45 terms

Final Western Civilization II

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The Triple Alliance
Italy, Austria, and Germany - Created by Bismark against the French
The Triple Entente
Britain, France, and Russia
Franz Ferdinand
Archduke and air to the throne of Austria. He and his wife were shot on a visit to Sarajevo which started WWI
The Black Hand
A military secret society that was founded in Serbia. They wanted Bosnia and Serbia together and assassinated Franz Ferndinand and his wife Sophie.
The Schlieffen Plan
Created by Alfred Schlieffen. Germany's plan to attack France first and the attack Russia. They took to long in Belgium and Russia got ready faster than they had thought possible.
The Battle of Somme
Germany attacked France. Britain started bombing Germany and sent soldiers over to help. Lost: 370,00 French, 330,000 German and 420,000 British.
Gallipoli (Turkish Land)
Land the British and French tried to take so they could attack Germany from the south. Attacked Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire with an amphibious attack. They failed and 25,000 died.
Results of Gallipoli
Russia was alone because British didn't back them up. Ottomans got closer to Germany. Turks made the Armenians go on a death march to Serbia. 1.5 million died.
T.E. Lawrence
British officer and a student from Oxford. His senior thesis he worked in intellegence in the Middle East. Renowned for his liaison role during the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Turkish rule.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
A secret aggrement between Britain and France to divide up the Middle East after the Ottoman Empire fell
Theodor Herzl
Father of the political Zionist movement among the Jews. Spurred on Jewish nationalism and non-intigration in Europe
Zionism
Called for the existance a sovereign Jewish national homeland
Balfour Declaration
A letter from the British government that was in favor for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. To build up American support for British policies and to keep the Russians in the war.
Treaty of Versailles
One of the peace treaties to end WWI. Ended the war between Germany and the Allied powers.
Paris Peace Conference
Woodrow Wilson wanted to make the war a thing of the past while Clemencau of France and George for Britain wanted to punish the Germans for the war. So there was a harsh peace.
Lenin
Russian revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. Leader of the Bolsheviks and headed the Soviet state. He fought for control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and created a socialist government.
Trotsky
Second to Lenin. A Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. He led the October Revolution
Stalin
Emerged to be leader even though Trosky was thought the leader. He was uncharismatic, ruthless, and he put Russia through purges that killed millions of people. Made the 5 year economic plan and social policies.
Bolsheviks
Came power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and founded the Soviet Union. Founded by Lenin. Orgainization of professional revolutionaries governed by a principle of democratic centralism. Considered themselves the vanguard of the Russian working class.
New Economic Policy
A return to prewar Capitalism. Recognized that war communism was a failure and backed off calls for inter-nation revolution. Wages and production rebounded to prewar levels.
Totalitarianism
A government for total control and unity, abolishes opposition, overrides the importance of the leader or party, an ideology that claims a higher and exlusive truth with a utopian perspective
Facism
An emphasis on emotion and action, the imporance of a group, seems to promote traditional values such as patriotism, family, religion, loyalty, and obedience. It was attractive to the middle class. Mussalini was one of the key figures in the creation of this kind of government.
Hitler
Raised in Vienna, Austira. He was anti-Semetic and wanted to be an artist. During WWI he found a purpose and was an excellent soldier. Thought that Germany betrayed the people when it surrendered. Leader of the National Socialist German Workers party. Arrested and sentenced five years for the Beer Hall Fest but he only served one year. Became the Chancellor in 1933. Believed that the Arians were the master race. Wrote Mein Kampf while in prison. Established a strong industry.
Mein Kampf
Book that Hitler wrote while in prison. Means "my struggle". Explains his vision for Germany and how to seize power.
Chamberlain
A British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Best known for his appeasment policy. Let Germany have Czechloslovakia by signing the Munich Agreement. Led Britain into the first eight months of WWII.
Churchill
Leader of Britain during WWII.
Mussolini
An Italian politician who led the National Facist Party and is accredited for being one of the key leaders in the creation of Facism.
Pearl Harbor
Japaneese attack on America. They thought that they would take out most of the US ships but many of them were out during the strike. Japan wanted to get the US out of the way so they wouldn't impede them in attacking other countries.
D-Day
June 6th, 1944 - paratroopers were sent to land on Omaha Beach. On August 25th, Paris was liberated.
Yalta Conference
Roosavelt, Stalin, and Churchill put the Soviet Union in control of most of Eastern Europe.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The US dropped atomic bombs on these Japaneese cities to end the war with Japan.
Nuremburg Laws
Deprived Jews of citizenship and kept Jews from marrying non-Jews.
Kristallnacht
The night of broken glass when millions of Germans attacked Jewsish homes, businesses, and synagogues. It was an orgainized assault by Hitler Youth, the Gastapo and the SS.
Nuremburg Trials
These trials were held after WWII was over. Convicted Nazi leaders for their crimes against humanity (only 180 were punished)
The Truman Doctrine
Policy that stated the the US must help and support free people through economic and financial aid. They pushed for economic and political stability. This doctrine led to the Marshal Plan.
Berlin Airlift
Communism in Greece popped up so the US went to put it down. Britain, France and the US made an economic union. Stalin wanted to cut Berlin off of all supplies so the US airlifted 8,000 tons of material a day for 342 days. It was very tense.
The Marshall Plan
Secretary of State, George Marshall proposed that the US should send billions of dollars in aid to Europe to stop the spread of communism.
Mutually Assured Destruction
A doctrine of military strategy and a national security policy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would result in the total destruction of both the attacker and the defender. This happened during the Cold War between Russia and the US.
Khrushchev
Gave the secret speech and exposed all of the travisties that took place in Russia when Stalin was in power. He crushed the Hungarian Revolt and was overthrown by Brezhnev.
Detente
This was a thaw in the Cold War. Nixon went to China and talked to Russia. They recognized the Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) between them and made a middle ground as a goal. It included the Strategic Arms Limitaiton Talks (SALT) and ended with the Soviet invation of Afgahnistan.
Gorbachev
Became premier. He instated the reform Perestroika which was meant to save communism but to change it. Political prisoners were released, free expression and free assembly was allowed, and other political parties were permitted. The result of this was the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union began to break up.
Yelstin
Puppet of Putin who turned to capitalism which was a difficult transition. Prices skyrocketed and the economy declined dramatically.
Putin
Leader of Russia who instilled a strong central state and put restrictions on the freedom of the press. More state control.
European Community
Free trade was established in Europe and open trade between European nations. The hope was to build a strong European economy. They resisted the United States and outside influence.
Perestroika
Name of the reforms instituted by Gorbachev.