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50 terms

Kingdoms, bacteria, and archaea

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Prokaryotic
Cells with no nucleus
Eukaryotic
Cells with a nucleus
Producers
Organisms that can make their own food for energy
Consumers
Organisms that must get their food from another source
Phytoplankton
Organisms that are responsible for the oxygen in our atmosphere
Bacteria
The simplest kind of organism without a nucleus; have a cell wall and flagellum; reproduce by binary fission; their genetic material is found in the cytoplasm
Spirilla
The scientific name for a spiral-shaped bacteria
Baccilus
The scientific name for a rod-shaped bacteria
Cocci
The scientific name for a round-shaped bacteria
Microorganisms
The name given to single-celled organisms and other very small organisms
Archaea
Single-celled organisms that can survive in extreme environments
Methanogens
A type of archaea that get their name from methane; they live in mud swamps and in some animals
Thermophiles
Archaea that thrive in extreme heat or cold
Halophiles
Archaea that love to live in salty lakes and ponds; if it is not salty enough, they dry up and die
Decomposers
Organisms that get their energy by breaking down materials in dead or decaying organisms
Parasites
Organisms that harm their hosts
Vaccine
This prevents a bacterial infection
Antibiotic
This treats a bacterial infection
Symbiotic
Organisms that do not harm their hosts; mutualism
Mutualism
Organisms that do not harm their hosts; symbiotic
Kingdom
Scientists divide the organisms they identify into these groups
Virus
A non-living disease-causing particle; a small collection of genetic material enclosed in a protein shell
Host cell
A cell that a virus infects and uses to make copies of itself
Plankton
Organisms that drift through water instead of swimming through it
Protozoa
Animal-like protists that get their energy by eating other organisms, or decaying parts of other organisms
Attachment
The first of the five major steps that a bacteriophage virus goes through to reproduce: Bacteriophage attach to bacterium
Injection
The second of the five major steps that a bacteriophage virus goes through to reproduce: Virus injects DNA into host cell
Production
The third of the five major steps that a bacteriophage virus goes through to reproduce: Host makes copies of the viral DNA
Assembly
The fourth of the five major steps that a bacteriophage virus goes through to reproduce: Parts assemble into new viruses
Release
The fifth of the five major steps that a bacteriophage virus goes through to reproduce: The cell bursts open, releasing new viruses
Volvox
A green alga that lives in colonies and has a circular shape
Chloroplasts
Organelle that carries out photosynthesis
Autotrophic
Can make its own food
Heterotrophic
Must consume food
Eyespot
An organelle that helps certain protists find light to make food
Contractile vacuole
An organelle that helps certain cells remove excess water; without it, the cell would explode
Algae
Both multicellular and single-celled protists that contain chlorophyll and use sunlight as an energy source
Binary fission
Single-celled organisms reproduce by this process
Protist
A kingdom that includes all organisms with cells having nuclei and not belonging to the plant, animal, or fungi kingdoms; most of these are unicellular
Malaria
A type of disease that is caused by a type of protozoa
Pseudopodia
A false foot made out of an amoeba's cytoplasm; helps the amoeba to move
Cyst
Protection from unfavorable conditions
Micronucleus
Controls reproduction
Food vacuole
Digests food after taken into the cell
Cilia
Little hairs
Oral groove
Tiny hairs push the food into this structure
Gullet
Tiny hairs push food down into this structure
Amebic dysentry
A disease that is caused by an amoeba
Water
The generic environment protists live in
Phagocytosis
An amoeba goes through this process to get food; the pseudpodia extend and wrap around a food particle