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APUSH Chapter 1 (1491-1607)
Terms in this set (45)
System of unfree labor used during the Spanish colonization of the americas: Spanish conquered natives in the Caribbean, South america, and later in the Philippines and in return for working for Spanish landowners Native Americans received protection from other tribes, education, and Christianity.
Every member participates in the government of the church, presbytery. Basic for most church governments afterwards including the England colonies. Calvin believed everyone was equal, even those in power. Later proved importance for democracy to separate the church and state government
In what ways did American indians and Africans struggle to maintain their identity and autonomy in the face of European's attempts to subjugate them?
For native americans who where undertaken by colonies and the churches during the late 1700s, federal government attempted to "civilize" Native Americans by enforcing literacy, farming, and vocational assistance. Earlier slave generations were forced to assimilate to euro-centric culture (language/religion), so Generations born in North America grew further from their culture.
Why did the economies of native societies differ so much?
The environments of natives contributed to the economies of native societies: some had better access to hunting grounds, agricultural cultivation, or fishing.
What advantages and disadvantages accrued to both European and native societies as a result of the Colombian Exchange?
The advantages of the Colombian Exchange for both parties was introduction to new vegetation for both Europeans and Indians. Disease as a result of the Colombian Exchange terminated a significant percent of native population and greatly effected the colonists residing in north america. Also intertribal warfare was instigated from trade with colonists, as tribes fought over hunting grounds.
What impact did technological advancements have on Portuguese and Spanish exploration to the New World?
Portugal searching for a route to Asia by sailing south around Africa. In the process, the Portuguese accumulated a wealth of knowledge about navigation and the geography of the Atlantic Ocean. Spain discoveries the Americas (Christopher Columbus) while attempting to reach Asia.
What forces resulted in the emergence of diverse native societies in both North and South America?
European forces/colonists resulted in the emergence of diverse native societies.
Why were Europeans able to develop and maintain an extensive slave trade?
Europeans realized the economic value of slaves captured in Africa, so slavery had become a central element of trans-Saharan trade network.
Why did African slaves replace Indian labor in Spanish New World colonies?
Disease killed off a great population of natives, leading to the importation of African slaves.
In what ways did the Spanish presence in the Western Hemisphere shape native social, economic, and political development?
The Spanish's introduction to new crops and domesticated animals lead to civilizations in north american which reflected these practices.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Established a colony in North Carolina in 1587 but went back to England. When he came back 3 years later there was no sign of the colony.
In 1577, set on a voyage where he raided Spanish ships and colonies. Then, he travel back to England sailing west (went around the world) arriving in England in 1580.
Church of England
The official church for England. Was once Catholic then switched to Protestant because of King Henry VIII.
A movement in Europe that challenged the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. It was lead by Martin Luther.
Labeled the new found land as a continent and New World. Map makers gave his first name to the land, called America
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty was between Portugal and Spain about their new found discoveries. Pope was the equalizer during the treaty. Imaginary line west of the west coast of Africa that separated who could use what areas. East of line Portugal could use the area to trade with India and to collect more African slaves
West of line Spain could explore and make settlements in present day South America.
Born in 1451 at Genoa, Italy. Taught himself sailing, navigation, geography, and Latin. Wanted to spread Christianity, gather riches from Asia, and travel to his destination by sailing west across the Atlantic ocean. Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to support the voyage.
Great Native American culture containing 5 million people. Conquered by Hernan Cortes.
Middle America (now known as Central America)
The land mass west of Europe and Africa
When Europeans came to America they brought smallpox and measles to which the natives had no resistance. Millions of American Indians died.
Some time between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, people migrated from Asia to the Americas, across this area that connected Siberia and Alaska.
Hokokam, Anasazi, and Pueblos
These American Indians were located in the New Mexico and Arizona region. They developed farming using irrigation systems.
From A.D. 300 to 800, this highly developed civilization built large cities in what is today's southern Mexico and Guatemala.
This highly developed civilization developed a vast South American empire based in Peru.
These Spanish explorers and conquerors of the Americas sent ships loaded with gold and silver back to Spain making it the richest and most powerful nation in Europe.
He conquered the Aztecs in Mexico.
New Laws of 1542
Bartolome de Las Casas convinced the King of Spain to institute these laws, which ended American Indian slavery, ended forced Indian labor, and began the process of ending the encomienda systems.
In 1587, Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to establish a settlement here, but it failed.
Ferdinand and Isabella
They united Spain, defeated and drove out the Moors. In 1492, they funded Christopher Columbus's voyage to America.
Since ancient times people in Europe, Africa, and Asia had enslaved people captured in wars. In the 15 century the Portuguese began trading for slaves from West Africa. They used slaves to work in sugar plantation off the coast of Africa. Using slaves was so profitable that when the Europeans settled in the Americas, they instituted the slave system there.
In the 15th century, small kingdoms and multiethnic empires were being replaced by nation-states. Nation-states were countries in which the majority of people shared a common culture and common loyalty toward a central government.
The American Indians had 20 language families and 400 distinct languages. This tribe in the Northeast was one of the largest.
American Indians along the Pacific Coast lived in the these plank houses.
An Italian sea captain who sailed under contract to England's King Henry VII. He explored the coast of Newfoundland in 1497.
This English sailer was hired by the Dutch government to seek a westward passage to Asia through North America. In 1609, while searching for the passage, he sailed up a broad river that would later be named the Hudson River.
The child of a Native American and Spaniard.
Bartolome de la Casas
A Spanish priest who was an advocate for better treatment of Indians.
Early residents of New Mexico whose spear points were found in New Mexico
The earliest known people to inhabit the Americas.
Known as the Virgin Queen. Daughter of Henry VIII
English Queen and politique who united Protestants and Catholics through compromise
Wanted to purify the Church of England
The origins of the modern plantation system can be found:
Portuguese slave trade.
What led Columbus to find the 'New World'?
He was in search of a faster and easier way to Asia
The Columbian Exchange
Is the term used to describe the flow of ideas, people, plants animals, technology, and disease that took place because of Columbus' discovery of the New World. The starting point of the Columbian Exchange is 1492.
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