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31 terms

Lab Final

STUDY
PLAY
Weather
the meteorological conditions: temperature and wind and clouds and precipitation
Climate
the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time
Manning's Equation
calculates the average velocity of a stream taking into account the slope of a channel, the depth of the water, the roughness of the channel, and the shape of the channel.
Soil Components
mineral, organic, air, water
Mid-latitude cyclone
warm air pushes poleward while the cold air pushes equatorward with a low pressure center located where the two opposing masses are joined. colder air dominates the larger segment (northern part) of the system. cloud progresses, cold front overtakes the warm front creating occluded front.
Climographs
used to display temperature and precipitation for a given location, bars to show precipitation and line to illustrate average monthly temperature
Cold front
occurs when a cold air mass actively moves in on a warmer air mall and pushes it upwards. cold air is denser and heavier forcing warm air to rise.
Cold front related weather
heavy precipitation, violent thunderstorms, sharp changes in temperature, air pressure, and wind
Warm front
warmer air slowly pushes against the cold air, and rises over the colder denser air mass at the surface. The slope of a warm front is gentle than a cold front.
Warm front related weather
less violent and less abrupt temperature, air pressure, and wind changes.
Air mass
large body of air, sub-continental in size, which is relatively homogeneous in terms of temperature and humidity.
The temperature and humidity characteristics of an air mass are determined by the nature of its
source region
Two types of air masses
maritime and continental
Two most important air masses to the weather of US
cP Canada, mT Gulf of Mexico
Dominates the weather of the pacific coast
mP
Maritime tropical air masses
bring greatest amount of moisture to the US east of the Rocky Mountains
Stream Velocity expressed as
m/s
Stream velocity
distance over time
How often weather data is collected and reported
every six hours to moscow, dc or melbourne
Q=AV
m3/sec
Q
Stream Discharge
A
cross sectional area (width x height)
V
average velocity
firn
snow that has survived the summer melt season. formed by partial melting and refreezing due to overlying layers of snow.
snow
precipitation in the form of ice crystals
bergschrund
large crevasse at the head of a valley glacier and beneath the cirque headwall
terminal moraine
type of end moraine that marks the furthest extent of glacial advance. located at lower elevations.
zone of accumulation
upper portion of the glacier. area where the net snow accumulation exceeds the melting, evaporation, and sublimation of snowfall.
snout
end of the glacier or its terminous
zone of ablation
lower portion of the glacier. this is an area where meling, evaporation, and sublimation exceed net snow accumulation
firn line
equilibrium line; a boundary between the zones of accumulation and ablation