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function' (1856-1924)

Jacob Riis

A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.

Settlement Houses

a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Jane Addams of the Hull House Settlement in Chicago

Lillian Wald

wrote The House on Henry Street about settlement house work

Jane Addams

1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement (Hull House). First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.

Morrill Act

Granted land to each state @ a per with senator and rep, provided it gave important universities land or financial aid

Charles Eliot

Harvard president, revised curriculum, set up elective system, lectures and discussions, moved Harvard to the top

University of Chicago

greatest beneficiary of rockefeller's philanthropy

Seven Sisters

first 7 women's colleges

Classical Economics

Based on Say's Law, Classical economists believed that if left alone, an economy would always tend back toward full employment. They were strong proponents of the Laissez Faire approach to economic management - "Hands off."

Institutionalist school of econ

for analyzing actual conditions not applying abstract laws

Herbert Spencer

English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)

Henry Morgan

developed a theory of social evolution and showed how kinship relationships reflected and affected tribal institutions

Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.

Said laws should evolve, published The Common Law. Was an American jurist who served as an associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932. Noted for his long service, his concise and pithy opinions, and his deference to the decisions of elected legislatures, he is one of the most widely cited United States Supreme Court justices in history, particularly for his "clear and present danger" majority opinion in the 1919 case of Schenck v. United States, and is one of the most influential American common-law judges.

John Dewey

He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."

Progressive Education

Dewey made great contributions; set forth the principles of "learning by doing" that formed the foundation of progressive education' workbench was as essential as black board; "education for life" should be primary goal for teachers

Frederick Jackson Turner

American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.

HEnry Adams

A very critical political journalist, wrote "The History of the United States"

Gilded Age

coined by Mark Twian; american Lit was dominated by romantic mood

Age of Realism

truthful representation of reality of common, contemporary (often middle class) life or "verisimilitude;" authors include Chopin, Tolstoy, Dickinson, and Longfellow

William Dean Howells

self-conscious realist; wrote about problem that arose with industrialization; also a critic of books; books were well read


The term naturalism describes a type of literature that attempts to apply scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to its study of human beings. Unlike realism which focuses on literary technique naturalism implies a philosophical position

Henry James

spent most of mature life in europe; wrote about Euro-American culture clash

Thomas Eakins

was a painter, photographer, sculptor, and fine arts educator. He was one of the greatest American painters of his time, an innovating teacher, and an uncompromising realist

Winslow Homer

broke the Old World traditions in art, and was vigorously American in his paintings of New England maritime life and other native subjects.

James McNeill Whistler

He painted a portrait of his mother ("Whistler's Mother") is probably the most famous painting by an American. He was an eccentric, but he was also talented and versatile, proficient in both realistic and romantic art.

Mary Cassatt

an American in exile in Paris, painted sensitive portrayals of women and children that earned her a place in the pantheon of the French impressionist painters.


theory that eternal truths were difficult to justify in a world that was constantly evolving

Charles Peirce

United States philosopher and logician; pragmatist

William James

United States pragmatic philosopher and psychologist (1842-1910)

Chautauqua Movement

One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.

Joseph Pulitzer

Hungarian-born journalistic tycoon who lead the techniques of sensationalism, especially with his New York World. Published the first comic, the Yellow Kid.

William Randolph Hearst

United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)

Separation of Powers

Senate overshadowed the House, presidents were weak; Democrat-Republican differences were sectional

Political Questions (4)

1) Bloody shirt 2) Tariff/Free Trade 3) Currency Reform/Deflation 4) Civil Service reform/Patronage

Political Allegiances

New England: Repub; South: Dem; Bloody Shirt; Bribes....Both parties favored a protective tariff, nothing got done, people wanted patronage dropped and civil service reform

Grand Army of the Republic

This organization was founded by former Union soldiers after the Civil War. It lobbied Congress for aid and pensions for former Union soldiers. It was also a powerful lobbying influence within the Republican party.

Bloody Shirt

Mass. congressman dramatically displayed to his colleagues in the House the bloodstained shirt of an Ohio carpetbagger who had been flogged by terrorists; meant to remind the electorate of the northern states that the men who had precipitated the Civil War had been Democrats

National Greenback Party

Founded in 1878, the party was primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during the Panic of 1873. The Party fought for increased monetary circulation through issuance of paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender), supported inflationary programs in the belief that they would benefit debtors, and sought benefits for labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau. They had the support of several labor groups and they wanted the government to print more greenbacks.

Rutherford Hayes

American Politician, Lawyer, military leader, and the 19th president of the United States. Only president elected by Congressional Commission. Approved resumption of gold payments. Wanted fairness toward blacks but took no action. Fought for but failed to achieve, civil service reform. Played down tariff issue.

James Garfield

Hayes's successor; murdered. Oratory skills made him a prominent republican; his vp was Chester Arthur

Chester Arthur

Abolitionist; spoils system follower; had been Garfield's VP; gave some support to the movement for civil service reform

Pendleton Act

It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of examination rather than cronyism

Grover Cleveland

Democrat who followed Arthur's presidency. Liked by civil service reformers and business men; vetoed a popular bill to force a reduction of fares on railway in NY saying it was unconstitutional causing his rep to soar; won an election based on personal issues; served two separate terms


group of eastern Republicans campaigned for Democrats; wanted to do away with government corruption

Benjamin Harrison

23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars; Sherman anti-trust act was passed under him

Blacks after Reconstruction

Hayes said there was an Era of good feelings (he was wrong); Garfield said time was the only cure; Arthur gave federal patronage to antiblack groups in an effort to split the democratic south; hypocritical politicians; poll taxes and literacy taxes

Civil Rights Cases

This post civil war decision stated that the 14th Amendment only outlawed government discrimination and could not stop PRIVATE businesses (theatres, hotels...) from discrimination.

Plessy v. Ferguson

sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal

Booker T. Washington

felt that african americans should accept segregation and the best way to overcome it is to improve you farming an d vocational skills

Tuskegee Institute

Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper

Atlanta Compromise

delighted white southerners and won Washington financial support in every Section of the country. Blacks had mixed feelings. Washington had asked the whites to lend blacks a hand in their efforts to advance themselves. He promised that they'd be surrounded by the most patient and unresentful ppl that the world had ever seen.

City Bosses

a person who has power over a particular political region

Confrontation and Accommodation

a choice faced by many blacks, especially in the late 1800s. The choice was whether or not to confront or accommodate discrimination against them

Farmers Alliance

A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy

Populist Party

Also Known as the People's Party, they demanded unlimited coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, direct election of senators, and immigration restrictions

James Weaver

United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century. An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the Populist Party in the 1892 election His close race for presidency showed the rise of a third party.

Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act

Authorized the buying of between $2-3 million of silver a month had little inflationary effect because the government consistently purchased the minimum amounts

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would by 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver. This law doubled the amount of silver that could be purchased under the Bland-Allison Law of 1878.

Depression of 1893

caused by excessive building and overspeculation as well as a continued agricultural depression along with the free coining of silver and the collecting of debts by European banking houses, this was the worst economic downturn of the nineteenth century

Coxey Armies

Supporters of Ohio populist Jacob Coxey who in 1894 marched on Washington, demanded taht the government create jobs for the unemployed; although this group had no effect whatsoever on policy, it did demonstrate the social and economic impact of the Panic of 1893.

William Marcy Tweed

N.Y. political boss (did not hold a political office) controlled the Democratic political machine known as Tammany Hall; Stole $200 million form New York City

Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Company

invalidated Federal income tax law even though it had been allowed during civil war

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