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National origins Act

law that severly restricted immigrtion by establishing a system of national quotast that dicrimminated against immigrants from southern eastern europe and virtually excluded asians

New Social Patterns

easier divorce, homosexual movement, marry for love and attraction, intrafamily democracy, scientific child rearing, contraception, olympics, continued xenophobia, women working, unskilled laborers still couldn't support families, marriages are less sacred, movies, jazz, "New" women, prohibition, Fairer divorce laws

Jazz Age

a term coined by F. Scott Fitzgerald for the postwar era because the young people were willing to experiment with new forms of recreation and sexuality. The music blended African and European traditions to form a new kind of music

Havelock Ellis

among the first physicians to scientifically study human sexuality. found that nocturnal emissions were not dangerous emphasized reliable and accurate sex information

Margaret Sanger

founded American Birth Control League; which became Planned Parenthood in the 1940s. Advocated birth control awareness.

National Woman's Party

led by alice paul, fought for woman's suffrage despite wilson's war

Alice PAul

head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.

League of Women Voters

An organization set up to educate women about politics and voting.

Charlie Chaplin

a funny Englishman working in Hollywood that was unquestionably the king of the "silver screen" in the 1920's. He symbolized the "gay spirit of laughter in a cruel and crazy world." He also demonstrated that in the hands of a genius, the new medium could combine mass entertainment and artistic accomplishment.

Federal Communications Commission

(FCC) established in 1934 to regulate the radio industry and other forms of communication. Coolidge was the first President to address the nation by radio


the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth

Scopes Monkey Trial

Scopes, a bio teacher, was arrested for teaching about evolution. Ended badly for everyone. William Jennings Bryan fought the pro-evolution side. Got lots of coverate

Eighteenth Amendment

prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

Al Capone

United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)

Ku Klux Klan

Grew to 4.5 million in the early 1920's. a group against African Americans, Catholics, Jews, etc. Burned crosses, killed influential blacks, and whites supporting the blacks.

Sacco Vanzetti

two italian immagrants accused of anarchism and put to death

Lost Generation

F Scott Fitzgerald's term for his contemporary generation

F. Scott Fitzgerald

United States novelist (1896-1940)

Ernest Hemingway

an American writer of fiction who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954 (1899-1961)

Edith Wharton

United States novelist (1862-1937); Ethan Frome

H. L. Mencken

"bad boy baltimore". criticized marriage, democracy, prohibition and others.

Sinclair Lewis

United States novelist who satirized middle-class America in his novel Main Street (1885-1951)

New negro

African Americans who challenged the caste system that confined dark-skinned Americans to the lowest level of society confronted whites who insisted that race relations would not change. Saw the rise of the NAACP, UNIA shipping company Black Star Line. There was an extraordinary mix of black artists, sculptors, novelists, musicians and poets in Harlem deliberately set out to create a distinctive African American culture that drew on their identities as Americans and Africans.

Langston Hughes

A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People"

Harlem Renaissance

a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American

Marcus Garvey

Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business

Henry Ford

1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.

Frederick Taylor

an engineer who first integrated scientific management with business. He became foreman of the Midvale Steel Company. He used mathematics to determine maximum industrial productivity, using time and motion studies to find what each worker should for the highest efficiency.

Charles Lindberg

the prospects for commercial flight seemed dim until the 1920's, when this man's famous solo flight from New York to Paris electrified the nation and the world.

Warren Harding

29th president of the US; Republican; "Return to Normalcy" (life as it had been before WWI-peace, isolation); presidency was marred by scandal (Teapot Dome); Died in office

Albert Fall

The Secretary of the Interior who accepted bribes from an oil company and started the Teapot Dome Scandal.

Charles Forbes

(Ohio Gang member) Harding's Secretary of Veterans Affairs who sold supplies from veterans hospitals to companies in exchange for bribes. Also gave private businesses government contracts for bribes.

Secretary of the Treasury Mellon

tax cuts,An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.

Charles Cramer

works with property siezed assets of germans; stole stuff (under Harding)

Culture of the 1920's

Farmers suffering because prices are down on the overproduced food; consumerism; alienation of intellectuals; jazz age


VP who became President after Harding's death; 30th President of the U.S.; known for his honesty and pro-business policies

Election of 1924

Calvin Coolidge/republican vs. (McAdoo/democrat vs. Smith/democrat) Davis/Democrat vs. Robert LaFollette/progressive -> Coolidge's Win

Election of 1928

Herbert Hoover/republican ("A Chicken in Every Pot") vs. Al Smith/democrat (first catholic to run for president)= Hoover

Charles evans Hughes

Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.

Power Treaties

attempt to limit building up of military and ease tensions in asia (Harding's PResidency); Violated by japan; league threatens action; japan leaves league.

Kellogg Briand Pact

1928 15 nations agree to settle conflict peacefully and renounced war as instrument of national policy. US sec of state Kellogg and French foreign minister Briand = sponsors. Failed to provide measures of enforcement thus effectiveness was vitiated. Ultimately meaningless, esp. as nations adoptd practice of waging undeclared wars.

Good Neighbor Policy

This was established by Herbert Hoover to create good relations with Latin America. It took much of the American military out of these countries. It also nullified the Roosevelt Corollary. Treated Latin Americans as equals. Clark Memorandum took out Roosevelt Corollary from Monroe Doctrine. Platt Amendment was denounced. Did little to help Caribbean.

Clark Memorandum

Memorandum drawn up in 1928 by Undersecretary of State J. Ruben Clark that denied that the Monroe Doctrine Justified American intervention in Latin America, it was published in 1930 by President Hoover

Henry Stimson

Hoover's secretary of state, who sought sanctions against Japan for its aggression in Manchuria

Dawes Plan

A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.

Young Plan

program for settlement of German reparations after World War I. Presented by American Owen D. Young. Set the total reparations at $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years. Was adopted by the Allied Powers in 1930 to supersede the Dawes Plan.

Herbert Hoover

president of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression. He didn't want the gov involved in the peoples lives and thought that the people should express their individual rights.

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

An independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. It was charted under the Herbert Hoover administration.

Glass Steagall Banking Act

provided insurance for smaller bank accounts. reassured people that banks were safe

Agricultural Marketing Act

Established the first major government program to help farmers maintain crop prices with a federally sponsored Farm Board that would make loans to national marking cooperatives or set up corporations to buy surpluses and raise prices. This act failed to help American farmers.


Shantytowns on the outskirts of cities in which unemployed people of the Depression lived. The nomenclature comes from the blame many Americans placed on Hoover for the Great depression.

Bonus Army

Veterans who marched on Washington to demand immediate payment of adjusted compensation bonuses. Hoover charged them as criminals and sent army tanks after them. no one was killed

The Great Depression

the period from 1929-1940 was marked by a worldwide depression. in the united states, the period began with a crash of the stock market in 1929 ironically, WWII brought an end to the great depression

Election of 1932

FDR beat Hoover, ending 12 yrs of Republican rule. He was helped by the depression.

Twentieth Amendment

shortened the time between the election and inauguration day, also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

the 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.

New Deal

the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

(1935)- Relief- Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during World War II.

Public Works Administration. (PWA)

Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.

Social Security Act

(FDR - 2nd New Deal) set up a system of old-age insurance, financed partly by a tax on wages (paid by workers) and partly by a tax on payrolls (paid by employers). It created a state-federal system of unemployment insurance, similarly financed

Hundred Days

In 1933 Congress enacted more than a dozen measures which increased the level of federal involvement in the nation's economic life

Bank Holiday

(During 100 Days) All the banks were ordered to close until new laws could be passed. An emergency banking law was rushed through Congress. The Law set up new ways for the federal government to funnel money to troubled banks It also required the Treasury Department to inspect banks before they could re-open.

Economy Act

(During 100 Days) proposed by FDR, designed to convince the public (especially the business community) that the federal government was in safe, responsible hands. The act proposed to balance the federal budget by cutting the salaries of government employees and reducing pensions to veterans by as much as 15 percent.

Fireside Chats

informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

Guaranteed bank deposits and forced the separation of investment banking and commercial banking concerns while extending the power of the Federal Reserve Board over both types of institutions. It created the Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) and passed the Federal Securities Act.

Federal Reserve Board

establishes banking practices and regulates currency in circulation as well as the amount of credit available

Home Owners Loan Corporation

As part of the Hundred Days that understood the nation's tragedy of foreclosed mortgages, the HOLC refinanced American home mortgages. This effort allowed one-fifth of all U.S. mortgages to become refinanced which would prevent another Great Depression

Federal Securities Act

required promoters to make public full financial information about new stock issues and gave the Federal Trade Commission the right to regulate such transactions

Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)

Provided employment to young men by sending them to camps in national parks and forests - plant trees, build reservoirs, etc.

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

Very controversial. June 16, 1933, was part of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. It authorized the President to regulate businesses in the interests of promoting fair competition, supporting prices and wages, creating jobs for unemployed workers, and stimulating the United States economy to recover from the Great Depression.

National Recovery Administration

Government agency meant to supervise the drafting and operation of the business codes. Labor leaders said that FDR wanted ppl to join unions b/c of this

John Lewis

the boss of the United Mine Workers who also succeeded in forming the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) within the ranks of the AF of L in 1935.

Agricultural Adjustment Act

Recovery: (AAA); May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US vs Butler on January 6, 1936

Dust Bowl

Parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas that were hit hard by dry topsoil and high winds that created blinding dust storms; this area of the Great Plains became called that because winds blew away crops and farms, and blew dust from Oklahoma to Albany, New York.

Tennessee Valley Authority

A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs. Meant to check the pricing laid out by other companies.

New Deal

President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life. Lacked any consistent ideological base. Drew on Populist Tradition.

Rexford Tugwell

was an agricultural economist who became part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's first "Brain Trust"

Malcolm X

1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality

Federal Emergency Relief Administration

Relief: 1932; (FERA) response to Federal Emergency Relief Act; headed by Harry Hopkins; fought adult unemployment, gave money away, short term solution to unemployment; gave state/localities $3.1 billion; 20,000,000 got work; lasted from May 1933 to December 1935

Civil Works Administration (CWA)

put people to work building and repairing roads and public buildings, teaching, decorating walls with murals, and utilizing their special skills in dozens of other ways. Was soon abolished by FDR because the cost.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

Led by Hopkins, under FDR, and eventually disbanded but got 8.5 million ppl jobs. Made cultural contributions. Arts work.

John Dos Passos

wrote the trilogy USA; anti-capitalist deeply pessimistic. Despair and anger of liberals

John Steinbeck

American novelist who wrote "The Grapes of Wrath". (1939) A story of Dustbowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life.

William Faulkner

author, commentated society's trapping of people and character who were driven by high ideals

Huey Long

As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc

Share our WEalth

Long propsed something called the Share your wealth program . Long wanted all fortunes of over 3 million dollars to be confiscated and the redistributed to the poor.

Father Charles Coughlin

Popularly known as "The Radio Priest". Blamed the Great Depression on Conspiracy in the Banking Industry. Anti-semitic. Had 40 million listeners. Asked to resign by US Catholic Bishops.

National Union for Social Justice

created by Francis Townshend and father charles coughlin, left-wing critic. Appealed to lower middle class.

Dr. Francis Townsend

led campaign for old-age revolving pensions. Wanted to pay a $200/month to persons over the age of 60 and said they couldn't hold jobs. Popular with the elderly, but economist knew it wouldn't work.

Schecter v. US

Court declared NRA/NIRA unconstitutional, also struck down laws preventing farm mortgage foreclosures and pensions for railroad workers.

Wagner Act

1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.

Second New Deal

Jan 1935-Sept1935- Reorganized fed program for jobless relief. Assistance to rural poor, Supp for org labor, social welfare benefits for elder, stricker business reg, heavier taxes on wealthy.

Rural Electrification Administration

(REA) lent money at low interest rates to utility companies and to farmer cooperatives interested in bringing electricity to rural areas. Dramatically increased farms with electricity

Wealth Tax

tax on an individuals wealth; raised taxes on large incomes considerably. Estate and gift taxes were also increased. Stiffer taxes on corporate profits reflected the Brandeis group's desire to penalize corporate giantism.

John Maynard Keynes

English economist who favored increased federal spending to stimulate the economy. Argued for an unbalanced budget, reducing interest and taxes and increasing expenditures. Never accepted by FDR

Election of 1936

1) Roosevelt (D) vs. Alfred E. Landon 2) Roosevelt won by a landslide, carrying every state except Maine and Vermont

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act

paid farmers to divert land from commercial crops to soil building plants like clover and soy bean

Federal Housing Administration

A federal agency established in 1943 to increase home ownership by providing an insurance program to safeguard the lender against the risk of nonpayment. Currently part of HUD.

Eleanor Roosevelt

FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

Molly Dewson

campaigned for FDR to gain more female voters, economic and social recovery that was best for men and women, expanded Democratic base to more women

Frances PErkins

(born Fanny Coralie Perkins, lived April 10, 1882 - May 14, 1965) was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition

Daughters of the American Revolution

patriotic society of women descended from Americans of the Revolutionary period, organized in 1890; refused to let the black Marian Anderson sing. Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from the group.

Blacks and New Deal

segregated with CCC; TVA gave few blacks jobs; Social Security Act did not include agricultural laborers (excluding many blacks); Charles Forman was appointed to keep the gov honest when it came to race; a black woman was appointed along with there being a black cabinet

black cabinet

black members of FDR's Secretary of the Interior, Ikes' cabinet

Harold Ikes

secretary of the Interior

neutrality acts

Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.


lightning war

manhattan project

code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II

Axis Powers

rome-berllin-tokyo coalition

Wendell Wilkie

ran against FDR his 3rd term as a repub; lost; didn't have much to fight about with FDR

Lend LEase Act

meant to save great britain; expenditure of $7 billion for war materials that could be sold lended or leased or transfered to any country whose defense FDR deemed vital to that of the US. Eventually ok'd by congress

Four Freedoms

Freedom of Speech, Religion, Want, from Fear; used by FDR to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these freedoms would be ensured

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