Like Lincoln, Johnson wanted to restore the Union in as little time as possible. While Congress was in recess, the president began implementing his plans, which became known as __________________. He returned confiscated property to white southerners, issued hundreds of pardons to former Confederate officers and government officials, and undermined the Freedmen's Bureau by ordering it to return all confiscated lands to white landowners. Johnson also appointed governors to supervise the drafting of new state constitutions and agreed to readmit each state provided that it ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery. Hoping that Reconstruction would be complete by the time Congress reconvened a few months later, he declared Reconstruction over at the end of 1865.
(1865-66) Laws that were passed the try to regulate the lives of former slaves. The laws allowed them to have some basic rights such as legalized marriage, ownership of land, and had limited access to court. However, they were not allowed to testify against whites, serve on juries or in the state militias, or to vote. In other words, slavery without actually having slavery.
(1854-1877) A branch of the Republican Party who strongly opposed slavery and compromising with the South during secession. They were for the emancipation of black soldiers during the Civil War and equal civil and political rights for African Americans during Reconstruction.
(1868) The ________________ states that every person born in United States will be granted citizenship, which authorize the federal government to protect the rights of all Americans. At this point, the decision for black suffrage was up to the states. In order to achieve black suffrage, the amendment offered two choice for the states (particularly in the South): either to let the black men vote and keep full representation in the House of Representatives or limiting black suffrage but sacrificing political power.
(1869) prohibited federal and state governments from denying the right to vote to any citizen solely based on race. Note that this amendment didn't include women and it wasn't effective because there were loopholes in this amendment and black people could still be prevented from voting (ie. literacy test).
(1865) an agency that was designed to assist former slaves (freedmen). Their duties included establishing schools, providing aid to the poor and elderly, settling conflict between black and white, and ensuring that everyone gets equal treatment before doing into court. They also helped them in landowning, health care, and jobs.
(1867) temporarily divided the South into five military districts and called for the creating of new state governments that included black suffrage. This act marked the beginning of the "Radical Reconstruction".
a practice in which landless workers (most often former slaves) work the land for the landowner in exchange for farm supplies and a share of the crop or a fixed wage. This is basically like slavery all over again but most black stuck with is because they didn't have other options.
Bargain of 1877
(1877) also known as the Compromise of 1877. The bargain was that Hayes was elected as president in exchange for the ending of Reconstruction.
(1870s) A group of democrats those reclaimed the South after Reconstruction. They claimed that they have "redeemed" the white South from corruption, misgovernment, and northern and black control by reclaiming the South.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
(1875) This act is the last piece of legislation that passed during Reconstruction. The act outlawed racial discrimination in public facilities, such as theaters and hotels.
(1870-71) Acts that targeted terror groups such as the KKK. The acts outlawed terrorist societies and allowed the president to use the army against them. President Grant used the army to get rid of these groups. Most KKK leaders fled and those that were caught were held in well-publicized trials. By 1872, KKK had gone out of existence. For the first time since the Civil War, peace existed in most of the Confederacy.
(1870s) Large scale farms that performed large scale operation. Technology use and large number of workers made it possible. The operations were successful because of cheap abundant land, growth of Eastern market, and the completion of the major railroads.
Part of Native American religion. Prophet said that in the future, Native Americans were going to be able to practice their ancestral traditions without misery, death, and disease, because the white people were going to be gone forever. Large numbers of Indians gathered for days singing and dancing as a way to pray to their ancestors.
(December 29, 1890) A native American massacre. On this day, native Americans gathered for the Ghost dance. The government feared that there would be a general uprising, as they mistook the dancing for a kind of declaration of wat; they sent troops to Wounded Knee Creek and opened fire, killing 150 to 200 people (mostly women and children). This massacre marked the end of four centuries of armed conflict between the natives and the European settlers and their descendants.
Sherman Antitrust Act
(1890) first law restricting monopoly trusts and business combination. The act stated that any trust that was purposefully restraining interstate trade was illegal.
Lochner v. New York
(1905) voided a New York state law that established ten hours per day or sixty per week as the maximum hour of work for bakers. The law stated that the state law violated the liberty or contract between worker and employer, therefore interfering with individual freedom.
(1877) Indian lands broken up and a small portion of it would be distributed to the Indians while majority of the land was auctioned off to white people. Indian who accepted this offer and have assimilated would become full-fledge American citizens. Many whites benefited from this act while many Indians suffered. They have lost 86 million acres of ancestral land out of the 138 million acres they had before the act was passed.
a style of management in which a company owns one merchandise and everyone had to go to them in order to get the merchandise. (ie. The College Board -> SATs and APs)
(also known as a vertical integration) describes a style of company management control. This is where companies are part of a supply chain (usually having a common owner) and every company produces a different part and is assembled together at the end. The company takes full control and copyright of the product.
Frederick Jackson Turner
(1861-1932) historian who gave a famous lecture, "The significance of the Frontier in American History." He argued that distinctive qualities of American culture that were forced on the Western Frontier were: individual freedom, political democracy, and economy mobility.
(1877) A term what was used to described society (especially rich vs. poor), using Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, natural selection, and survival of the fittest. Basically, it's the ideology that the rich are the only people who are fit to live and the poor should die. They ask the rich not to help the poor because if all of the poor die out through the process of "natural selection" and "survival of the fittest", only the fit (or the rich) would live and society would be better.
Knights of Labor
(1880s) a large labor organization (first in history) that tried to organize skilled and unskilled labor, men and women, and blacks and whites. They were the first union to allow all laborers. The __________ demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories.
"Violence during an anarchist protest at ____________ in Chicago on May 4 1886; the deaths of eight, including seven policemen, led to the trial of eight anarchist leaders for conspiracy to commit murder." (A-50 ish)
leader of Tammany Hall, the Democratic political machine that sustained its long term power by getting the immigrant vote. _________ is most well known as the leader of a ring of corruption in NYC. He was responsible for millions of dollars of tax fraud.
"A corporation formed by an inner ring of Union Pacific Railroad stockholders to oversee the line's government-assisted construction. Essentially, it enabled the participants to sign contracts with themselves, at an exorbitant profit, to build the new line."(616) probably the single greatest example of corruption in the postwar period
Postwar liquor taxes were extremely high. Many of the liquor manufacturers bribed officials in the Treasury to avoid the tax. More than 100 government officials were eventually convicted, but Grant kept his private secretary from being affected by the investigation.
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
The first national labor walkout. Workers protested a pay cut and blocked railway traffic. Troops killed almost 20 people by firing on the strikers and then workers reacted by burning the railroad yards. It "revealed a strong sense of solidarity among workers and the close ties between the Republican Party and the new class of industrialists."
Started out as the Farmer's Alliance and then grew in the 1890s into the _____________, which claimed to support all workers but got its major support from farmers in the South and West. Had a large amount of community organization, building on the small network of the farmer's alliance. They were extremely anti-bank and corporation, and were all for government expansion to protect the working class. Mostly they were pretty racist and did very little for the black population of the U.S. Something of the mold of the successful American reform party.
the Bryan solution to the problems with the gold standard. Bryan's policy here reflects the view that putting more money in the system would help farmers pay off their debts. Basically, Bryan wanted to start the "unrestricted minting of silver money." (645). This movement was essentially killed by McKinley's election in 1896. However, the movement radically influenced popular culture, possibly having an effect on such well known favorites as the Wizard of Oz which supported the gold standard as the method to escape from witchy industrialists.
Eugene V. Debs
Helped to start the IWW and ILU and was later extremely well known as a candidate for the Socialist party. _______ was a major figure in the Pullman strike of 1894 protesting wage cuts. The army got involved, and 13 strikers were killed. Debs was found guilty of contempt of court. In re debs stated that the government had the right to get involved in interstate commerce. He later ran for president many times as a socialist. His imprisoned 1919 presidential candidacy was mocked widely, but he had a loyal band of supporters who marched in protest of his jailing and essentially started the May Day riots of 1919.
William Jennings Bryan
A liberal democrat who both Democrats and Populists united behind in 1896. His platform of free silver and farming pride appealed to farmers and workers across the country. Populists didn't warm up to Bryan until they realized that they wouldn't win by themselves. Bryan was then essentially outspent by the Republican candidate McKinley, who spent a ton on his campaign. Perhaps Bryan's most famous line is : "You shall not crucify mankind on a cross of gold." He used a lot of biblical imagery in his speeches.
Formed by farmers (obviously) in the late 1870s, many of whom found themselves in the difficult financial position of having to sell their farms to repay bank loans. The Alliance was initially a purely financial institution that would loan money to farmers and sell their products. But financial difficulties with this system caused it to evolve into a political institution that lobbied government for warehouses where farmers could store crops until they were sold. They wanted government based loans that used crops as collateral as well. This plan was called the "subtreasury plan." In the 1890s, the _____________ evolved into the People's Party.
Basically what I said above (farmers alliance). Essentially the government would establish warehouses where farmers could store crops until they were sold. The crops would then be used as collateral by the federal government, who would give loans to farmers at low interest rates. Pushed by the Farmer's Alliance and the later People's Party.
An army of several hundred unemployed men (led by Coxey) who marched to Washington in May 1894 to demand economic relief during the depression of 1893.
The wave of imperialism during the McKinley administration. The economic depression and Turner thesis led many politicians to push for more expansion into new markets. Many European countries, notably Germany under Otto Van Bismarck, are headed in the same direction. We did a long assignment on this, so I'm assuming people are pretty down with it. It pretty much continues in the same vein until the World Wars.
A wave of immigration during the 1890s despite the depression. These immigrants were greeted by widespread racism and inspired movements such as the Immigration Restriction League, which called for the federal government to bar illiterate immigrants from entering the U.S. They came mostly from England, Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia. Many states adopted literacy and residence requirements, and almost all states adopted the "Australian" ballot, which kept party officials from helping illiterate people at polling stations.
Booker T. Washington
A civil rights advocate in the 1890s who pushed for acceptance of segregation and economic advancement. He believed that the top ten percent of the African American population should help lift up the rest, and that education programs were vital to that goal.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
The _________________ was an organization formed after the demise of the Knights of Labor during the 1890s. Led by Samuel Gompers, this labor movement was far more limited and had more achievable goals, such as higher wages and better working conditions. It consisted mainly of native-born white skilled male workers.
The aforementioned leader of the AFL, who thought the labor movement should focus on negotiations with employers for higher wages and better working conditions rather than the farfetched utopian goals of such organizations as the knights of labor. He's kind of the white version of Booker T Washington: he wanted to use freedom of contract against big companies (to support the formation of unions).
Started in 1899 after McKinley decided he wanted to keep the Phillipines instead of just helping them defeat the Spanish. Filipinos rebelled, and it became one of the US's more controversial wars. The McKinley administration claimed that it wanted to christianize filipinos, which was dumb because they were already Catholics. American rule there was pretty bad and usually favored local elites and American business. Hardly surprising, all in all.
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
The ___________________. Founded in 1873, this group pushed for Prohibition. They really only came into their own as a part of the women's progressive movement though.
The National American Womens' Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
The _______________________. Unified the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) (yes, I used wikipedia for that one. I'm not gonna to lie, I love it). Led by Susan B. Anthony, this organization was one of the main suffragist groups in the early stages of the 1890s onward feminist movement.
An American battleship accidentally sunk. The U.S. blames Spain, and tada! We have the Spanish-American war of 1898, which was supposedly to aid Cuban nationalists struggling for freedom, but that in reality McKinley used to imperialistically (not a word) invade Cuba.
The 1898 amendment to the new Cuban constitution that allowed the U.S. to use its military to intervene whenever it wanted. it was forced on Cuba by McKinley: he refused to acknowledge cuban independence if they didn't incorporate the _____________.
During the Progressive Era, some journalists saw American values being undermined by businesses. __________ was used by journalists to "expose the underside of American life" (680)- for example, they took pictures of child laborers to criticize social inequality and expose the corruption of businesses.
(1900s-1910s) Henry Ford's companies standardize mass production to be faster and uses spies to prevent workers from forming unions. _________ refers to the economic system focused on mass production and consumption. This marks the shift of American economy from producing "capital goods" (railroads, etc.) to consumer goods, and consumerism started becoming a sign of liberty and freedom during the Progressive Era.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
(1905) ________________ was formed by a group of unionist that opposes AFL's exclusion policies (since AFL mainly represented privileged American male workers), and were open to "every wave-worker, no matter what his religion, fatherland, or trade" (694). The ______ fought for civil liberties for everyone and despite the protesters being arrested and brutally treated, the IWW continued to fight for liberty and going against the government prohibition of strikes.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
(1911) The fire started in a factory where most of the workers were women. and more than 100 women workers died during the fire. However, the main impact of the fire was in making the public realize that the government needs to regulate industry, and after the fire the government passed legislation that required factories to pass inspection laws and fire safety codes.
(1906) Written by Upton Sinclair. Sinclair was a muckraker, and his novel clearly reflects the corruption within the meat industry by describing the unsanitary conditions of slaughterhouses and the sale of spoiled meat. The book lead the government to establish the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act in 1906 in order to address the problems.
emerged in the urban cities in America in the form of mass consumption, which was closely linked to the idea of freedom. During the Progressive Era, large downtown department stores emerged to provide consumers with the goods that were being mass produced in the factories. This "promise of mass consumption became the foundation for a new understanding of freedom" as consumption in the new capitalist system.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
(1898) _________ wrote a book titled Women and Economics that showed the rising independence of women and showed the changes of the role of women within the economic and family spheres. _______ argued that the road to woman's freedom was through work and that at home, the women is constantly oppressed, so domesticity was a sign of a lack of freedom. This parallels the idea that work and consumption is the representation of freedom.
Term invented by Frederick Taylor, which refers to the program that wanted to streamline production and raise profits by controlling the working production and costs. This program would rely on scientific calculation of the way to minimize spending and to get the best profit, and the only role of the workers would be to obey the instructions of the supervisors. Workers were against this system because it took away from the worker rights and they argued that scientific management would be a threat to their freedoms.
(1911) was a birth control rights activists, and argued that "no woman can call herself free who does not own and control her own body" (698). This reflects the rising feminist movement during the Progressive Era. The birth control movement was also important because feminists, IWW, and the Socialist Party promoted the right for a woman to make the choice of birth control.
(1906-1925) _________ was the most influential Progressive administrator on the state level. He helped create an alliance between railroad and lumber companies and after becoming governor, he instituted the Wisconsin Idea, which said that candidates for office would be selected by primary elections and not through political bosses, which would minimize corruption within the government. The Wisconsin Idea also included taxation of corporations and state regulation of railroads and public utilities. __________ represents the new Progressives that worked to change the role of the government to give more people to the people and limit the control of the "political bosses." LaFollette also relied on an administration with experts, which was part of the Progressive faith in government with expertise.
Muller v Oregon
(1908) Brandeis filed a lawsuit with scientific studies as proof that women has less strength than men and therefore they had to have shorter working hours, and the Supreme Court ruled in favor of creating a maximum working hours for women. Shows the use of government to regulate working conditions.
(1860) never married, rejecting the tradition belief that women have to be married and enter the family sphere.She represented the new Progressive woman, who were educated middle class women that aimed to help the poor and create a more activist government.
(1889) Created by Jane Addams; the settlement house was designed to help improve the lives of the immigrant poor. The ____________ shows the movement of previous aiding houses that helped the poor from a distance to direct aid. These settlement houses expanded, and by 1910 there were over 400; they reflect the Progressive idea of government need to step in and help the poor.
Election of 1912
a contest between Taft, Roosevelt, Wilson (Democrat), and Debs (Socialist), and the main focus of the debate was the the relationship between political and economic freedom in the system of rising businesses. Taft argued that economic individualism should be the main foundation for social order and that the government and private businesses cooperated in solving social problems. Debs argued for public ownership of railroads and banks and government aid to the unemployed and establishment of a shorter working day and minimum wage. Wilson and Roosevelt both believed that government action should protect personal freedom, but disagreed over whether or not the federal powers should be expanded. WILSON WON.
Wilson's program in which the federal government would strengthen antitrust laws and protect the rights of workers to create unions as well as encourage small businesses. This would increase economic competition and free government from having to dominate big businesses.
Roosevelt's program, which said that the government should only control and promote the liberty of the oppressed; he promoted heavy taxation of personal and corporate fortunes and federal regulation of industry- therefore the government should be actively supporting and creating laws to minimize the profits of the big corporations (so more federal power).
(1916-1939) Supreme Court Justice; was the one that filed the Muller vs. Oregon case. Brandeis was against large corporations and business monopolies, and at the same time, he was against expansion of government power (Wilson took a lot of his ideas). (Correct me if there's anything else; basically he said that women were weaker, was against economic competition and expansion of federal power.)
(1906) gave the ICC the right to examine railroads' business records and set rates- reflects Progressive belief in expansion of federal power and intervention in businesses.
(1913) Wilson's Progressive movement- the Tariff reduces duties on important but to make up for the lost money, imposes tax on the richest 5% of Americans. Shows federal intervention, especially in reducing the profits of the super rich businesses.
(1914) exempts labor unions from antitrust laws and prevents courts from preventing the union's right to strike; Progressive view of government as promoting unions and people's right to freely protest.
(1916) Outlaws child labor. (Again government intervention in helping the people be protected from the businesses).
Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that establishes the US as the "international police power" of the Caribbean; expands the US's role in foreign government and is aimed against the European intervention in Latin America. (Also note that is it ironic that the US is supposed to be protecting Latin American countries but at the same time they are invading all these countries and having imperialism).
Immigration Act of 1924
A law passed in Congress in 1924, it limited immigration based on country of origin. It was the first law of its kind--except for Chinese Exclusion, few immigrants had been turned away from America. Now, fears of immigrant radicalism, as well as new strains of racial supremacy, caused the government to pass restrictions that pretty severely limited how many immigrants could pass through the Golden Doors. Many of the quotas were based on "scientific research," used to determine the "national origins" of the American population and to decide which "races" were fit to live in America and which weren't. Obviously, the least American Anglo-Saxon looking you were, the smaller the quota was for you. This was part of the "Taking back America" battle waged by conservatives who were worried about the dilution of American values during the 20s
(1920s): During the 1920s, nearly 1 million blacks left the south in the Great Migration Northward. Harlem, a New York City neighborhood, quickly became the capital of black America. Most of Harlem was very poor, with many blacks forced into low-wage jobs and paying exorbitant rents. However, it was also time in which a vibrant black cultural community developed, supported by White intellectuals. Theater, music, writing, and arts all flourished in the 20s. This is when the term "New Negro," used to describe the new self-assertive Black Americans searching for a rejection of stereotypes, came into use. Famous figures associated with the Harlem Renaissance include Hughes, McKay, Cullen, Johnson, Hurston, and Baker.
(1928-32): the last Republican President of the 20s, _______ swept the 1928 election, thanks in part to his popularity and success both as a businessman and a politician ("he had never known failure) and because his opponent, Smith, was Catholic. At first, when the depression hit, Hoover dismissed it as a normal part of capitalism meant to weed out bad companies. He believed that government aid would make people lazy. As conditions worsened, his popularity dropped, and even as he called together business and labor leaders to take voluntary steps to curb the crisis, many decried him for his disconnect with the conditions of ordinary Americans. This led him to have to pass...
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
(1932) This was the pre-New-Deal New Deal. In 1932, realizing that the Depression was not going away, Hoover created the RFC, which loaned $$$ to failing banks, railroads, and other businesses. It gave nearly $2 Billion in aid to public-works projects and local relief efforts.
(1933-): ooooh, all the smart people are gonna get together in Washington and they're gonna make the best decisions for our country. Washington DC's got a monopoly on brains. This was the hope of many people after Roosevelt got elected; that somehow, the gvt was going to be able to solve everything. The Brains Trust was actually a group of close advisors to the Prez that included many former Progressives (such as Frances Perkins).
Roosevelt is like "guys, this is getting out of control. Let's close the banks until we sort this out."
Emergency Banking Act
(1933): There had been 8000 Bank failures 1929-33, and banks had been trading stocks (uhoh!). Roosevelt decides that people are panicking too much and that the situation is getting out of control, so he closes ALL the banks, and then says "we'll only reopen the ones that we back, then get rich people to invest in them." This was part of a big "collective hallucination"--if the people believed that the banks were stable, then they wouldn't rush to get their money. More than anything, the Bank Holiday gives Americans an illusion of stability. The __________________ provided funds to shore up dying banks.
(1933) prohibits banks from having fun with the stock market. It divides banks into commercial and investment sectors, thus making money more secure. It also establishes the FDIC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, to back up any money stored in a US Bank. Repealed in 1999.
(1933) the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, to back up any money stored in a US Bank. Repealed in 1999.
National Recovery Administration
(1933): Modeled on the government-business partnerships established by the War Industries Board during World War I, The _____ was supposed to set production standards and help unify laborers and bosses. Its symbol was the Blue Eagle and it organized many marches and demonstrations with the slogan "we do our part!" It also recognized the right to form labor unions, which many employers ignored. Unfortunately, the government had no teeth to enforce the 750 codes that came with the _____ by 1935. And it didn't really help with economic recovery or peace between employers or employees.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
(1933): "Let's pay farmers to destroy food to raise prices... while others are going hungry..." That was the basic motto of the _______. It set quotas for major crops and payed farmers to plant less. It led to higher prices and farm incomes for landowning farmers, but many sharecroppers and tenant farmers were evicted and became homeless and jobless as a result. Coupled with the Dust Bowl, this had a devastating effect on families in Kansas and Oklahoma.
Civilian Conservation Corps
(1933): sent unemployed young men to work on projects like forest preservation, flood control, and the improvement of national parks and wildlife preserves.
Tennessee Valley Authority
(1933): highly successful project that turned around a poor area of Tennessee and supplied it with cheap hydroelectric power and fertile land. It provided an example of how government intervention could help solve some of the problems of the Depression era.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
The AFL becomes increasingly criticized for its policy of organizing workers by craft, and many leaders call for unions of industrial workers to be created. When the AFL convention refuses, John Lewis, head of United Mine Workers, leads walkout that produces ________________, which wanted to create unions in the "main bastions" of the American economy. It wanted to guarantee workers a fair share in the wealth they helped to produce. It encouraged many strikes, including a sit-down strike at GM in 1937. Unlike the AFL, it believed in government intervention to help workers against economic and social insecurity, and called for a standard of American living and redistribution of income to the laboring classes.
(1935): Empowered the National Labor Relations Board to supervise employee elections for union representation and outlawed anti-union "unfair labor practices" and enforce the rights of unionized workers to collective bargaining, etc etc. Yay for Labor!
Father Charles E. Coughlin
(mid-30s): known as the "radio priest," he aired weekly radio broadcasts attacking bankers and capitalists, and thought the government should take over key industries. He soon became disappointed with FDR for failing to uphold social justice, and quickly shifted towards fascism.
(early 30s): Known as The Kingfish, Long was basically a dictator over Louisiana (he claimed to help uplift "common people" and was an embodiment of Socialist and Populist traditions) who launched the Share Our Wealth Movement, which called for the confiscation of the wealth of the riches Americans to guarantee an annual income and job to every American. His slogan was "Every Man a King," and he was extremely popular. He was assassinated in 1935 before he could run for President.
Second New Deal
(1935): Whereas the First New Deal had focused on Economic Recovery, the Second focused on economic security and on a permanent solution to redistribute the national income. Major pieces were the Works Progress Administration, which built hella infrastructure, the Social Security Act, the Wagner act.
Works Progress Administration
(1935): employed many out-of-work Americans to improve the country's infrastructure by building bridges, roads, airports, etc etc. It also employed many jobless professionals, such as doctors.
1945. The evolution of the League of Nations, it worked to create and maintain ~world peace~ by, for example, preventing future world wars. The US joined up this time. Although successful in that there hasn't been a WWIII, it has also slightly failed in that there have been numerous other wars (Cold, Vietnam, Korea, Iraq).
1945. Truman's version of a New Deal. Provided for civil rights legislation, national health insurance, and the repeal of the Taft-Harley Act (see below). However, the Republican-dominated Congress rejected the Fair Deal for the most part because they wanted to reduce the federal government's involvement in helping the people. Nonetheless, Congress did pass the Housing Act of '49 (provided for government-funded public housing) and the Social Security Act of '50 (it's in the name).
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
1945. Investigated communists separately from McCarthy. Famous cases: '47, when it launched a series of hearings about communist influence in Hollywood (Hollywood would blacklist the suspects and those who refused to name names), and '48, when it investigated Alger Hiss (Nixon became famous after prosecuting the man). All of this was very much publicized in order to instill fear into the people.
1946. The AFL/CIO's failed attempt to unionize the South. They thought it was necessary to try to get the workers to make a stand for their rights by striking, for example, in order to protest the severe drop in wages. Truman didn't approve.
1947. Sought to reverse some of the gains made by organized labor by banning sympathy strikes and secondary boycotts and preventing forms of compulsory union membership. Again, Truman didn't approve of this, but the conservative Republican Congress passed it anyway. We can see here that the Republican Congress was really against the working class and helping the working class.
1947. It's easy to see the progression of US foreign policy from the Monroe Doctrine (which basically laid a claim to the W. Hemisphere) to the Roosevelt Corollary (which said that it was the US's right to actively protect the Caribbean) to the ______________, which finally said that the US had to protect the world from the evils of communism in order to promote a democratic freedom. The Doctrine itself is important because it shows how much of a world power the US had become after WWII.
1947. Sort of a New Deal for Europe, as Foner puts it (893). Sec'y of State Marshall says that the US has to contribute financially to Europe's recovery in order to strengthen the Truman Doctrine's policies for protecting capitalism. Puts in provisions for helping allies as well as former enemies.
1947. The archetype for suburbs/planned communities. Cheap and mass-produced - all the houses looked the same, for example. First built by William and Alfred Levitt in New York. Racially segregated - ran on a restrictive covenant that stated that homeowners could not sell their homes to anyone who wasn't white, because of the fear that whites would move out if they heard they had to share the neighborhood with a non-white.
1948. Also known as the States' Rights Democratic Party. Comprised of white Southerners pro-segregation and versus Truman's idea of civil rights. Not surprisingly, SC governor Thurmond was their presidential candidate in the election of '48. Party died within the year.
1948. Progressive Party's nomination for president. Really liberal; pro social welfare programs and controlling the use of nuclear weapons. (If that meant getting Communist and Socialist help, he was down... Unfortunately, his acceptance of these groups gave people a reason to be scared of him - Truman said that to vote for him was to vote for Stalin). Was against racial segregation (even more so than Truman).
1948-9. The West had control of the part of Germany that included Berlin, a city entrenched in an otherwise highly Soviet zone. In order to try to prevent the West from expanding their influence in Germany, the Soviets cut Berlin off from Western trade by land. But the Westerners found a way to airlift provisions to the city. Yay! Stalin lifted the blockade in '49, causing the split between East and West Germany. Berlin itself remained divided.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
1949. Formed to - again - prevent the Soviets from taking over Europe. The US and Canada are the only non-European members. The Europeans felt it necessary to have the US's military force on its side. Similar organizations that formed quickly thereafter: SEATO (in SE Asia) and CENTO (in the Middle East).
1950. Document that stated essentially how the US saw the Soviets - they were coldblooded people that needed to be stopped in order to save the world from evil. This kind of highfalutin language was used in order to dramatize the need to spend on the war.
McCarran Internal Security Act
1950. Passed over Truman's veto. Documented affiliates of communist organizations within the US and made it possible to investigate these suspected subversives if need be. Members of these organizations couldn't become US citizens or leave the country. Really enforced the need to stick to American values - anyone who had different opinions could be called a communist.
1950. A Republican bully who (ab)used his power as a senator to accuse hella people of being communist, despite the fact that he had zero evidence. Although the Republicans were initially cool with him because he made Truman look bad, __________ became an embarrassment after Eisenhower was elected as president in '52.
1952. Also known as the Immigration and Nationality Act. Kept an immigration quota and allowed the government to deport suspected subversives. Prevented anyone who was or had ever been associated with the Communist Party from coming into the country.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
1953. Working-class Jewish communist couple from NYC executed because people suspected them of passing on secrets concerning the a-bomb to Soviets during WWII. Julius was probably guilty (bad Julius!) but Ethel probably wasn't... That she was also indicted shows the lengths to which prosecutors would go in order to say they'd caught a commie. Go them. Anyway, J/E were the first civilians to be executed because of charges of espionage.
1955. The Communists' version of NATO. The creation of this alliance officially delineated the two sides of the Cold War.
post-1945 to the 60s. There was a freaking HUGE increase in the number of births after WWII, which inspired traditional family culture, consumerism, and the move to the suburbs. All soldiers really wanted to do was escape the war and settle down, and I guess they got what they wanted.
1950. Redevelopment of cities and especially their slums in order to compete with the attention suburbia was getting. Some of this "renewal" meant tearing down and then rebuilding unfavorable areas, which sparked controversy. An example of urban renewal is the renovation of Central Park.
End of Ideology
1960. A book written by Daniel Bell that said that the more society progressed from capitalism, the more ideology would disappear - that is to say, we'd get to the point where we live in the society that we have long envisioned.
1950s and 60s. This group of conservatives were for limited government and an unregulated market. Spoke to entrepreneurs, especially. Very much against the other vision of conservatism, "new conservatism," which called for a more moral America.
1962. Wrote Capitalism and Freedom, which called the private sector to take over government functions (especially in the market) and the repeal of minimum lage laws, the graduated income tax, and social security. Supported the idea of unrestricted free choice. The book was highly influential to libertarian thought.
A culture where it is favorable to buy, buy, buy. As America's goods became more and more mass produced, the idea of liberty was linked to the ability to buy goods. Advertising was targeted towards specific groups. Buying a new vacuum would make cleaning easier and thus give women more freedom in the home; washing one's hair with some brand of shampoo would make the user more manly and attractive. Media and the mass exodus to suburbia played key factors in the proliferation of the consumer culture.
In 1952 election, Nixon won the (Republican) nomination to run under Eisenhower as vice president. However, soon thereafter reports came out that wealthy Californians had created a private fund for his family (which he used to live in style). In his televised speech, he spoke of his upbringing and family. He did admit that the new family dog (named Checkers) was in fact a gift from his wealthy backers, but refused to return it.
Stalin died in '53, opening talks between the US and the USSR. However, in 1960, an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. Eisenhower denied the Soviets' accusations of spying on them. (it was sort of a "WTF" moment because he denied spying on them and then it was like "well then...what is this pilot doing here?")
the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth. It was launched by the Russians in 1957, sending Americans into a panic and resulting in the passing of the National Education Defense Act.
National Education Defense Act
(1957) was a response to the launching of Sputnik. It was the first time higher education was directly financed by the government. It's intent was to further educate children in math and science so that Americans could compete with the USSR.
John F. Dulles, Secretary of State, declared that if the US were to suffer any attack by the USSR, the country would respond with "massive retaliation" (meaning nuclear warfare). With the buildup of arms on both sides of the war, the term "__________" appeared. It referred to the possibility of possibly destroying the world due to even a minor miscalculation or misunderstanding.
Military Industrial Complex
starting around the time of WWII, the military became closely linked with business. The manufacturing of arms became a big business that would poor billions of dollars into military complexes on the West Coast. However, the business did not die down with the end of the War. Production continued into the Cold War where exorbitant amounts of money were spent of National Defense and the development of nuclear weapons.
The _________ were a group of poets and writer during the '50s who rejected conformism and materialism. They believed in personal as well as political freedom. Their view of freedom included sexual experimentation, impulsive action, and drug-induced pleasure.
Brown v. Board of Education
(1954) In this case, Oliver Brown went to court because his daughter had to cross the railroad tracks every day to get to the nearest school for blacks. While many cases battled for the same cause, the general fight against segregation in schools was named _________________ (for reasons having to do with how the courts sort cases by alphabet, etc.) The final case ruling was that all institutions that are separate, whether the same in funding or no, are unequal. The Supreme Court decision therefore declared segregation in all public schools unconstitutional, but the implementation of such laws proved to be a problem.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man (something that was illegal at the time). She was arrested, but her actions led to a year-long boycott of public transportation. Blacks carpooled or arranged taxi rides and finally the Supreme Court declared segregation in public transportation unconstitutional.
SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
was a group of nonviolent African-Americans that strove for equality.
was a term used by Kennedy to describe the technological and military superiority of the USSR. He used it against the Republicans, claiming that it was their fault for letting it form.
SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
A group of students advocating for equal rights during the 60s. Among their projects were the freedom rides and various sit-ins.
Beginning in 1961 after the Court had banned segregation on interstate buses and terminals, mixed groups of students tested the results by taking buses into the South. They were violently met but in the end the Interstate Commerce Commission decided to ban segregation in all busses and terminals.
JFK's program, which came to a halt due to Republican Congress acting difficult and also due to his assassination. LBJ developed his own version with many of the same concepts (Great Society)
Designed by JFK to improve the image of the US abroad (and for humanitarian reasons as well), the ____________ sent young Americans abroad to help improve the economy and education programs of developing countries.
Bay of Pigs
1961. was a failed attempt by JFK to overthrow the Castro government. The idea was that they would send in trained Cuban exiles, and then a popular uprising would facilitate the coup. Unfortunately, the Cuban soldiers were ready and our invaders got pwned. As a result, Cuba got even closer with the USSR.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In October, 1962, Americans discovered that the USSR had been installing missiles in Cuba that were capable of reaching the US. Rather than attacking the Soviets, which would have led to worldwide nuclear warfare, Kennedy blockaded the island and demanded their removal. After negotiations, the Soviets conceded.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
When he came to presidency, LBJ made civil rights one of his top priorities and passed the act in 1964. It prohibited discrimination based on race as well as sex in employment, public institutions (including hospitals and schools), as well as privately owned restaurants, hotels, and theatres. It was after signing this bill that Johnson admitted that the South had now been lost to the GOP.
In the campaign of 1964, ___________ was the Republican nomination running against LBJ. He believed that "Extremism in the face of Liberty is no vice." He was willing to risk nuclear warfare against the USSR and wished to repeal welfare programs and Social Security. His popularity in the South, however, was an example of how race could be the issue that would carry the election (the "Southern Strategy"). Basically, he was a Republican @$$h0le. JUST KIDDING.
Voting Rights Act
(1965) No discrimination at voting stands on account of economic class (previously blacks were legally allowed to vote but Southerners had made precautions to prevent such horrors by instituting literacy tests and poll taxes)
(1965-1967) After his election in 1964, LB Johnson expanded on the social agenda and created more welfare programs. He created various agencies and departments to improve health services (Medicaid, Medicare), urban development (Departments or Transportation, Housing, and Urban Development), and education (National Endowments for the Humanities and Arts, donations to schools in general). The key difference between the New Deal and the ___________ is that the former was a response to economic depression whereas the latter was a result of prosperity. _____________ was also more inclusive of all of those who needed aid, unlike the New Deal, which excluded blacks from programs such as social security.
Conservative Political Activist and Constiutional Attorney. She hates the Equal Rights Amendment and is against feminism. (Supported Goldwater who ran against Johnson, she was born in 1920s, she's still around).
the ideals of the Reagan presidency in 1980s: reduce government spending, reduce taxes and income, reduce government regulation within the economy, control money supply to prevent inflation. So, a lot less of government involvement in general, handing over the free market and decisions to the people/not the federal government.
Tax Reform Act
(1986) A "Reagan tax cut" that simplified the basis of tax in the country. Essentially, it reduced taxes (simplified them majorly) and everyone had to pay less taxes. Like Reagan, it supported less government involvement in the people (people's income specifically).
Strategic Defense Initiative
(issued in 1983 by, you guessed it, Reagan) This institution was created to have space protection (yes, like space, what surrounds the planets) from nuclear attacks. Organization was created in 1984, a year later. Many questions surrounding it: how useful is it really? how scientific is it (Star Wars was created in 1977)? A lot of research facilities and fund are put into this program in order to further STRATEGIC defense (vs. we bomb you, you bomb us, the world goes up in flames).
A Reagan scandal in 1986 where the government had agreed to sell arms to Iran (arms embargo) in hopes of releasing hostages AND get funds to put towards U.S> intelligence agencies for Nicaraguan contras.
Last general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union who served from 1985-1991. His actions led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union after his term.
"The purveyors of the ___________ urged for government action to accomplish social reforms and refused to hold the poor solely responsible for their plight." Supporters of the _____________ believed that instilling Christian principles would make society better.
a reaction to Congress after McKinley's War Message (1898) was issued. His Message concerned (out of the Cuban struggle for independence) the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana. He wanted "to secure a full and final termination of hostilities" between government of Spain the people of Cuba to ensure peace and tranquility (Monroe Doc. esque, right? Essentially we are the world's policeman). So the ______________ was like we have to leave the control of Cuba up to the people of Cuba, and NOT annex it. It was a hands-off conclusion.
Open Door Policy
(c. 1899) U.S asks China to declare that the country could trade with U.S and all other European countries. (couldn't intervene with treaty ports)
(1918) Wilson's chit-chat about how there is a moral dilemma and issue within WWI that needs to be fought for in order to have post war peace in Europe. (Became basis for German surrender in Paris Peace Conference)
(1917) You can't interfere with any military operations, you're prohibited from supporting America's enemies in war time, you cannot interfere with military recruitment. (Remember this is shortly after we entered WWI).
Usually a reaction to modern ideals and beliefs that involves adherence to sets of basic principles. Think about this not only in terms of religion but also politically.
(1865, by Confederates. 1915 it was spurred again for nativism, anti-communism, anti-semitism, anti-catholicism) wow this is a pretty tall order, no? We all should know this is a huge hate group that's composed of White Americans who dislike and have no support for blacks. Their hatred was then extended into the larger sphere of all racial minorities.
Economic and social well-being that a government takes on the responsibility of for its citizens. Equal opportunity, equal distribution of wealth (at its lowest terms) and a responsibility for those unable to take care of themselves.
Social Security Act
(1935) Roosevelt's first term, he issued this. It's part of the New deal. Tried to address the 'dangers' of life: old age, poverty, and unemployment.
specifically centered around communism and the United States' efforts to stop it from spreading (like a virus) through America and through the international community. (If America was effected, a domino effect would ensue, naturally, because America is that influential to the rest of the world).
War on Poverty
started by Johnson in response to international poverty issues (19% at the time, scary). This was part of the Great Society which stemmed from Roosevelt's New Deal ideals.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
(1972) It was introduced in 1923 and was almost passed in 1972 but failed to be ratified. The amendment proposed to eliminate all legal distinction on account of sex. Women believed that they needed equal access to employment, education, and any other opportunities for citizens instead of the special legal protection they were being given at the time. If this amendment had passed, they would have lost this special protection. Many women, including Phyllis Schlafly, opposed the _____.
(1970s-1980s) A period of time when a group tried to influence environmental policies in the American West, particularly involving use of public lands. However, leaders in west denounce control of large areas of land by the Bureau of Land Management (BLMs) and advocated the state control of use, including mining, grazing, fishing, and hunting. The Sagebrush rebels wasn't as successful as hoped. (yay for APES!)
First New Deal
(1933) A huge bundle of legislation that the Democrats were able to pass in the first year of Roosevelt's presidency
Indian Reorganization Act
(1934) was also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or, informally, the Indian New Deal. It represented a reversal of the Dawes act in that it returned tribal lands into communal possession and granted tribal councils many powers, making Indian tribes much more autonomous. Boarding schools meant to eradicate Indian culture were replaced with Reservation schools, and spending on Indian health was dramatically increased. Still, the act did little to improve the desperate poverty present in Native communities.
(1920-1941) Soon after the war and Wilson's failure to initiate the US into his League of Nations, more Americans began to agree that involvement in World War I had been a mistake. At the same time, immigration was severely restricted, creating a much more isolated, homogenous country. During the 20s and 30s, the US only involved itself in Latin American affairs, staying out of Europe altogether.
Good Neighbor Policy
(1930s): Roosevelt formalized Hoover's policy that the US had no right to militarily intervene in Latin America. Roosevelt pulled troops out of Nicaragua and Haiti. However, this did not at all mean that the US was done in Latin America--economic relationships with dictatorships like Somoza's continued unabated--as Roosevelt said, "he may be a son of a ****, but he's our son of a ****."
(1936): As the US retreated further into isolationism, Congress passed several acts that aimed to prevent US involvement in another foreign war. The acts prohibited military aid/weapons sales to any belligerents (for example, during the Spanish Civil War). Roosevelt had to carefully sidestep these rules in order to aid Britain. The _________ basically went defunct after the Pearl Harbor incident.
"Cash and carry Act" (aka Neutrality Act of 1939)
Basically went against previous Neutrality acts. Embargoes were lifted and ships could get products for cash if they came into United States ports. The idea was, we're not really taking sides, because our customers have to come here--it's not like we're shipping the weapons to them or anything. The US had learned its lesson with the Lusitania--now, no US ships could trade weapons in war zones.
(1941-1945): this was Roosevelt's "firehose" analogy: if your neighbor's house were burning, wouldn't you lend him a firehose? the idea is, the US, instead of selling the UK, USSR, and China weapons, will simply LOAN the weapons to them. This was a way for Roosevelt to sidestep the neutrality acts and isolationism in the US and help out Britain, which was basically all alone on the Western front.
December. 1941. "A date which will forever live in infamy." Japanese go BAM BAM BAM in Hawaii. Nation is shocked. 2000 killed. Roosevelt's moral dilemma is finally resolved--he can take the US to war.
(1938-1945): hopefully a no-brainer. Germany decides to purify its Aryan race by killing 15 million Jews, ethnic Poles, Romani, Soviet civilians, Soviet prisoners of war, people with disabilities, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and other political and religious opponents.
(1941-45): Federal government and Defense Industry employers agree to recognize more unions/union rights in exchange for a no-strike pledge for the duration of the war. AFL, CIO, and many other unions agree. Union membership soars, but more conservative, anti-new-deal politicians begin to dominate congress, causing some unrest, which is later unleashed in postwar strikes and contained by the Taft-Hartley Act
Rosie the Riveter
(1942-45): A cultural icon representing the women who went to work in factories during WWII while the men were away fighting. She was often portrayed with unkempt hair and big muscles. However, women were expected to return to their everyday housework once men returned from the war.
National Resources Planning Board
(1942-43) was a committee comprised of many liberal Democrats that developed plans for a postwar economic policy. The board unveiled a plan based on HUUGE peacetime government spending, which would guarantee an expanded welfare state, full employment, and economic security/an American standard of living. Many liberals hailed the reports of the NRPB as a "vision of freedom." However, this was too much for the now-conservative, Republican congress to handle, so none of these ideas ever got approved.
Economic Bill of Rights
(1944) Roosevelt's proposed new Bill of Rights. This would include a job with a living wage, freedom from unfair competition and monopolies, a home, medical care, education, and social security. While this Bill of Rights never passed Congress, its ideas were mirrored in the GI Bill of Rights, which helped many veterans get good educations and receive home mortgages.
System agreed to by the Mexican and American Government. Under the program, tens of thousands of people can enter into the United States to work temporarily in the Southwest.
(1947-1949) Special train (that was painted red, white, and blue) that toured the entire United States. The train carried the original versions of the United States Constitution, Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights on its tour of more than 300 cities in all 48 states. Basically a demonstration of freedom.
A. Philip Randolph
(1889-1979) African American labor leader and founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, which had long battled racism among both employers and unions. He was important because he called for the March on Washington in July 1941. He would have to wait two decades, until 1964, for a truly successful March on Washington--the event at which MLK delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech.
Korematsu v. United States
(1944) was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II. In a 6-3 decision, the Court sided with the government, ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional. The opinion, written by Supreme Court justice Hugo Black, held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Fred Korematsu's individual rights, and the rights of Americans of Japanese descent
Executive Order 8802
(1941) Issued by FDR, banned discrimination in defense jobs and established the FEPC to monitor compliance.
Executive Order 9066
(1942) Issued by FDR. Ordered the expulsion of all persons of Japanese descent from the West Coast to interment camps.
Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)
(1941) Created by executive order. They sought to eliminate racial discrimination in jobs; it possessed little power but represented a step toward civil rights for African Americans.
Congress of Racial Equality
(1942) Civil Rights organization best known for starting the freedom rides in 1961.
August 6th, 1945. American Plane dropped an atomic bomb over Hiroshima, Japan. (The only city in Japan that wasn't damaged). Whipped out the entire city and after another bombing, Japan surrendered.
(1945) Meeting of FDR, Churchill, and Stalin at a Crimean resort to discuss the postwar world. Stalin claimed large areas in eastern Europe for Soviet domination.
Held a separatist-type view when it came to black rights (so kind of like Garvey/Booker T). Was a part of the Nation of Islam and thought that God wanted whites to help blacks move back to Africa.
yay welfare state! yay mixed economy! yay blacks and the vote! yay abortion rights! "These policy stances adhere to the central premise that individual freedom can only exist when it is protected by a strong, democratically elected government that has an active role in society and the economy."
Court Packing Plan
"FDR's attempt to expand the membership of the Supreme Court so that he could nominate justices who would uphold the constitutionality of New Deal legislation." Um, basically Congress was hella against FDR trying to control even more of the government by appointing people he liked.
US Ship that was torpedoed by the Germans during WWI (in 1915); the ship was carrying both arms to supply the Allies but it also had passengers that were killed. The US used the ship as a reason to go to the war because the Americans were killed by the Germans, giving the US a reason to join into the WWI.
makes the making and distribution of alcohol illegal. In 1919, the 18th amendment made alcohol illegal (although it was later repealed 20 years later). __________ was part of women's equal rights movement (because men would get drunk and beat up their wives and therefore feminist activists promoted _____________) and therefore shows the fact that the rights for women in America were slowly expanding.
American Protective League
The ______ was composed of people that worked with the government to identify radicals and critics of WWI by spying on people's neighborhoods and stopping random people on the street demanding their papers. Reflects the growing fear of Nazis infiltrating America.
War Industries Board
was a program set up by the US gov'd in 1917 to manage the buying of war weaponry for WWI. Part of the government's system of standardization of mass production as well as government management and setting up systems.
Civil rights activist; wrote books about Jim Crow laws and segregation. He supported integration of African Americans into the white community. __________ believed that the "talented tenth" of the Black population should set an example for the rest of the people by getting an education and being active in solving social issues.
Henry Cabot Lodge
was a conservative Republican that strongly supported imperialism (especially US intervention in Cuba) because he believed that it was the responsibility of the US to take care of the issues in the Caribbean. He was Wilson's enemy and was against the US joining the League of Nations after WWI.
National Association for Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
was formed in 1909 (DuBois was one of the founding members). It promoted desegregation and fought for civil rights for all "colored people." Unlike some of the student activist groups, the ___________ was pacifists.
1920s. Migration of African Americans from the farms in the South to the urban cities in the North and West because of growing demand for cheap labor in the industrial cities.
(around 1920s-) Garvey supported black pride and economic development and supported the idea of blacks going back to Africa instead of integrating with the white community.
Great Steel Strike
1919 Chicago strike by immigrant workers that demanded union recognition, higher wages, and a 8 hour workday. By the end of 1918, the AA (union that these workers joined) won the 8 hour work day. However, in response to the strike, the steel company owners appealed to anti-immigrants and the middle class/police attacked the workers, ending the strike in 1920.
American response to the Russian Revolution in 1917; reflects the rising fear of communism. Palmer dispatched officers to stop the radical and labor organizations (Palmer Raids) and the government deported many radicals. After the bomb explosion in 1920, the radical movement ended and the IWW/Socialist Parties were basically destroyed under government and social pressure.
Treaty of Versailles
1919 Treaty that ended WWI; Germany had to accept the responsibility of starting the war, disarm, and pay reparations for the losses of other countries, basically driving Germany into extreme poverty and debt. Wilson's Fourteen Points were part of the Treaty: he argued for open diplomacy, freedom of seas, and the creation of the League of Nations (which was rejected).
League of Nations
was proposed as an international organization the would protect countries and maintain peace. Congress rejected Wilson's proposal for America to join in the _______ because the Americans were scared that these foreign entanglements would push America into a foreign war.
Teapot Dome Scandal
1921 corruption scandal; Harding was involved with an oil company and was giving them money. Basically it contributed to the overall sense of distrust in the government
"Twice Congress passed the ___________________, calling for the federal government to purchase surplus crops [ in order to keep prices down ]. Twice (1927 and 1928) Coolidge vetoed it, and the economic woes of American farmers persisted well into the following decade."
"referred to a "new breed" of young women who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to jazz, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior. Flappers were seen as brash for wearing excessive makeup, drinking, treating sex in a casual manner, smoking, driving automobiles, and otherwise flouting social and sexual norms."
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
1918. __________________. Its mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." It works through litigation, legislation, and community education." "Bureau opposed American intervention in World War I. The NCLB provided legal advice and aid for conscientious objectors and those being prosecuted under the Espionage Act of 1917 or the Sedition Act of 1918."
Schenck v. United States
1919. "The Supreme Court determined that speech may be suppressed if it creates a clear and present danger (ex, one cannot yell "fire" in a crowded theater). In following years, the "clear and present danger test was limited to violent actions rather than the support of these ideas."
Scopes Monkey Trial
1925. Basically, Creationists were angry because Scopes was teaching Darwinism to his students; they believed that keeping it literal would be to keep it moral. Clarence Darrow defended Scopes, and WJB defended the state of Tennessee. Scopes was convicted, but later charges were dropped.
1930. Raised the tariff to the highest level it had ever been. Kind of made the Depression worse...
(1953-69) The US Supreme Court that ruled under Chief Justice Earl Warren. Famous cases included Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (school desegregation), Baker v. Carr (legislative restricting), and Miranda v. Arizona (rights of Criminal Defense).
Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education
(1971) Burger Court approved the lower court's plan that required the extensive transportation of students to achieve school integration. This led to many future ruling that used bussing as a tool to achieve school integration.
Bakke v. UC Regents
(1978) Case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the UC system to use racial quotas in admissions but did allow the use of race as a factor of admissions.
(1970s) The term is often used in reference to the general easing of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States in the 70s, a thawing at a period roughly in the middle of the Cold War.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
(1970) Refers to the two talk between US and USSR (second one was with Russia) and they agreed to freeze each country's arsenal of intercontinental missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons.
(1972-74) Scandal of the Nixon administration. When his knowledge of the break-in at the Watergate and subsequent coverup was reveals, Nixon resigned the presidency under threat of impeachment.
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
(1966, 1974) allowed scholars, journalists, and ordinary citizens to gain access to millions of pages of records of federal agencies.
(1972) Part of the Educational Amendments Act of 1972 that banned gender discrimination in higher education.
(60s): The radical youth protest movement of the 1960s. Generally, it was an anti-establishment movement, and opposed the Vietnam War. It also tied into other reform movements, like the Black Power movement and the Brown Beret movement. It was a feminist and environmental movement as well. This is where the Berkeley liberal was born, folks. It was named by the leader Tom Hayden to distinguish it from the Old (Communist) left of the 1930s, which focused mainly on class issues, which were important to _____ leaders but not their only focus.
(1960s & 1970s primarily) A movement emphasizing black pride; the creation and development of black cultural, social, and political institutions; and the encouragement of "separatism," where blacks could have their own institutions and a self-sufficient economy. Members of the movement were critical of MLK's nonviolence (and the nonviolent approaches of groups such as the NAACP and the SCLC) and rejected the push for integration. The Black Panther Party is an example of a group active within the Black Power movement.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
A hugely popular offshoot of the socialist League for Industrial Democracy,___________ sought participatory democracy. In their Port Huron statement, they criticized the institutions and social arrangements that already existed and summarized the feelings of a generation. They were a huge part of the Berkeley radical student population during the 1960s.
The "hippie" youth culture of the 1960s. This is where the Beatles and LSD come in. This is the side of the movement that believed in free sex, rock, communes, and complete rejection of social norms: many students dropped out and established utopian communes. Think Haight-Ashbury during this time period.
(by Betty Friedan, 1963): Betty Friedan published this book to expose the desperation of well educated women trapped inside the home, which she compared to a "comfortable concentration camp." She elicited a widespread response from women who identified with the problems she brought up. Friedan's book kicked off the third wave of feminism, which led to the Equal Pay Act in 1963 and the formation of NOW in 1966.
(1969): The police raided Stonewall Bar in Greenwich Village, which was well known to have a predominately gay clientele. Five days of rioting followed the incident. This raid essentially kicked off the gay rights movement, with more gay people coming out of the closet and more gay pride marches in the years that followed.
(about 1965): Starting in 1965, _______ led a series of nonviolent protests to pressure growers to agree to labor contracts with the United Farm Worker's Union. In 1970, the movement was successful, with major growers agreeing to contracts with the movement. ________ was the Chicano culture's MLK.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
was founded in 1968 and demanded greater tribal self-government and the restoration of economic resources guaranteed in treaties. They demanded a return to the treaty system and reparations. They were largely inspired by Black Power and Chicano movements, and persisted throughout the 1960s to extremely limited success.
was a 1960s marine biologist who wrote the book Silent Spring, the book that launched the environmental movement (it's a good read, if you have some time and patience). Silent Spring condemned the pesticide DDT and other chemicals and pesticides, and directly attacked the huge companies that used them. These companies pursued her and tried to discredit the book, but TO NO AVAIL!!!!! (yay) IN YOUR FACE, companies!
Baker v. Carr
(1962) established the fact that one man must have one vote. The exact wording is that districts electing members of state legislatures must be equal in population.
Miranda v. Arizona
(1966): Establishes the Miranda rights: the right to an attorney, the right to remain silent, etc. Another Warren Court decision that expands civil rights significantly.
The word _____________ was created to describe both stagnant economic growth and high inflation. It first appeared in the 70s and lasted through the 80s when the US was dealing with oil issues in the Middle East (to put it simply...). First of all, a war between Israel, and Egypt and Syria broke out, raising gasoline prices. The US's oil production also could not keep up with the demand, raising prices dramatically. The shortage on oil was so bad that some people siphoned the gasoline out of other people's cars. Wow.
Iran Hostage Crisis
Iran was one of the US's major suppliers of oil as well as military equipment, so in 1977 President Carter took a visit and voiced his support of the shah's rule. The shah was not extremely popular among the Iranians and so when Ayatolla Khomeini overthrew him, the US wasn't too popular among the people there. The shah fled to the United States, angering the new regime further. As a result, the American embassy in the Tehran was invaded and 53 Americans were taken hostage. The captives were finally set free in January 1981, the day that Carter's term ended.