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26 terms

Unit 12: Abnormal Psychology - Schizophrenia, Personality Disorder, Rates

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Schizophrenia, or "split mind", refers not to a split personality but rahter to a split from ___.
reality
Three manifestations of schizophrenia are disorganized ___, disturbed ___, and inappropriate ___ and ___.
thinking; perceptions; emotions; action
The distorted, false beliefs of schizophrenia patients are called ____.
delusions
Many psychologists attribute the disorganized thinking of schizophrenia to a breakdown in the capacity for ___ ___.
selective attention
The disturbed perceptions of people suffering from schizophrenia may take the form of ___, which usually are (visual/auditory). Some victims of schizophrenia lapse into a zombielike state of apparent apathy, or ___ ___; others who exhibit ___, may remain motionless for house and then become agitated.
hallucinations; auditory; flat effect; catatonia
People with schizophrenia who display inappropriate behavior are said to have ___ ___, while those with toneless voices and expressionless faces are said to have ___ ___.
positive symptoms; negative symptoms
Schizophrenia is a cluster of disorders, including five subtypes: preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, or ___; disordered speech or behavior, or ___; immobility, or ___; many and varied symptoms, or ___; and withdrawal, or ___.
paranoid; disorganized; catatonic; undifferentiated; residual
When schizophrenia develops slowly (called ___ schizophrenia), recovery is (more/less) likely than when it develops rapidly in reaction to particular life stresses (called ___ schizophrenia).
chronic/process; less; acute/reactive
The brain tissue of schizophrenia patients has been found to have an excess of receptors for the neurotransmitter ___. Drugs that block these receptors have been found to (increase/decrease) schizophrenia symptoms.
dopamine;decrease
Brain scans have shown that many people suffering from schizophrenia have abnormally (high/low) brain activity in the ___ lobes.
low; frontal
Enlarged, ___-filled areas and a corresponding ___ of cerebral tissue is also characteristic of schizophrenia,. Schizophrenia patients also have a smaller-than-normal ___, which may account for their difficulty in filtering ___ ___ and focusing ___.
fluid; shrinkage; cortex; sensory input; attention
Some scientists contend that the brain abnormalities of schizophrenia may be caused by a prenatal problem, such as ___ ___ ___; birth complications, such as ___ ___; or a ___ ___ contracted by the mother.
low birth weight; oxygen deprivation; viral infection
Twin studies (support/do not support) the contention that heredity plays a role in schizophrenia.
support
The role of the prenatal environment in schizophrenia is demonstrated by the fact that identical twins who share the same ___ and are therefore more likely to experience the same prenatal ____, are more likely to share the disorder.
placenta; viruses
Adoption studies (confirm/do not confirm) a genetic link in the development of schizophrenia.
confirm
It appears that for schizophrenia to develop there must be both a ____ predisposition and other factors such as those listed earlier that "___ ___" the ___ that predispose this disease.
genetic; turn on; genes
Personality disorders exist when an individual has character traits that are enduring and impair ___ ___.
social functioning
A fearful sensitivity to rejection may predispose the ___ personality disorder. Eccentric behaviors, such as emotionless disengagement, are characteristic of the ___ personality disorder. The third cluster exhibits dramatic or ___ behaviors, such as the ___ or ___ personality disorders.
avoidant; schizoid; impulsive; histrionic; narcissistic
An individual who seems to have no conscience, lies, steals, is generally irresponsible, and may be criminal is said to have an ___ personality. Previously, this person was labeled a ___.
antisocial; psychopath/sociopath
Studies of biological relatives of those with antisocial and unemotional tendencies suggest that there (is/is not) a biological predisposition to such traits.
is
Some studies have detected early signs of antisocial behavior in children as young as __________. Antisocial adolescents tended to have been ___, ___, unconcerned with ____ ___, and low in ___.
3-6; impulsive; uninhibited; social rewards; anxiety
PET scans of murderers' brains reveal reduced activity in the ___ ___, an area of the cortex that helps control ___.
frontal cortex; impulses
As in other disorders, in antisocial personality, genetics (is/is not) the whole story. In one study, two combined factors -- ___ ___ and a gene that altered neurotransmitter balance -- predicted antisocial behavior.
is not; childhood maltreatment
Research reveals that approximately ___ percent of adult Americans suffered a clinically significant mental disorder during the prior year.
26
The incidence of serious psychologists disorders is (higher/lower) among those below the poverty line.
higher
In terms of age of onset, most psychological disorders appear by (early/middle/late) adulthood. Some, such as the ___ ___ and ___, appear during childhood.
early; antisocial personality; phobias