Which of the following leading causes of death in the United States does NOT bear a relationship to diet?
B) Heart disease
C) Diabetes mellitus
D) Pneumonia and influenza
Which of the following risk factors for disease may be modified by diet?
D) Low HDL level
Which of the following is a feature of atherosclerosis?
A) It is reversible by resveratrol
B) It is improved by high blood homocysteine levels
C) It is characterized by infiltration of platelets in the arterial wall
D) It is worsened by elevated blood high-density lipoproteins
Tiny, disc-shaped bodies in the blood that are important in clot formation are called
The obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot that broke away from arterial plaque is termed
A) an anginism.
B) an embolism.
C) circulatory hypoxia.
D) a de-plaquing event.
Which of the following is NOT among the features of low-density lipoproteins and coronary heart disease?
A) LDL is more atherogenic than is HDL
B) Excess LDL cholesterol is vulnerable to oxidation
C) LDL-lowering treatments are designed to stabilize arterial plaques
D) Excess LDL cholesterol in the blood is removed by high-density lipoproteins
Which of the following is NOT among the associations between smoking and coronary heart disease?
A) Smoking damages platelets
B) Smoking increases blood pressure
C) Smoking as a risk factor for CHD is the same for women and men
D) Cessation of smoking begins to lower the risk of CHD after 36 months
Stefan was recently diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. He is very scared about this new diagnosis because no one in his family has ever had it and he hasn't ever heard of it. His primary care physician refers him to your office for some counseling on his modifiable risk factors. Which of the following topics will you most likely discuss with Stefan?
A) What medications to take
B) How to improve his atherogenic diet
C) How to slow down his aging process
D) How to map out his family tree, identifying all relatives with heart disease
Which of the following is NOT among the risk factors for coronary heart disease that can be minimized by behavioral change?
Among the following, which should be the first action taken to lower blood cholesterol?
A) Begin drug treatment
B) Consume a high-protein diet
C) Consume large amounts of fish and fish oils
D) Achieve and maintain appropriate body weight
Approximately what percentage of people in the United States are believed to have hypertension?
What is the best predictor for risk of a stroke?
A) Blood pressure
D) Trans-fatty acid intake
Which of the following statements describes a risk factor for high blood pressure?
A) Three alcohol drinks per day increases the risk for developing high blood pressure
B) Most people are genetically sensitive to sodium and will develop high blood pressure from excess salt intake
C) Ninety-five percent of people under 50 years of age with high blood pressure respond favorably to low salt intake
D) Ninety-five percent of people with high blood pressure who restrict salt intake show a significant decrease in blood pressure
The DASH diet is actually the acronym for
A) Dramatic Alternatives to Solving HIV.
B) Diabetes and Sodium Hyperglycemia.
C) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.
D) Disorders-Associated Severe Hyperlipidemias.
Which of the following is NOT among the recommendations by health professionals to treat hypertension?
A) Increase fiber intake
B) Eat foods high in potassium
C) If overweight, reduce weight
D) Decrease intake of dairy products to avoid sodium
Insulin resistance is defined as
A) reduced sensitivity of cells to blood insulin.
B) impaired secretion of insulin by the pancreas.
C) increased destruction of insulin-producing cells.
D) refusal of people with type 1 diabetes to self-inject insulin.
Which of the following is NOT among the common, long-term consequences of diabetes?
B) Kidney failure
C) Decrease in infections
D) Increase in heart attacks
In the otherwise stable person with type 1 diabetes, a potential problem associated with physical activity is
C) nausea and vomiting.
D) temporary kidney shutdown.
What happens after absorption of carcinogens that are produced on meats from grilling over a direct flame?
A) They are detoxified by the liver
B) They act as initiators for breast cancer
C) They act as promoters for prostate cancer
D) They are subjected to enterohepatic circulation