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Gestalt psychology started as a movement opposed to ________.

Wundt's approach

Which of the following statements indicates how Gestalt psychology and behaviorism treated the study of consciousness?

Gestalt psychology accepted the study of consciousness but criticized the attempt to analyze it into elements. Behaviorism refused to acknowledge the existence of consciousness.

The unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs is ________.


Maslow's notion of self-actualization was partially based on ________.

the personal characteristics of Max Wertheimer

________ was the spokesman for the Gestalt movement who studied the thinking processes of chimpanzees, left Germany because of his anti-Nazi activities, came to the United States, and eventually became president of the American Psychological Association.

Wolfgang Köhler

The importance of perceptual constancies in the Wundt versus Gestalt debate was that the experience supported ________.

the Gestalt position that "completeness" of an experience is not altered when the actual sensory components of the experience are altered

Wertheimer defined "peripheral factors" as ________.

the organizing principles present in the stimuli

From the Gestalt perspective, insight requires that one ________

perceive the relationships between the components of the problem or issue

It is known that before an eye movement or a finger movement occurs, it is possible to record altered activity in a specific cerebral cortex area. The Gestaltists would argue that this is support for the principle of ________


Like Skinner, Lewin argued that ________.

statistics were not useful

At the time of Freud's death, the dominant form of American psychology was ________


The creator of monadology was ________


"A new movement requires something to revolt against"; Freud opposed the current trends in ________

the treatment of mental disorders

Rush's treatment techniques reflect ________.

early crude attempts at shock therapy and sedation
mechanistic theory
what he thought were "humane" treatment innovations
the somatic approach

The techniques of Mesmer ________

were investigated and he was discredited and often involved convulsions

Freud's use of hypnosis was a direct consequence of ________

his association with Breuer and a research grant to study with Charcot

Freud's self-analysis was precipitated by ________

the worsening of his own neurotic symptoms

Freud died as the result of _________.

a morphine overdose

Self-preservation as a major human motive was expressed by Freud in his notion of the ________.


In Freud's system, personality development is built on the ________.

psychosexual stages

The essential difference between those who are classified as dissenters and those who are classified as carrying on in the Freudian tradition is that the dissenters ________.

developed their own theories during Freud's lifetime

If a part-object satisfies an id instinct, it is judged by the baby to be ________.


Jung proposed that personality is shaped by ________'s goals, expectations, and ambitions
b.the past
c.experiences which occur throughout one's
(D.All of the choices are correct.)
e.childhood experiences

Jung called the two basic attitudes within the person ________.

introversion and extraversion

In Adler's system, a motivating force in behavior based on actual or perceived defects is(are) ________.

inferiority feelings

Which aspect of Adler's system has led to the most research?

birth order

Maslow renounced behaviorism because it ________.

was not relevant for enduring human issues

Which of the following appears to have interfered with humanistic psychology's becoming part of the mainstream of psychological thought?

Its adherents were in private practice, not training graduate students, and were less likely to engage in systematic research and publication.

The tendency to recall uncompleted tasks more easily than completed tasks

Zeigarnik effect

The illusion that two stationary flashing lights are moving from one place to another.

Wertheimer looked at it as a whole in order to explaine the whole phenomenon.

Phi phenomenon

Lewin's system using the concept of fields of force to explain behavior in terms of one's field of social influences.

Field theory

The doctrine that there is a correspondence between psychological or conscious experience and the underlying brain experience


A quality of wholeness or completeness in perceptual experience that does not vary even when the sensory elements change.

Perceptual constancy

Immediate apprehension or cognition.


Fields of force

Regions or spaces traversed by lines of force, such as of a magnet or electric current.

There are no structural psychologists left in the United States. However, structural psychology was a success because it ________.

helped to establish psychology as an independent science

The imperative that "psychology must discard all references to consciousness" was the command of ________.


Tolman's contribution to the decline of S-R psychology was the ________.

concept of cognitive maps

Both Miller and Neisser were once behaviorists because of their ________

graduate work at Harvard, which left them no choice

By 1976, Neisser concluded that cognitive psychology ________

had little to contribute to psychology

The principle purpose of the Turing Test is to determine if ________

an interrogator can distinguish a computer from a human

The inclusion of cognitive factors in the theories of ________ altered American behaviorism.

Bandura and Rotter

One contemporary approach to introspection is called retrospective ________.

phenomenological assessment

The cognitive psychologists' focus on cognitive processes has meant that using animals as subjects is ________.

fruitful in cognitive psychology

Even those psychologists who support cognitive psychology point out that there ________.

remains considerable confusion about terminology and definitions and are few concepts on which the majority of cognitive psychologists agree

The process of reducing or eliminating a complex by recalling it to conscious awareness and allowing it to be expressed.


A psychotherapeutic technique in which the patient says whatever comes to mind.

Free association

An act of forgetting or a lapse in speech that reflects unconscious motives or anxieties

Freudian slip

Leibnitz's theory of psychic entities, called monads, which are similar to perceptions.



Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts


mental representations of internal stimuli, such as hunger-that drives a person to take certain actions


contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification


in psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control


the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations


interruptions in free association when the patient hesitates to talk about something

defense mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development focusing on distinct erogenous zones

oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father


Sigmund Freud's terminology of sexual energy or sexual drive.

percetion is not a passive impression and combination of sensory elements, as the empiricists and associationist said, but an active organizing of elements into a coherent experience

Kant , Immanuel

Aruged that out perception of an object does not change, even if we change our orientation to it.

March, Ernest

a quility of wholeness or completeness in pperceptual experiance that does not vary even when the sensory elements change

pereceptual contancy

Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization


These organizing principles do not depend on higher mental processes or past experiences but are present in the stimuli themselves.

•German word meaning form or shape
•whole is greater than the sum of its parts
-whole design should strike you (not individual elements)
-our eyes are drawn to groups rather than things farther apart; respond in predictable ways
•react to stand outs

Gestalt theory


The founder of Gestalt Psychology

(1886 - 1941) Worked with Wertheimer on his early perception experiments. He is considered a cofounder of the school of Gestalt psychology.

-The Law of Figure - Ground


insight learning- sudden, delayed realization of how to solve a problem
experiment with chimpanzees trying to get banana hanging from ceiling

Wolfgang Kohler

-id, ego, superego
-psychosexual stages
-oedipus complex
-free association
-dream latent + manifest content
1856 - 1939

Sigmund Freud

Frueds daughter.
First to attempt comprehensive list of ego's defense mechanisms.
Used play therapy with children.

Who was Anna Frued?

- Analytical Theory
-Collective Unconscious
-believed that the unconscious contains positive and spiritual motives as well as sexual and aggressive forces


Founded the school of individual psychology; believed that the inability to overcome a childhood sense of incompleteness results in an inferiority complex

Alfred Adler

-Womb Envy
-combined Freud, Jung, and Adler's theories into one of her own
-adult personality is shaped by the child's relationship to the parents- not by fixation at some stage of psycho-sexual development
-basic anxiety


proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. If our physiological needs are met, we become concerned with personal safety; if we achieve a sense of security, we then seek to love, to be loved, and to love ourselves; with out love needs satisfied, we seek self-esteem.

Abraham Maslow

-Unconditional Positive Regard
-Accepts the self-actualizing tendency
-Explores individuals who do and do not function well
-Looked at the relationship between the self (one's conscious feelings/views of self) and the person (sum of experiences, feelings, perceptions and wishes)

Carl Rogers


was distinct from mainstream phychological thought in goals, subject matter and methods using case studies

Antecedent Influences of Psychoanalysis

1. philosophical speculations about unconcious psychology phenomena
2.early ideas about psychopathology
3.evoutionary theory


Leibnit'z theory of psychic entites, called monads which are similar to perceptions

Friedrich Herbert

conflict developes among ideas as they struggle for conscious realization


suggested the min is analogous to an iceberg greater impact of Freud


a blockage of refusal to disclose painful memories during free-association session


the process of barring unacceptable ideas, memories, or desires from conscious awareness, leaving them to operate in unconscious mind

Freud concepts supported

1.some characteristics of the oral and anal personality types
2.castration anxiety
3the notion dream reflect emotional concerns
4. aspects of the oedipus complex in boys

Freud concepts not supported

1.dreams satisfies symbolically repressed wishes and desires
2.In resolving the oedipus complex, boys identify with father and accept his superego standards out of fear
3.Women have an inferior conception of their bodies, have less severe superego standards than men, and find it more difficult to achieve identity.
4. personality is formed by age five and changes little after that.

Analytical Psychology

Jung's theory of personality

Personal unconscious

the resevior of material that once was concious but has been forgotten or suppressed

collective unconscious

the deepest level of the psyche, it contains inherited experiences of human and prehuman species


Inherited tendencies within the colloective unconsious that dispose a person to behave similarly to ancestors who confronted similar situations

Individual Psychology

Adler's theory of personality: its incoperates social as well as bilogical factors

Social interest

Adler's conception of an innate potential to cooperate with other people to achieve personal and societial goals.

Inferiority Complex

A condition that developes when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferiorty feelings

Basic anxiety

Horney's conception of pervasive loneliness and helplessness, feelings that are the foundation of neuroses

Self Actualization

the full development of one's abilites and the realization of one's peotential


Postive regard

the unconditional love of a mothers for her infant.


Which of the following appears to have interfered with humanisticpsychology's becoming part of the mainstream of psychological thought?

tsadherents were in private practice, not training graduate students, andwere less likely to engage in systematic research and publication.

The changing Ziegist in Physics during the time of Gestalt psychology was

focuing on fileds of force instead of atoms or elements.

People mistakenly assumed Gestalt psychology delt only with perception

Its was framed around the idea of perceptional ogranization but the word Gestalt had many meanings.

Insight learning is different from Thorndike

becasue its about preciving relatinships on an issue.

Whats was Wertheimer thoughts on creative thinking?

Start with the whole then move to differnt parts

What was the Gestlat critisim of behaviorism ?

-They looked at parts instead of the whole
-Deny Validity of introspection
-Disregard any recognition of consiousness

What is life space

Kurt Lewin's concept
-affects our behavior
- includes all past, present, and future events in our lives
-consists of the persons needs in interaction of it psychological enviorment

What motivates people according to Lewin

Lewin believed that behavior involves an cycle of tension states or need states fallowed by activity and relief.

Three major shocks to the collective human ego according to Freud ?

1) Copernicus said the earth wasnt the center of the universe
2) Darwin showed that we evolved form lower forms of animal life
3) Freud showed that we are not the rational rulers of our but are controled my unconscious forces

What where two major sources of influence in the psychoanalytic movement

1) Darwin
2) Emmanuel movement
3) Hypnosis

Emmanule Church movements

A church movement that pointed out psychologial factors as a potential casuse of mental illness

Why was the case of Anna O. so important to Freuds thinking?

it introduced Freud to the Catharic Method

Life Instincts

survial, hunger thrist, sex
energy is called libido

Death Instincts

Disturctive foce that can be directed in-ward and masochism and suscide

Out- ward is hatred and aggression

Later Freud said that agression can be a great motivator then sex.

What is the relationship between psychanalysis and main stream academic psychology

Psychoanalysis has been developed outside of academic psychology and has been criticized by APA

What where the critizims of Freuds Method for collecting data

1-wrote clients recalections in conversations
2-might of reintrupreted them
3-infered to instead of heard sexual seduction in childhoot
4- resesarch was based on a small ureprested sample of people
5-notes and therpy session dont match up with case histories based on his notes
6-patients could have made up there reports


Expanded the concept of the ego

The changing Zegist in social science later influenced the development of psychoanalysis

Changed it from focusing on bilology to enviorment in the influence in personality

What does word obeject refer to in object relations theory ?

Any object person or activity that can staisfy an instinct

Melanie Kline

Foucused on emotional bond between mother and child

Collective Unconsciousness

The deepest level of the psychie contains inherited experiances of human and prehuman species


Inherited tendencies within the collective unconsious that despose a person to behave simiarly to ansistors who confronted similar situation

Jungs theory of collective unconscious

Jungs theory differed from Freud

1) Jung Intergrowth, Freud Interpersonal relationships
2) Freud defined libido sexual terms, Jung Libido was life energy
3)Freud diecribed people as victums of childhood evenets, Jung though they can be changed and be affected by our goals hopes and asperations
4) Jung attempted to go more deeply then Frude into the unconscious mind

Adler differ from Freud

Adler developed a personallity theory the that differed from Freuds specially in terms of sexual factors.

Adler ment by style of life

The drive to superiority or perfection is universal but everyone behavies in a different way to reach that goal. In order to reach that goal we develope a style of life

Inferiority complex

conditon that developes when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings

Jung and Adlers comtributions

Word Assoication and the eight psychological types and Adler was the inferiorty complex

Neurotic need

A peronsalality trait developed in away of defending against basic anxity

How was Humistic Psychology different form behaviorism and psycho

Humnistic psychology was focsing on human strenghts, conscious experiance and fee will that was different form behaviorsim and psycholanalysis

Maslow notion of self actualization

is the full development of ones abilities the relaization of ones potential

Rogers idea of self actualization

is the highest level of psychological health

Hummisitic pscyhology failed becasue

-they wherent at univeristies
-attaching peostions that were no longer infulential

Positive psychology

The idea that psychologist should study the postive charateristics of human beings and not only the bad ones

Martin Seligman

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