Unit #3 Vocabulary Words Adv. World History

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Vasco Da Gama
Portuguese explorer, who was the first European to sail from Portugal, around Africa to India. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Bartholomeu Dias
In 1488, this Portuguese explorer became the first European mariner to round the southern tip of Africa, opening the way for a sea route from Europe to Asia. Using the westwardly winds of the southern atlantic ocean, his ships rounded the perilous Cape of Good Hope, and then sailed around Africa's southernmost point, Cabo das Agulhas, to enter the waters of the Indian Ocean.
Ferdinand Magellan
In 1519, with the support/blessings of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, this Portuguese navigator set out to find a better route to the Spice Islands. He assembled a fleet of ships which, despite huge setbacks and his own eventual death in the Philippines(1521), was able to circumnavigate the world in a single voyage because of the one ship that returned in 1522.
Christopher Columbus
A Spanish (originally Italian) explorer responsible for the European discovery of America (The New World) in 1492. He had sailed across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain, under the patronage of the king and queen, Ferdinand and Isabella, hoping to find a westward route to Asia.
Atahualpa
Last independent Incan emperor of Peru (1532-1533), who defeated his half-brother Huáscar (1532) and briefly reunited the Incan empire after years of civil war. Before he could celebrate, he was captured by the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro. Even though, he paid an immense ransom in gold, Pizarro still executed him, marking an end to the Inca empire.
Conquistadors
The Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters, who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century.
Montezuma II
The last of the Aztec emperors, born in 1466, during which the Aztec empire had spread to present-day Honduras and Nicaragua. The Aztec people, however, resented the emperor's frequent demands for tribute and victims for religious sacrifice. So when Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived in 1519, this emperor saw some of his subjects turn against him. He was killed soon after, while in custody of Hernan Cortes, and the Aztec empire came to an end.
Hernan Cortes
(c.1485-1547) A Spanish conquistador and explorer who defeated the Aztec empire and claimed Mexico for Spain. He first set sail to the New World at the age of 19 and later joined an expedition to Cuba. In 1518, he set off to explore Mexico. There he strategically aligned some native peoples against others to overthrow them. King Charles I appointed him governor of New Spain in 1522. He died in Spain in 1547.
Jamestown
The first permanent English settlement in North America, founded in 1607 by some English men, in Virginia. The location of this settlement could be easily defended from attack by sea (Spanish). The water along the shore was deep enough for ships to dock. It was also named for King James I of England and was destroyed later in the seventeenth century in an uprising of Virginians against the governor.
Triangle Trade
The transatlantic trading network along
which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America.
Middle Passage
The voyage that brought captured
Africans to the West Indies, and later to North and South America, to be sold as slaves—so called because it was considered the middle leg of the triangular trade.
Joint Stock Companies
A business entity in which different stocks can be bought and owned by shareholders. Each shareholder owns company stock in proportion, evidenced by their shares (certificates of ownership). Money was raised by selling shares to investors, who became partners in the venture. One of the earliest examples of this entity was the Virginia Company, founded in 1606 to colonize North America.
Mercantilism
The theory of trade adopted by the major European powers from roughly 1500 to 1800. It advocated that a nation should export more than it imported and accumulate bulks of gold and silver to make up the difference. The exportation of finished goods was favored over extractive industries like farming.
Favorable Balance of Trade
An economic status, in which a country or nation attains more exported goods than it has of imported goods.
Zheng He
(1371 - 1433) A great Chinese explorer, mariner, diplomat, court eunuch, and fleet commander. He went on seven major expeditions to South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Africa, and the Middle East during the early part of the fifteenth century, in order to explore the world for the Chinese emperor and to establish Chinese trade in new areas. When this explorer was born his given name was Ma He.
The Forbidden City
The palace of the Chinese emperors during the Ming and Qing dynasties. It is located in the heart of Beijing, the capital city of China, and is the largest ancient palace in the world. It was built under the orders of the powerful Yongle Emperor of the Ming Dynasty between the years 1406 to 1420. More than one million people worked on the construction of the expansive palace, while using the best materials brought in from all over China. When the palace was completed, the Yongle Emperor moved the capital of the empire to Beijing city.
Daimyo
Subordinate only to the Shogun, this term refers to the Japanese feudal lords, who commanded a private army of samurai. They were the most powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan.
Tokugawa Shogunate
The last feudal Japanese military government-based dynasty, consisting of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603 to 1867. During this period, Japan strove to isolate itself from foreign countries, until 1853, when Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy and began to modernize itself (Meiji Era).
Columbia Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's' voyages.
Encomienda System
A method by which the Monarchy of Spain rewarded colonial settlers by entrusting them with a group of natives whom they would civilize and convert to Christianity, in return for gifts in the form of labor, taxes, or goods as tribute. During the reconquest of Spain, he Spanish had been fighting to retake their land for 800 years, and when they succeeded in this mission, they established this system to organize labor and taxation from the conquered Muslim and Jewish occupants. This system was eventually abolished in 1720.
Capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership of a country's industry or trade and the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
Mestizo
In 1519, Spanish Conquistador Hernan Cortes overthrew the Aztec Empire in Mexico and set up a Spanish colony. At his side was a Native American woman named La Malinche who served as his translator. Although she was given to Cortes as a slave, La Malinche played an influential role in helping him conquer this massive Aztec Empire with only a small army. The relationship between Cortes and La Malinche grew romantic, eventually producing a son, Martin. This baby, Martin, became one of the first examples of this racial term, which is used in Latin America to describe those with both Native American and European Spanish ancestry.
Dutch East India Company
A trading company founded in the Dutch Republic (present-day Netherlands) in 1602 to protect that state's trade in the Indian Ocean and to assist in the Dutch war of independence from Spain. The company prospered through most of the 17th century as the instrument of the powerful Dutch commercial empire in the East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Toward the end of the 18th century the company became corrupt and seriously in debt. It was dissolved in 1799.
Francisco Pizarro
(c.1476-1541) A Spanish explorer and conquistador, who joined Vasco Núñez de Balboa in his march to the "South Sea," during which Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean. In 1532, this conquistador and his brothers conquered Peru. Three years later, he founded the nation's new capital, Lima. Eventually, he was assassinated on June 26, 1541, in Lima, Peru, by vengeful members of an enemy faction of conquistadors.
Treaty of Tordesillas
On June 7, 1494, the governments of Spain and Portugal agreed to this treaty, named for the city in Spain in which it was created. The treaty neatly divided the "New World" of the Americas between the two superpowers. Spain and Portugal divided the New World by moving the already established, Line of Demarcation, westward. Spain and Portugal adhered to the treaty without major conflict, and the results linger throughout the Americas today.
Line of Demarcation
Spain and Portugal were two major powers that were worried that their new territories would be taken by each other, or by others. In order to protect their new empires. To solve this, Pope Alexander VI established the_____________________, in 1493, between Spanish and Portuguese territory. This border was later revised by the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). Spain won control of lands discovered west of the line, while Portugal gained rights to new lands to the east.
Colonies
Land controlled by a distant nation.
Amerigo Vespucci
(c. 1451-c. 1512)An explorer and navigator, born in Florence, Italy. On May 10, 1497, he embarked on his first voyage. On his third and most successful voyage, he discovered present-day Rio de Janeiro and Rio de la Plata. Believing he had discovered a new continent, he called South America the New World. In 1507, America was named after him. He died of malaria in Seville, Spain, on February 22, 1512.
Puritans
A group of English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.

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