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limits presidency to 2 years


vice president become president if presidency becomes vacant


The President's refusal to spend money Congress has voted to fund a program; refused to president in 1974

War Powers Act

President has to notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress' approval to stay longer than 90 days; designed to curtail President's power

active positive

takes pleasure in the work of the office, easily adjusts to new situations and is confident in himself (FDR, Truman, Kennedy, Ford, Carter, Bush)

active negative

hard worker but doesn't enjoy the work, insecure in the position, may be obsessive or antagonistic (Wilson, Hoover, LBJ, Nixon)

passive passive

easygoing, wanting agreement from others with no dissent, may be overly confident (Taft, Harding, Reagan)

passive negative

dislikes politics and tends to withdraw from close relationships (Coolidge, Eisenhower)


system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials

Pendleton Act

Civil Service Act of 1883, , It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of examination rather than cronyism

Hatch Act

a federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics

Civil Service Reform Act

created office of personnel management to recruit, train, and establish classifications and salaries for federal employees


15 executive departments created to advise the president and operate a specific policy area of governmental activity; each department is headed by a secretary, except the department of justice, which is headed by the attorney general

independent executive agency

The government not accounted for by cabinet departments, independent regulatory agencies, and government corporations. Its administrators are typically appointed by the president and serve at the president's pleasure. NASA is an example.

independent regulatory agency

independent from executive; created to regulate or police (securities and exchange commission, nuclear regulatory commission, federal reserve board)

government corporations

A government organization that, like business corporations, provides a service that could be provided by the private sector and typically charges for its services. The U.S. Postal Service is an example.

iron triangle

a close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group.

issue network

individuals in Washington-located within interest groups, congressional staff, think tanks, universities, and the media- who regularly discuss and advocate public policies

white house office

the personal staff of the President, incl the chief of staff, policy offices and political offices; incl. National Security Council

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