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Chapter 3 ~ A&P
Terms in this set (44)
all cells other than gametes
Functions of the cell membrane
physical isolation, regulation of exchange with the environment, sensitivity (receptors on the membrane enable the cell to respond to extracellular messages), structural support (connections between cells provide for tissue stability)
The cell membrane is composed of
lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates
Lipid components of the cell membrane
Phospholipids (phosphate group, 2 fatty acid tails) and cholesterol
integral membrane proteins
parts of membrane structure
peripheral membrane proteins
bound to inner or outer surface
Functions of membrane proteins
Anchoring, Recognition, Enzymes, Receptors, Carriers, Channels
inside the cell, proteins are bound to the cytoplasm; outside the cell, proteins may be attached to other cells or to extracellular protein fibers.
cells of the immune system recognize cells as "self" or foreign based on the presence or absence of these proteins.
biological catalysts for intracellular and extracellular reactions
bind specific extracellular molecules (ligands) to trigger changes in the activities of the cell (e.g. morphine administered attaches to receptor)
bind solutes and transport them across the membrane
some integral proteins contain a central pore that forms a passageway for water and small solutes to cross the membrane
complex molecules in the cell membrane (glycolipids and glycoproteins) and form the glycocalyx, a layer beyond the outer surface of the cell membrane.
Functions of the glycocalyx (formed by carbohydrates)
lubrication and protection, anchoring and locomotion, specificity in binding, recognition
general term for the material located between the cell membrane and the nucleus. Made up of cytosol and organelles
intracellular fluid. Contains the cell's nutrient pool (CHOs, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, minerals). Cells also contain inclusions, masses of insoluble materials suspended in the cytosol (e.g. skin pigment)
structures suspended in the cytosol that perform specific functions within the cell
non membranous organelles
cytoskeleton, microvilli, cilia, flagella, centrioles, and ribosomes
membranous organelles (isolated from cytosol by phospholipid bilayer)
endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, mitochondria, and nucleus
an internal protein framework that gives the cytoplasm strength and flexibility
made of acton; form core of microvilli; attach to membrane proteins (structure)
varying protein composition, depending on cell type. Function: cell to cell connections; stabilize position of organelles; structure
made of tubulin. Function: movement of organelles; form cilia; form centrioles (spindle apparatus)
found in small intestine; increase surface area
move synchronously to move layer of secretions across cell surfaces
form spindle apparatus for mitosis
used to propel a cell through fluid. Sperm cells are the only cells in the human body with flagella.
are scattered throughout the cytoplasm; they manufacture proteins that enter the cytosol.
attached to endoplasmic reticulum; they manufacture proteins that will be modified in the ER.
a network of membranes attached to the nuclear envelope.
synthesizes membrane proteins and proteins that are secreted by the cell. The attached ribosomes make the proteins and pass them to the ER for modification and transport to the Golgi.
no ribosomes. This type of ER synthesizes lipids and also breaks down toxins and drugs
a series of flattened membranous discs that receives, modifies, and packages products from the ER into vesicles. these may be secretory vesicles, membrane rental vesicles, or lysosomes.
contain digestive enzymes (defense and recycling)
create energy for the cell (cellular respiration)
double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytosol. It communicates with the cytosol through nuclear pores. Nucleoli are organelles within the nucleus that synthesize ribosomal RNA.
the specific sequence of nitrogenous bases along the length of the DNA strands. It is a triplet code -- each sequence of 3 nitrogenous bases codes for a single amino acid.
segment of DNA that codes for production of a protein
transcription (a part of protein synthesis)
located in nucleus; making a copy of a gene in the form of mRNA (DNA containing gene unwinds, polymerase adds complimentary bases to form mRNA copy of gene, polymerase and mRNA detach after stop signal; reassociation of strands, mRNA leaves nucleus and enters cytoplasm)
located in cytoplasm; building the protein based on instructions carried by mRNA (mRNA strand binds to ribosome, tRNA molecule carry amino acids to the ribosome, form protein, completed protein leaves ribosome)
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