The Cold War
Terms in this set (89)
What was the purpose of the United Nations?
Protect the members against aggression.
Which countries made up the original mambers of the Security Council?
Britain, China, France, the U.S., and the Soviet Union
What factors help to explain why the U.S. and the Soviet Union became rivals instead of allies?
Because of the difference in the way they were affected after the war and political and economic differences, their postwar goals were very different.
What were "satellite" nations?
Communist nations in Eastern Europe on friendly terms with the USSR and thought of as under the USSR's control.
Why might Berlin be a likely spot for trouble to develop during the Cold War?
The Soviets wanted to keep Germany weak.
How did the U.S. respond to the Soviet's success with launching Sputnik?
The government poured money into science education.
Organization founded after World War II to promote international peace and security.
Europe's division into the mostly democratic West and the Communist East.
Policy in which the U.S. tried to stop the spread of communism.
U.S. provided support for countries that rejected communism.
U.S. Provide food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild Western Europe.
The state of diplomatic hostility between the U.S. and the Soviet Union in the decades following WWII.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries.
The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against NATO.
Policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression.
The downing of a U.S. spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960.
How did the Chinese Communists increase their power during WWII?
They won the support of the peasants and they controlled much of northern China.
What were the actions Chinese Nationalists took during WWII?
They saved money and supplies they got from the U.S. instead of using it to fight Japan.
What was the goal of the Cultural Revolution?
Establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal.
Why did the U.S. support the Nationalists in the civil war in China?
They were trying to stop communism from spreading.
What circumstances prevented Mao's Great Leap Forward from bringing economic prosperity to China?
The peasants had no incentive to work hard when only the state profited from their labor.
Communist leader in China.
Nationalist leader in China.
A huge collective farm.
Militia units formed by young Chinese people in response to Mao Zedong's call for a social and cultural revolution.
In what ways were the causes and effects of the wars in Korea and Vietnam similar?
They were both caused by civil wars between Nationalists and Communists and Communists still ruled in both countries after the war.
What role did the United Nations play in the Korean war?
They helped nationalist South Korea.
What was the sequence of events leading up to and through the Korean War?
WWII ended and Korea became divided, Standoff at the 38th Parallel, UN joins South Korea, MacArthur is removed, UN regained control of South Korea, UN and North Korea signed a cease-fire agreement, North/South Korean border set near the 38th parallel.
How did Vietnam become divided?
At 17° north latitude. Ho Chi Minh's Communist forces governed north of that line. The U.S. and France set up an anti-Communist government lead by Ngo Dinh Diem south of the line.
What role did the policy of containment play in the involvement of the U.S. in wars in Korea and Vietnam?
They fought on the sides of the nationalists in order to try to stop the communists.
How might imperialsm be one of the causes of the Vietnam War?
France controlled Vietnam in the early 1900s and nationalist independence movements had begun to develop.
How did the Cold War influence the international peace conference's decision to divide Vietnam?
The U.S. had a policy of containment and if one Asian nation fell to communism then they all would. Dividing Vietnam would stop fighting and keep communism from spreading.
Line of latitude that separated North and South Korea.
U.S. general who was in charge of UN forces in Korea before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Non-Communist leader of South Vietnam.
The idea that the fall of one nation to communism would lead to the fall of its neighbors.
Communist querrilla soldiers.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces.
A group of communist rebels who seized power in Cambodia in 1975.
How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba backfire?
Cuba allowed the Soviet Union to build 42 missile sites in their country where the missiles were aimed at the U.S.
How was the Cuban Missle Crisis resolved?
Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in return for a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba.
What was significant about the 1990 elections in Nicaragua?
They were the first free elections ever held in Nicaragua.
Why did the Soviet Union invade Afghanistan?
A Muslim revolt threatened to overthrow Afghanistan's Communist regime.
In what ways were U.S. actions in Nicaragua, Cuba, and Iran similar?
They supported anti-communist forces.
What were the reasons that Islamic fundamentalists took control of Iran?
Millions of Iranians were living in poverty.
Consisted of developing nations, often newly independent, who were not aligned the U.S. or the Soviet Union.
Developing countries that announced their neutrality in the Cold War.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba.
Bay of Pigs
Landing area on Cuba's south coast where an American-organized invasion by Cuban exiles was defeated by Fidel Castro's government forces.
the dictator of Nicaragua and a US ally. His government was overthrown by Sandinistas in 1979.
Leader of the Sandinistas.
Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
Iran's leader after WWII who embraced Western governments and wealthy Western oil companies. Was resented by Iranian nationalists and was forced to flee.
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
Muslim religious leader captured the American embassy and took American diplomats hostage.
What changes did Alexander Dubcek seek to make in Czechoslovakia in 1968 and what happened?
He loosened controls on censorship. This caused armed forces from the Warsaw Pact nations to invade Czecholslovakia.
Why was the policy of brinkmanship replaced?
It always lead to a crisis.
What was the result of Regan's move away from détente?
Tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union increased.
Dominant Soviet leader after Stalin died. He de-Stalinized the Soviet Union.
Replaced Khrushchev and adopted repressive domestic policies.
John F. Kennedy
U.S. president during Cuban Missile Crisis.
Assumed presidency after assasination of Kennedy. Escalated U.S. involvement in Vietnam War.
A policy of lessening Cold War tensions.
Richard M. Nixon
U.S. president who replaced brinkmanship with détente.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks; a series of meetings where leaders of the U.S. and Soviet Union agreed to limit their nations' stocks of nuclear weapons.
A fiercely anti-Communist U.S. president who continued to move away from détente.
Strategic Defense Initiative
A program to protect against enemy missiles.
What are some of the changes that Gorbachev made to the Soviet economy?
Local managers gained greater authority over farms and factories and people were allowed to open small private businesses.
After the breakup of the Soviet Union, what problems did Yeltsin face as the president of the Russian Federation?
He had trouble improving the economy, economic problems lead to political crisis, and there was war in Chechnya.
How did Putin deal with Chechnya?
He sent Russian troops to fight Chechnya and stop them from seceding.
How did Gorbachev's reforms help to move the Soviet Union toward democracy?
A new legeslative body was elected.
Based on Gorbachev's use of force in Lithuania in 1991, what were his views on the future of the Soviet Union at the time?
He knew that if Soviet colonies began to secede the Soviet Union would fall apart.
What consequences might result from 800 percent inflation?
Prices would get so high that people wouldn't be able to afford things they need to survive and factories and businesses might close and stop production completely.
In what ways were the policies of Gorbachev, Yeltsin, and Putin similar?
They all tried to move away from complete communism.
The ruling committee of the Communist Party.
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms.
Policy in the Soviet Union of speaking openly about problems.
First president of the Russian Federation. Tried to reform the economy with "shock therapy".
Commonwealth of Independent States; a loose federation of former Soviet territories.
An abrupt shift to free market economies.
How did Solidarity affect Communist rule in Poland?
Solidarity defeated Communism.
What effect did reunification have on Germany's international role?
Germany gained global responsibilities and Schroeder and his foreign minister took an active role in European affairs.
What was the main cause of the break up of Czechoslovakia?
Why did ethnic tension become such a severe problem in the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia?
They had many major ethnic groups that viewed one another with suspicion.
What effect did economic reform have on Slovakia?
It caused a sharp rise in unemployment.
A Polish labor union that during the 1980s became the main force of opposition to Communist rule in Poland.
The merging of the two Germanys.
A policy of murder and other acts of brutality by which Serbs hoped to eliminate Bosnia's Muslim population after the breakup of Yugoslavia.