AP World History: Around 1450 to 1750
The third set of terms from the AP World History book by the Princeton Review (does not include terms from previous sections).
Terms in this set (92)
ruler with complete control over the government and the lives of the people.
People who believe that no god exists
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
travel all the way around the earth (e.g. Magellan)
physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services)
connected with or engaged in or sponsored by or used in commerce or commercial enterprises
self-governing territory associated with another country
the results of some previous action
the property of a continuous and connected period of time
a community of people in a religious order (especially nuns) living together
system of money
Influenced by the spirit of rationalism, Desists believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws.
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
appropriate to or befitting a god
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
exercising influence or control
the system of production and distribution and consumption
an ethical system that evaluates the pursuit of pleasure as the highest good
put at a disadvantage
the doctrine that people's duty is to promote human welfare- cultural movement during the Renaissance
an establishment consisting of a building or complex of buildings where an organization for the promotion of some cause is situated; a custom that for a long time has been an important feature of some group or society
an area of authority or control; the right to administer justice
those who support varying degrees of social or political or economic change designed to promote the public welfare
an economic system (Europe in 18th Century) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
related to monks or monasteries; removed from worldly concerns
a religious man living in a cloister and devoting himself to contemplation and prayer and work
Exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices.
concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong
a female who dedicates her life to God; avoids the things of the world
proceeding from or ordered by or subject to a pope or the papacy regarded as the successor of the Apostles
a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Great Britain)
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
a drastic and far-reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving
those who support political or social or economic conservatism; those who believe that things are better left unchanged
(Christianity) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil
formally approved and invested with legal authority; conforming with orthodox values
witty language used to convey insults or scorn
an imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal
to honor, admire, and regard with respect (esp. a Saint)
being or characteristic of or appropriate to everyday language
Age of Reason
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Akbar the Great (Mughal India)
The chief builder of the Mughal empire; very tolerant of other religions
Fort established in 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in Indonesia; today the city of Jakarta.
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism - believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
The Christian religion of the Byzantine Empire in the middle east that formed from Christianity's schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire. The Christian church ruled by the Byzantine emperor and the patriarchs of various historically significant Christian centers/cities.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants (Huguenauts)
Edict of Fountainbleu
revoked Edict of Nantes- Huguenots lost right to practice Calvinism and fled
Elizabeth I of England
She supported the northern protestant cause as a safeguard against Spain attacking England. She had her rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded.
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
This was the period of time when the Parliament was the head of England.
reasons: trade, a chance to get rich, chance to spread Christianity, find new lands and trade routes, glory for the country, and individual fame
Eager to eliminate Muslim middlemen and find more efficient trade routes, the Portuguese and the Spanish set out to sea (nicknamed "floating empires"); they soon controlled many major shipping routes
Island off the coast of India that was the base of Portuguese trade
Gutenberg, invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
similar to the feudal system, Natives got money and had to buy their products from their owners
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1506-1700), when Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Habsburg dynasty. Under Habsburg rule (chiefly under Charles V and Philip II of Spain), Spain reached the zenith of its influence and power, controlling territory. For well over a century, was the world's greatest power.
Henry Tudor (Henry VIII)
When he couldn't get a divorce in the Catholic Church he established himself as the head of the Church of England and made the rules, crossing the line between church and state
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun (Galileo and Copernicus)
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
The Christian slaves of the Ottomans who were not eligible for government positions and served instead as a part of the Ottoman military
a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen
Law of Heavenly Bodies
Copernicus believed that heavenly bodies were in constant rotation
German theologian who led the Reformation- believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds (1483-1546)
Louis XIV (France)
an absolute monarch that built up France's internal strength through finance and military, strengthened army and connected France through trades routes, catholic religion and the capital Versailles and foreign expansion during his reign
Manchu (Qing Dynasty) China
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
Peter the Great (Russia)
ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western Europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
Philip II of Spain
The son of Charles V who later became husband to Mary I and king of Spain and Portugal. He supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England (1527-1598) He was a intolerant, Catholic king.
Potosi Silver Mine
A city developed around a silver mine in Potosí, Bolivia- people involved got very rich- during 16th century Spain
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Roman Catholic Church
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
a series of steps followed to solve problems, including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method
a hereditary military dictator of Japan
Silver or Single Whip System
The Single Whip Reforms of 1581, imposed by Chief Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng ordered that all land taxes in China must be paid in silver. This reform monetized the Chinese tax system.
Straits of Malacca, Indonesia
well-traveled stretch of water between Malaysia and Indonesia used for trade along the Spice Route
Suleiman the Magnificent (Ottoman)
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as Suleiman Kanuni, 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals, the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Tokugawa Bakufu System
a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which now is called Tokyo. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle from 1603 until 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.
Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
Ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
the residence of the Catholic Pope in the Vatican City
Zheng He (Ming, China)
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming Emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
the government of the Roman Catholic Church
characterized by or aspiring to impracticable perfection