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AP Psychology Myers - Personality
Terms in this set (93)
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of whih we are unaware.
Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy, that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives.
operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the Reality Principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
The childhood stages of development during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.
According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved.
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. There are seven:
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. Freud believed that repression enabled all other defense mechanisms.
Defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings. Example - you display exaggerated friendliness to a person you don't like.
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. Example - a thief thinks everybody else is a thief.
Defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions. Ex - alcoholic says he only drinks to be social.
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet. Example - kicking the dog instead of the person you want to harm.
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism that transfers unacceptable impulses to one that is socially acceptable. Ex. a man with agressive impulses becomes a surgeon
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism where the person refuses to accept reality or fact. Example - you deny your husband is having an affair even though you have evidence.
A personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger proaction of one's inner dynamics.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projection test in which people explores their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
According to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
Unconditional Positive Regard
According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
The most widely researched and clinically see of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
Empirically Derived Test
A test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
Views behavior as influence by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context.
The interacting influences between personality and environmental factors.
Our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless.
External Locus of Control
The perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate.
Internal Locus of Control
The perception that one controls one's own fate.
The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
Overestimating other's noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
One's feelings of high or low self-worth.
A readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
Proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death.
When= birth- 18 months
relief= Sucking, Biting
Concern= with how a child is weened
Fixation Causes... May lack self confidence, gullible, obsessive eating or smoking
When= 18 months-3
Relief= expelling/retaining feces
Concern=with toilet training
Fixation Causes...obsession with neatness
Relief=discovery of own gender
Concern=attachment to mother, jealous of dad
Fixation Causes...improper identification
suppression of sexual instincts "natural homo stage"
Fixation Causes... homosexuality
Sexual desires return for opposite sex except now outside the family. Ages 13-19
level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness
a defense mechanism that conceals your undesirable shortcomings by exaggerating desirable behaviors
bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's theory... cannot skip... from top to bottom
censored expression of the dreamer's unconscious wishes
remember the content of dreams
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
person situation contraversy
while personality traits may be enduring, the resulting behavior in different situations is different
tyranny of choice
brings information overload and a greater likelihood that we will feel regret over some of the unchosen options
Big Five Trait for the appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and acceptance of variety of experience.
Big Five Trait tendency to be organized and dependable, show self-discipline, act dutifully, aim for achievement, and prefer planned rather than spontaneous behavior.
Big Five Trait Energy, positive emotions, surgency, assertiveness, sociability and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others, and talkativeness.
Big Five Trait tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others.
Big Five Trait The tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, and vulnerability.
Model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality
1. how prominent and extreme traits are in a person dictate their behavior.
1870-1937; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; 1.basic mistakes, style of life, inferiority/superiority complexes,
2. Studied how birth order shaped personality.
1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; archetypes; collective unconscious;
1.people had conscious and unconscious awareness
2.libido is all types of energy, not just sexual;
1885-1952; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; criticized Freud
1. stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses
2. as opposed to being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends
The three factors, behavior, cognition, and environment, are interlocking determinants of each other.
the way of explaining events positively or negatively
the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context.
Believes that our environment (through learning) has the most impact on our personality
View personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth. Focus on the way people strive for actualization
Parallel to the Oedipus complex, it's a girl's sexual desires toward her father and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival mother.
false consensus effect
Big Five Trait Test
Set of factors used to provide info on a person'a personality. Created by McCrae and Costa
the tendency to accept certain information as true, such as character assessments or horoscopes, even when the information is so vague as to be worthless.
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