Which of the following statements indicates how Gestalt psychology and behaviorism treated the study of consciousness?
Gestalt psychology accepted the study of consciousness but criticized the attempt to analyze it into elements. Behaviorism refused to acknowledge the existence of consciousness.
Maslow's notion of self-actualization was partially based on ________.
the personal characteristics of Max Wertheimer
________ was the spokesman for the Gestalt movement who studied the thinking processes of chimpanzees, left Germany because of his anti-Nazi activities, came to the United States, and eventually became president of the American Psychological Association.
The importance of perceptual constancies in the Wundt versus Gestalt debate was that the experience supported ________.
the Gestalt position that "completeness" of an experience is not altered when the actual sensory components of the experience are altered
Wertheimer defined "peripheral factors" as ________.
the organizing principles present in the stimuli
From the Gestalt perspective, insight requires that one ________
perceive the relationships between the components of the problem or issue
It is known that before an eye movement or a finger movement occurs, it is possible to record altered activity in a specific cerebral cortex area. The Gestaltists would argue that this is support for the principle of ________
"A new movement requires something to revolt against"; Freud opposed the current trends in ________
the treatment of mental disorders
Rush's treatment techniques reflect ________.
early crude attempts at shock therapy and sedation
what he thought were "humane" treatment innovations
the somatic approach
The techniques of Mesmer ________
were investigated and he was discredited and often involved convulsions
Freud's use of hypnosis was a direct consequence of ________
his association with Breuer and a research grant to study with Charcot
Self-preservation as a major human motive was expressed by Freud in his notion of the ________.
The essential difference between those who are classified as dissenters and those who are classified as carrying on in the Freudian tradition is that the dissenters ________.
developed their own theories during Freud's lifetime
Jung proposed that personality is shaped by ________
a.one's goals, expectations, and ambitions
c.experiences which occur throughout one's
(D.All of the choices are correct.)
In Adler's system, a motivating force in behavior based on actual or perceived defects is(are) ________.
Which of the following appears to have interfered with humanistic psychology's becoming part of the mainstream of psychological thought?
Its adherents were in private practice, not training graduate students, and were less likely to engage in systematic research and publication.
The illusion that two stationary flashing lights are moving from one place to another.
Wertheimer looked at it as a whole in order to explaine the whole phenomenon.
Lewin's system using the concept of fields of force to explain behavior in terms of one's field of social influences.
The doctrine that there is a correspondence between psychological or conscious experience and the underlying brain experience
A quality of wholeness or completeness in perceptual experience that does not vary even when the sensory elements change.
Fields of force
Regions or spaces traversed by lines of force, such as of a magnet or electric current.
There are no structural psychologists left in the United States. However, structural psychology was a success because it ________.
helped to establish psychology as an independent science
The imperative that "psychology must discard all references to consciousness" was the command of ________.
Both Miller and Neisser were once behaviorists because of their ________
graduate work at Harvard, which left them no choice
By 1976, Neisser concluded that cognitive psychology ________
had little to contribute to psychology
The principle purpose of the Turing Test is to determine if ________
an interrogator can distinguish a computer from a human
The inclusion of cognitive factors in the theories of ________ altered American behaviorism.
Bandura and Rotter
One contemporary approach to introspection is called retrospective ________.
The cognitive psychologists' focus on cognitive processes has meant that using animals as subjects is ________.
fruitful in cognitive psychology
Even those psychologists who support cognitive psychology point out that there ________.
remains considerable confusion about terminology and definitions and are few concepts on which the majority of cognitive psychologists agree
The process of reducing or eliminating a complex by recalling it to conscious awareness and allowing it to be expressed.
An act of forgetting or a lapse in speech that reflects unconscious motives or anxieties
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
mental representations of internal stimuli, such as hunger-that drives a person to take certain actions
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
in psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
percetion is not a passive impression and combination of sensory elements, as the empiricists and associationist said, but an active organizing of elements into a coherent experience
Kant , Immanuel
Aruged that out perception of an object does not change, even if we change our orientation to it.
a quility of wholeness or completeness in pperceptual experiance that does not vary even when the sensory elements change
Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization
These organizing principles do not depend on higher mental processes or past experiences but are present in the stimuli themselves.
•German word meaning form or shape
•whole is greater than the sum of its parts
-whole design should strike you (not individual elements)
-our eyes are drawn to groups rather than things farther apart; respond in predictable ways
•react to stand outs
(1886 - 1941) Worked with Wertheimer on his early perception experiments. He is considered a cofounder of the school of Gestalt psychology.
-The Law of Figure - Ground
insight learning- sudden, delayed realization of how to solve a problem
experiment with chimpanzees trying to get banana hanging from ceiling
-id, ego, superego
-dream latent + manifest content
1856 - 1939
First to attempt comprehensive list of ego's defense mechanisms.
Used play therapy with children.
Who was Anna Frued?
- Analytical Theory
-believed that the unconscious contains positive and spiritual motives as well as sexual and aggressive forces
Founded the school of individual psychology; believed that the inability to overcome a childhood sense of incompleteness results in an inferiority complex
-combined Freud, Jung, and Adler's theories into one of her own
-adult personality is shaped by the child's relationship to the parents- not by fixation at some stage of psycho-sexual development
proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. If our physiological needs are met, we become concerned with personal safety; if we achieve a sense of security, we then seek to love, to be loved, and to love ourselves; with out love needs satisfied, we seek self-esteem.
-Unconditional Positive Regard
-Accepts the self-actualizing tendency
-Explores individuals who do and do not function well
-Looked at the relationship between the self (one's conscious feelings/views of self) and the person (sum of experiences, feelings, perceptions and wishes)
was distinct from mainstream phychological thought in goals, subject matter and methods using case studies
Antecedent Influences of Psychoanalysis
1. philosophical speculations about unconcious psychology phenomena
2.early ideas about psychopathology
the process of barring unacceptable ideas, memories, or desires from conscious awareness, leaving them to operate in unconscious mind
Freud concepts supported
1.some characteristics of the oral and anal personality types
3the notion dream reflect emotional concerns
4. aspects of the oedipus complex in boys
Freud concepts not supported
1.dreams satisfies symbolically repressed wishes and desires
2.In resolving the oedipus complex, boys identify with father and accept his superego standards out of fear
3.Women have an inferior conception of their bodies, have less severe superego standards than men, and find it more difficult to achieve identity.
4. personality is formed by age five and changes little after that.
the resevior of material that once was concious but has been forgotten or suppressed
the deepest level of the psyche, it contains inherited experiences of human and prehuman species
Inherited tendencies within the colloective unconsious that dispose a person to behave similarly to ancestors who confronted similar situations
Adler's theory of personality: its incoperates social as well as bilogical factors
Adler's conception of an innate potential to cooperate with other people to achieve personal and societial goals.
A condition that developes when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferiorty feelings
Horney's conception of pervasive loneliness and helplessness, feelings that are the foundation of neuroses
the full development of one's abilites and the realization of one's peotential
Which of the following appears to have interfered with humanisticpsychology's becoming part of the mainstream of psychological thought?
tsadherents were in private practice, not training graduate students, andwere less likely to engage in systematic research and publication.
The changing Ziegist in Physics during the time of Gestalt psychology was
focuing on fileds of force instead of atoms or elements.
People mistakenly assumed Gestalt psychology delt only with perception
Its was framed around the idea of perceptional ogranization but the word Gestalt had many meanings.
Whats was Wertheimer thoughts on creative thinking?
Start with the whole then move to differnt parts
What was the Gestlat critisim of behaviorism ?
-They looked at parts instead of the whole
-Deny Validity of introspection
-Disregard any recognition of consiousness
What is life space
Kurt Lewin's concept
-affects our behavior
- includes all past, present, and future events in our lives
-consists of the persons needs in interaction of it psychological enviorment
What motivates people according to Lewin
Lewin believed that behavior involves an cycle of tension states or need states fallowed by activity and relief.
Three major shocks to the collective human ego according to Freud ?
1) Copernicus said the earth wasnt the center of the universe
2) Darwin showed that we evolved form lower forms of animal life
3) Freud showed that we are not the rational rulers of our but are controled my unconscious forces
What where two major sources of influence in the psychoanalytic movement
2) Emmanuel movement
Emmanule Church movements
A church movement that pointed out psychologial factors as a potential casuse of mental illness
Why was the case of Anna O. so important to Freuds thinking?
it introduced Freud to the Catharic Method
Disturctive foce that can be directed in-ward and masochism and suscide
Out- ward is hatred and aggression
Later Freud said that agression can be a great motivator then sex.
What is the relationship between psychanalysis and main stream academic psychology
Psychoanalysis has been developed outside of academic psychology and has been criticized by APA
What where the critizims of Freuds Method for collecting data
1-wrote clients recalections in conversations
2-might of reintrupreted them
3-infered to instead of heard sexual seduction in childhoot
4- resesarch was based on a small ureprested sample of people
5-notes and therpy session dont match up with case histories based on his notes
6-patients could have made up there reports
The changing Zegist in social science later influenced the development of psychoanalysis
Changed it from focusing on bilology to enviorment in the influence in personality
What does word obeject refer to in object relations theory ?
Any object person or activity that can staisfy an instinct
The deepest level of the psychie contains inherited experiances of human and prehuman species
Inherited tendencies within the collective unconsious that despose a person to behave simiarly to ansistors who confronted similar situation
Jungs theory of collective unconscious
Jungs theory differed from Freud
1) Jung Intergrowth, Freud Interpersonal relationships
2) Freud defined libido sexual terms, Jung Libido was life energy
3)Freud diecribed people as victums of childhood evenets, Jung though they can be changed and be affected by our goals hopes and asperations
4) Jung attempted to go more deeply then Frude into the unconscious mind
Adler differ from Freud
Adler developed a personallity theory the that differed from Freuds specially in terms of sexual factors.
Adler ment by style of life
The drive to superiority or perfection is universal but everyone behavies in a different way to reach that goal. In order to reach that goal we develope a style of life
conditon that developes when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings
Jung and Adlers comtributions
Word Assoication and the eight psychological types and Adler was the inferiorty complex
How was Humistic Psychology different form behaviorism and psycho
Humnistic psychology was focsing on human strenghts, conscious experiance and fee will that was different form behaviorsim and psycholanalysis
Maslow notion of self actualization
is the full development of ones abilities the relaization of ones potential
Hummisitic pscyhology failed becasue
-they wherent at univeristies
-attaching peostions that were no longer infulential