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Chapter 10 Vocabulary

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progressive movement
a series of movements in the late 1800's and early 1900's whose members believed that government was best able to correct the ills of society
muckraker
name given to journalists and writers of the Progressive Era who wrote about dishonesty in business, corruption in government and politics, and the horrors of being poor
chain gang
a group of prisoners in a county work camp; replaced the convict lease system
labor union
an organization of workers formed to improve their wages, benefits, and working conditions
strike
a work stoppage in protest over some grievance
sweatshop
factories with especially harsh working conditions
prohibition
the banning of alcohol
Eighteenth Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportations of alcoholic beverages
Populist party
a political party formed in the late 1800s by labor organizations and the Farmers' Alliance
Australian ballot
a reform supported by the Populist party in which a ballot is printed by the government, distributed at voting places, and collected in sealed boxes so that the votes would be kept secret
Rural Free Delivery bill
legislation intrduced by Georgia Representative Tom Watson that required the U.S. Postmaster general to find a way to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge
poll
a voting place
Smith-Lever Act
legislation sponsored by GA Senator Hoke Smith that created the Agricultural Extension Service
Agricultural Extension Service
A government agency that gave matching federal funds to states that spent money to teach young people better farming methods
Smith-Hughes Act
legislation sponsored by GA Senator Hoke Smith that helped establish vocational programs in public schools across the nation and that helped states plan and carry out vocational training
county unit system
a procedure for political primaries that gave the more populous counties more unit votes; established by the Neill Primary Act
plurality
the margin of victory for the winner over his or her nearest rival
civil rights
the rights that a person has simply because he or she is a citizen
Jim Crow Laws
laws passed in the South to establish "separate-but-equal" facilities for whites and for blacks
injunction
a court order stating that something must or must not be done
Atlanta Compromise speech
a speech given by Booker T. Washington in 1895 at the Cotton States and international Exposition that proposed that blacks and whites should agree to benefit from each other
lynching
an illegal hanging, usually by a mob
grandfather clause
a clause inserted in the GA constitution in 1908 that stated only those men whose fathers or grandfathers had been eligible to vote in 1867 were eligible to vote; the clause disfranchised most of GA's African Americans
poll tax
a tax paid to be able to vote
gerrymander
to draw up an election district in such a way that it benefits a certain group
martial law
the use of military forces to main order because civilian forces will not or cannot maintain order
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
"NAACP" an organization formed in 1909 by white liberals and members of the Niagara Movement to work for the rights of African Americans
National Urban League
an interracial organization formed in 1910 to help solve social problems facing African Americans who lived in the cities
scrip
paper money that is not legal currency
World War I
a war that began in Europe in 1914 between the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary) and the Allied Powers (France, Great Britain, Russia, and eventually the United States);the war ended in 1918
neutral
to not take sides in a disagreement
propaganada
information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause
armistice
an agreement to stop fighting
suffragette
a woman who fought for women's right to vote in the early 1900's
Nineteenth Amendment
An amendment to the U.S. constitution that gave women the right to vote