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Social Psych Final Review
Ohio State Social Psych
Terms in this set (50)
Research methods that allow researchers to examine relationships among factors but not to draw conclusions about causes and effects
a technique used to demonstrate cause and effect by purposely manipulating circumstances and measuring the final effect
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
The process of analyzing and interpreting events, other people, oneself, and the world in general.
Thinking that occurs out of our awareness, quickly, and without taking much effort.
conscious, intentional, voluntary, effortful
occurs when expectations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations
process of assigning causes to behavior
Observe behavior. Then if you are busy, tired, or distracted you may make an internal dispositional attribution. If you have the time, motivation and ability to thing about other possible situations, it is more likely you will make a situation attribution
The immediate experience of self; varies between situations
A way of defining oneself in terms of one's relationships to other people; recognizing that one's behavior is often determined by the thoughts. feelings, and actions of others
Properties of Attitudes
Valence (positive or negative?) Extremity (How positive or negative?) Strength (How strong or weak?) EXPLAIN DIFFERENCE OF EXTREMITY AND STRENGTH (Persisten and resistant to change)
Theory of Planned Behavior
the idea that the best predictors of a person's planned, deliberate behaviors are the person's attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Theory suggesting that there are two routes to attitude change: the central route, which focuses on thoughtful consideration of an argument for change, and the peripheral route, which focuses on less careful, more emotional, and even superficial evaluation.
when an authority figures command influences behavior
changes in behavior from direct responses
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
Biased attributions, subtyping, self-fulfilling prophecies
everyone knows cultural stereotypes, only some endorse, must be motivated and able to control prejudice. lower self esteem will activate sterotype
any act perform with a goal to benefit another person
prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself
Preferential helping of genetic relatives, so that genes held in common will survive.
Helping people so they will return the favor
Helping in-group more than out-group
Social Exchange Theory
People help when rewards outweigh costs. Assumes that NO true altruism exists
Empathy Altruism Hypothesis
The idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
5 Step Model
1. Notice the event.
-distractions may limit helping
2. Recognize the emergency
-must interpret the event properly
3. Assume Responsibility
-must feel personally responsible
4. How to Help
-people must know what to do
5.Deciding to help
-costs may outweigh the benefits
All 5 steps must be completed in order to help.
Evolutionary Explanation for Agression (Nature)
Agression serves a purpose for survival and reproduction.
Biological Explanation for Aggression (Nature)
Section of the brain call the Amygdala is associated with agression. Testosterone is positively correlated with aggression, especially high in criminals. Serotonin is negatively correlated with agression, especially low in criminals
an act performed to strengthen approved behavior.
Social Learning Theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
Culture of Honor
Aggression protects honor and status. Minor conflicts are seen as challenges.
Frustration Aggression Hypothesis
Frustration: interruption of goal process
Frustration causes all aggressive behavior.
Negative feelings can trigger aggression. Pain, odor, heat. Frustration is one form of negative affect.
Combination of proximity and exposure.
Proximity: strongest predictor of attraction
People form relationships with those they see often.
Exposure to a stimulus increases liking of it.
Overexposed stimuli might lose their impact.
1. People generally like attractive people
2. Strong predictor of attraction for both sexes
3. Certain features are universally attractive
1. People associate attractiveness with good qualities
2. Ex: Extraversion, happiness, adjustment, intelligence
3. Functions like a stereotype about attractive people
People tend to associate with similar others.
Ex- demographics, opinions, interests, and values
People think similar others will like them more.
Similar others validate our traits and beliefs
People like others who like them back in return.
People prefer psychologically balanced relationships. Imbalance causes distress.
Sensation of touch creates positive emotions. Wire and fur monkey experiment.
It is proximity seeking and a secure base. Adults can still feel secure without physical contact. Reasons vary for seeking a partner.
Internal Working Models
generalized expectations, developed in early childhood, about how others are likely to respond in close relationships
People seek to maximize outcomes of relationships.
expected level of outcomes in a relationship
Stable, Unstable, Happy, Unhappy Combinations
Happy O>Cl>Cl.alt Cl.alt>O>Cl
Unhappy Cl>O>Cl.alt Cl.alt>Cl>O
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
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