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the meteorological conditions: temperature and wind and clouds and precipitation


the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time

Manning's Equation

calculates the average velocity of a stream taking into account the slope of a channel, the depth of the water, the roughness of the channel, and the shape of the channel.

Soil Components

mineral, organic, air, water

Mid-latitude cyclone

warm air pushes poleward while the cold air pushes equatorward with a low pressure center located where the two opposing masses are joined. colder air dominates the larger segment (northern part) of the system. cloud progresses, cold front overtakes the warm front creating occluded front.


used to display temperature and precipitation for a given location, bars to show precipitation and line to illustrate average monthly temperature

Cold front

occurs when a cold air mass actively moves in on a warmer air mall and pushes it upwards. cold air is denser and heavier forcing warm air to rise.

Cold front related weather

heavy precipitation, violent thunderstorms, sharp changes in temperature, air pressure, and wind

Warm front

warmer air slowly pushes against the cold air, and rises over the colder denser air mass at the surface. The slope of a warm front is gentle than a cold front.

Warm front related weather

less violent and less abrupt temperature, air pressure, and wind changes.

Air mass

large body of air, sub-continental in size, which is relatively homogeneous in terms of temperature and humidity.

The temperature and humidity characteristics of an air mass are determined by the nature of its

source region

Two types of air masses

maritime and continental

Two most important air masses to the weather of US

cP Canada, mT Gulf of Mexico

Dominates the weather of the pacific coast


Maritime tropical air masses

bring greatest amount of moisture to the US east of the Rocky Mountains

Stream Velocity expressed as


Stream velocity

distance over time

How often weather data is collected and reported

every six hours to moscow, dc or melbourne




Stream Discharge


cross sectional area (width x height)


average velocity


snow that has survived the summer melt season. formed by partial melting and refreezing due to overlying layers of snow.


precipitation in the form of ice crystals


large crevasse at the head of a valley glacier and beneath the cirque headwall

terminal moraine

type of end moraine that marks the furthest extent of glacial advance. located at lower elevations.

zone of accumulation

upper portion of the glacier. area where the net snow accumulation exceeds the melting, evaporation, and sublimation of snowfall.


end of the glacier or its terminous

zone of ablation

lower portion of the glacier. this is an area where meling, evaporation, and sublimation exceed net snow accumulation

firn line

equilibrium line; a boundary between the zones of accumulation and ablation

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