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Presidential Reconstruction

Like Lincoln, Johnson wanted to restore the Union in as little time as possible. While Congress was in recess, the president began implementing his plans, which became known as __________________. He returned confiscated property to white southerners, issued hundreds of pardons to former Confederate officers and government officials, and undermined the Freedmen's Bureau by ordering it to return all confiscated lands to white landowners. Johnson also appointed governors to supervise the drafting of new state constitutions and agreed to readmit each state provided that it ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery. Hoping that Reconstruction would be complete by the time Congress reconvened a few months later, he declared Reconstruction over at the end of 1865.

Black Codes

(1865-66) Laws that were passed the try to regulate the lives of former slaves. The laws allowed them to have some basic rights such as legalized marriage, ownership of land, and had limited access to court. However, they were not allowed to testify against whites, serve on juries or in the state militias, or to vote. In other words, slavery without actually having slavery.

Radical Republicans

(1854-1877) A branch of the Republican Party who strongly opposed slavery and compromising with the South during secession. They were for the emancipation of black soldiers during the Civil War and equal civil and political rights for African Americans during Reconstruction.

14th Amendment

(1868) The ________________ states that every person born in United States will be granted citizenship, which authorize the federal government to protect the rights of all Americans. At this point, the decision for black suffrage was up to the states. In order to achieve black suffrage, the amendment offered two choice for the states (particularly in the South): either to let the black men vote and keep full representation in the House of Representatives or limiting black suffrage but sacrificing political power.

15th Amendment

(1869) prohibited federal and state governments from denying the right to vote to any citizen solely based on race. Note that this amendment didn't include women and it wasn't effective because there were loopholes in this amendment and black people could still be prevented from voting (ie. literacy test).

Freedmen's Bureau

(1865) an agency that was designed to assist former slaves (freedmen). Their duties included establishing schools, providing aid to the poor and elderly, settling conflict between black and white, and ensuring that everyone gets equal treatment before doing into court. They also helped them in landowning, health care, and jobs.

Reconstruction Act

(1867) temporarily divided the South into five military districts and called for the creating of new state governments that included black suffrage. This act marked the beginning of the "Radical Reconstruction".


a practice in which landless workers (most often former slaves) work the land for the landowner in exchange for farm supplies and a share of the crop or a fixed wage. This is basically like slavery all over again but most black stuck with is because they didn't have other options.

Bargain of 1877

(1877) also known as the Compromise of 1877. The bargain was that Hayes was elected as president in exchange for the ending of Reconstruction.


(1870s) A group of democrats those reclaimed the South after Reconstruction. They claimed that they have "redeemed" the white South from corruption, misgovernment, and northern and black control by reclaiming the South.

Civil Rights Act of 1875

(1875) This act is the last piece of legislation that passed during Reconstruction. The act outlawed racial discrimination in public facilities, such as theaters and hotels.

Enforcement Acts

(1870-71) Acts that targeted terror groups such as the KKK. The acts outlawed terrorist societies and allowed the president to use the army against them. President Grant used the army to get rid of these groups. Most KKK leaders fled and those that were caught were held in well-publicized trials. By 1872, KKK had gone out of existence. For the first time since the Civil War, peace existed in most of the Confederacy.

Bonanza farming

(1870s) Large scale farms that performed large scale operation. Technology use and large number of workers made it possible. The operations were successful because of cheap abundant land, growth of Eastern market, and the completion of the major railroads.

Ghost Dance

Part of Native American religion. Prophet said that in the future, Native Americans were going to be able to practice their ancestral traditions without misery, death, and disease, because the white people were going to be gone forever. Large numbers of Indians gathered for days singing and dancing as a way to pray to their ancestors.

Wounded Knee

(December 29, 1890) A native American massacre. On this day, native Americans gathered for the Ghost dance. The government feared that there would be a general uprising, as they mistook the dancing for a kind of declaration of wat; they sent troops to Wounded Knee Creek and opened fire, killing 150 to 200 people (mostly women and children). This massacre marked the end of four centuries of armed conflict between the natives and the European settlers and their descendants.

Sherman Antitrust Act

(1890) first law restricting monopoly trusts and business combination. The act stated that any trust that was purposefully restraining interstate trade was illegal.

Lochner v. New York

(1905) voided a New York state law that established ten hours per day or sixty per week as the maximum hour of work for bakers. The law stated that the state law violated the liberty or contract between worker and employer, therefore interfering with individual freedom.

Dawes Act

(1877) Indian lands broken up and a small portion of it would be distributed to the Indians while majority of the land was auctioned off to white people. Indian who accepted this offer and have assimilated would become full-fledge American citizens. Many whites benefited from this act while many Indians suffered. They have lost 86 million acres of ancestral land out of the 138 million acres they had before the act was passed.

horizontal integration

a style of management in which a company owns one merchandise and everyone had to go to them in order to get the merchandise. (ie. The College Board -> SATs and APs)

vertical expansion

(also known as a vertical integration) describes a style of company management control. This is where companies are part of a supply chain (usually having a common owner) and every company produces a different part and is assembled together at the end. The company takes full control and copyright of the product.

Frederick Jackson Turner

(1861-1932) historian who gave a famous lecture, "The significance of the Frontier in American History." He argued that distinctive qualities of American culture that were forced on the Western Frontier were: individual freedom, political democracy, and economy mobility.

Social Darwinism

(1877) A term what was used to described society (especially rich vs. poor), using Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, natural selection, and survival of the fittest. Basically, it's the ideology that the rich are the only people who are fit to live and the poor should die. They ask the rich not to help the poor because if all of the poor die out through the process of "natural selection" and "survival of the fittest", only the fit (or the rich) would live and society would be better.

Knights of Labor

(1880s) a large labor organization (first in history) that tried to organize skilled and unskilled labor, men and women, and blacks and whites. They were the first union to allow all laborers. The __________ demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories.

Haymarket Affair

"Violence during an anarchist protest at ____________ in Chicago on May 4 1886; the deaths of eight, including seven policemen, led to the trial of eight anarchist leaders for conspiracy to commit murder." (A-50 ish)

Boss Tweed

leader of Tammany Hall, the Democratic political machine that sustained its long term power by getting the immigrant vote. _________ is most well known as the leader of a ring of corruption in NYC. He was responsible for millions of dollars of tax fraud.

Credit Mobilier

"A corporation formed by an inner ring of Union Pacific Railroad stockholders to oversee the line's government-assisted construction. Essentially, it enabled the participants to sign contracts with themselves, at an exorbitant profit, to build the new line."(616) probably the single greatest example of corruption in the postwar period

Whiskey ring

Postwar liquor taxes were extremely high. Many of the liquor manufacturers bribed officials in the Treasury to avoid the tax. More than 100 government officials were eventually convicted, but Grant kept his private secretary from being affected by the investigation.

Great Railroad Strike of 1877

The first national labor walkout. Workers protested a pay cut and blocked railway traffic. Troops killed almost 20 people by firing on the strikers and then workers reacted by burning the railroad yards. It "revealed a strong sense of solidarity among workers and the close ties between the Republican Party and the new class of industrialists."

People's Party

Started out as the Farmer's Alliance and then grew in the 1890s into the _____________, which claimed to support all workers but got its major support from farmers in the South and West. Had a large amount of community organization, building on the small network of the farmer's alliance. They were extremely anti-bank and corporation, and were all for government expansion to protect the working class. Mostly they were pretty racist and did very little for the black population of the U.S. Something of the mold of the successful American reform party.

Free silver

the Bryan solution to the problems with the gold standard. Bryan's policy here reflects the view that putting more money in the system would help farmers pay off their debts. Basically, Bryan wanted to start the "unrestricted minting of silver money." (645). This movement was essentially killed by McKinley's election in 1896. However, the movement radically influenced popular culture, possibly having an effect on such well known favorites as the Wizard of Oz which supported the gold standard as the method to escape from witchy industrialists.

Eugene V. Debs

Helped to start the IWW and ILU and was later extremely well known as a candidate for the Socialist party. _______ was a major figure in the Pullman strike of 1894 protesting wage cuts. The army got involved, and 13 strikers were killed. Debs was found guilty of contempt of court. In re debs stated that the government had the right to get involved in interstate commerce. He later ran for president many times as a socialist. His imprisoned 1919 presidential candidacy was mocked widely, but he had a loyal band of supporters who marched in protest of his jailing and essentially started the May Day riots of 1919.

William Jennings Bryan

A liberal democrat who both Democrats and Populists united behind in 1896. His platform of free silver and farming pride appealed to farmers and workers across the country. Populists didn't warm up to Bryan until they realized that they wouldn't win by themselves. Bryan was then essentially outspent by the Republican candidate McKinley, who spent a ton on his campaign. Perhaps Bryan's most famous line is : "You shall not crucify mankind on a cross of gold." He used a lot of biblical imagery in his speeches.

Farmers Alliance

Formed by farmers (obviously) in the late 1870s, many of whom found themselves in the difficult financial position of having to sell their farms to repay bank loans. The Alliance was initially a purely financial institution that would loan money to farmers and sell their products. But financial difficulties with this system caused it to evolve into a political institution that lobbied government for warehouses where farmers could store crops until they were sold. They wanted government based loans that used crops as collateral as well. This plan was called the "subtreasury plan." In the 1890s, the _____________ evolved into the People's Party.

Subtreasury Plan

Basically what I said above (farmers alliance). Essentially the government would establish warehouses where farmers could store crops until they were sold. The crops would then be used as collateral by the federal government, who would give loans to farmers at low interest rates. Pushed by the Farmer's Alliance and the later People's Party.

Coxey's Army

An army of several hundred unemployed men (led by Coxey) who marched to Washington in May 1894 to demand economic relief during the depression of 1893.

New Imperialism

The wave of imperialism during the McKinley administration. The economic depression and Turner thesis led many politicians to push for more expansion into new markets. Many European countries, notably Germany under Otto Van Bismarck, are headed in the same direction. We did a long assignment on this, so I'm assuming people are pretty down with it. It pretty much continues in the same vein until the World Wars.

New Immigration

A wave of immigration during the 1890s despite the depression. These immigrants were greeted by widespread racism and inspired movements such as the Immigration Restriction League, which called for the federal government to bar illiterate immigrants from entering the U.S. They came mostly from England, Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia. Many states adopted literacy and residence requirements, and almost all states adopted the "Australian" ballot, which kept party officials from helping illiterate people at polling stations.

Booker T. Washington

A civil rights advocate in the 1890s who pushed for acceptance of segregation and economic advancement. He believed that the top ten percent of the African American population should help lift up the rest, and that education programs were vital to that goal.

American Federation of Labor (AFL)

The _________________ was an organization formed after the demise of the Knights of Labor during the 1890s. Led by Samuel Gompers, this labor movement was far more limited and had more achievable goals, such as higher wages and better working conditions. It consisted mainly of native-born white skilled male workers.

Samuel Gompers

The aforementioned leader of the AFL, who thought the labor movement should focus on negotiations with employers for higher wages and better working conditions rather than the farfetched utopian goals of such organizations as the knights of labor. He's kind of the white version of Booker T Washington: he wanted to use freedom of contract against big companies (to support the formation of unions).

Philippine War

Started in 1899 after McKinley decided he wanted to keep the Phillipines instead of just helping them defeat the Spanish. Filipinos rebelled, and it became one of the US's more controversial wars. The McKinley administration claimed that it wanted to christianize filipinos, which was dumb because they were already Catholics. American rule there was pretty bad and usually favored local elites and American business. Hardly surprising, all in all.

Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

The ___________________. Founded in 1873, this group pushed for Prohibition. They really only came into their own as a part of the women's progressive movement though.

The National American Womens' Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

The _______________________. Unified the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) (yes, I used wikipedia for that one. I'm not gonna to lie, I love it). Led by Susan B. Anthony, this organization was one of the main suffragist groups in the early stages of the 1890s onward feminist movement.

The Maine

An American battleship accidentally sunk. The U.S. blames Spain, and tada! We have the Spanish-American war of 1898, which was supposedly to aid Cuban nationalists struggling for freedom, but that in reality McKinley used to imperialistically (not a word) invade Cuba.

Platt Amendment

The 1898 amendment to the new Cuban constitution that allowed the U.S. to use its military to intervene whenever it wanted. it was forced on Cuba by McKinley: he refused to acknowledge cuban independence if they didn't incorporate the _____________.


During the Progressive Era, some journalists saw American values being undermined by businesses. __________ was used by journalists to "expose the underside of American life" (680)- for example, they took pictures of child laborers to criticize social inequality and expose the corruption of businesses.


(1900s-1910s) Henry Ford's companies standardize mass production to be faster and uses spies to prevent workers from forming unions. _________ refers to the economic system focused on mass production and consumption. This marks the shift of American economy from producing "capital goods" (railroads, etc.) to consumer goods, and consumerism started becoming a sign of liberty and freedom during the Progressive Era.

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

(1905) ________________ was formed by a group of unionist that opposes AFL's exclusion policies (since AFL mainly represented privileged American male workers), and were open to "every wave-worker, no matter what his religion, fatherland, or trade" (694). The ______ fought for civil liberties for everyone and despite the protesters being arrested and brutally treated, the IWW continued to fight for liberty and going against the government prohibition of strikes.

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

(1911) The fire started in a factory where most of the workers were women. and more than 100 women workers died during the fire. However, the main impact of the fire was in making the public realize that the government needs to regulate industry, and after the fire the government passed legislation that required factories to pass inspection laws and fire safety codes.

The Jungle

(1906) Written by Upton Sinclair. Sinclair was a muckraker, and his novel clearly reflects the corruption within the meat industry by describing the unsanitary conditions of slaughterhouses and the sale of spoiled meat. The book lead the government to establish the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act in 1906 in order to address the problems.


emerged in the urban cities in America in the form of mass consumption, which was closely linked to the idea of freedom. During the Progressive Era, large downtown department stores emerged to provide consumers with the goods that were being mass produced in the factories. This "promise of mass consumption became the foundation for a new understanding of freedom" as consumption in the new capitalist system.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

(1898) _________ wrote a book titled Women and Economics that showed the rising independence of women and showed the changes of the role of women within the economic and family spheres. _______ argued that the road to woman's freedom was through work and that at home, the women is constantly oppressed, so domesticity was a sign of a lack of freedom. This parallels the idea that work and consumption is the representation of freedom.

Scientific Management

Term invented by Frederick Taylor, which refers to the program that wanted to streamline production and raise profits by controlling the working production and costs. This program would rely on scientific calculation of the way to minimize spending and to get the best profit, and the only role of the workers would be to obey the instructions of the supervisors. Workers were against this system because it took away from the worker rights and they argued that scientific management would be a threat to their freedoms.

Margaret Sanger

(1911) was a birth control rights activists, and argued that "no woman can call herself free who does not own and control her own body" (698). This reflects the rising feminist movement during the Progressive Era. The birth control movement was also important because feminists, IWW, and the Socialist Party promoted the right for a woman to make the choice of birth control.

Robert LaFollette

(1906-1925) _________ was the most influential Progressive administrator on the state level. He helped create an alliance between railroad and lumber companies and after becoming governor, he instituted the Wisconsin Idea, which said that candidates for office would be selected by primary elections and not through political bosses, which would minimize corruption within the government. The Wisconsin Idea also included taxation of corporations and state regulation of railroads and public utilities. __________ represents the new Progressives that worked to change the role of the government to give more people to the people and limit the control of the "political bosses." LaFollette also relied on an administration with experts, which was part of the Progressive faith in government with expertise.

Muller v Oregon

(1908) Brandeis filed a lawsuit with scientific studies as proof that women has less strength than men and therefore they had to have shorter working hours, and the Supreme Court ruled in favor of creating a maximum working hours for women. Shows the use of government to regulate working conditions.

Jane Addams

(1860) never married, rejecting the tradition belief that women have to be married and enter the family sphere.She represented the new Progressive woman, who were educated middle class women that aimed to help the poor and create a more activist government.

Hull House

(1889) Created by Jane Addams; the settlement house was designed to help improve the lives of the immigrant poor. The ____________ shows the movement of previous aiding houses that helped the poor from a distance to direct aid. These settlement houses expanded, and by 1910 there were over 400; they reflect the Progressive idea of government need to step in and help the poor.

Election of 1912

a contest between Taft, Roosevelt, Wilson (Democrat), and Debs (Socialist), and the main focus of the debate was the the relationship between political and economic freedom in the system of rising businesses. Taft argued that economic individualism should be the main foundation for social order and that the government and private businesses cooperated in solving social problems. Debs argued for public ownership of railroads and banks and government aid to the unemployed and establishment of a shorter working day and minimum wage. Wilson and Roosevelt both believed that government action should protect personal freedom, but disagreed over whether or not the federal powers should be expanded. WILSON WON.

New Freedom

Wilson's program in which the federal government would strengthen antitrust laws and protect the rights of workers to create unions as well as encourage small businesses. This would increase economic competition and free government from having to dominate big businesses.

New Nationalism

Roosevelt's program, which said that the government should only control and promote the liberty of the oppressed; he promoted heavy taxation of personal and corporate fortunes and federal regulation of industry- therefore the government should be actively supporting and creating laws to minimize the profits of the big corporations (so more federal power).

Louis Brandeis

(1916-1939) Supreme Court Justice; was the one that filed the Muller vs. Oregon case. Brandeis was against large corporations and business monopolies, and at the same time, he was against expansion of government power (Wilson took a lot of his ideas). (Correct me if there's anything else; basically he said that women were weaker, was against economic competition and expansion of federal power.)

Hepburn Act

(1906) gave the ICC the right to examine railroads' business records and set rates- reflects Progressive belief in expansion of federal power and intervention in businesses.

Underwood Tariff

(1913) Wilson's Progressive movement- the Tariff reduces duties on important but to make up for the lost money, imposes tax on the richest 5% of Americans. Shows federal intervention, especially in reducing the profits of the super rich businesses.

Clayton Act

(1914) exempts labor unions from antitrust laws and prevents courts from preventing the union's right to strike; Progressive view of government as promoting unions and people's right to freely protest.

Keating-Owen Act

(1916) Outlaws child labor. (Again government intervention in helping the people be protected from the businesses).

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that establishes the US as the "international police power" of the Caribbean; expands the US's role in foreign government and is aimed against the European intervention in Latin America. (Also note that is it ironic that the US is supposed to be protecting Latin American countries but at the same time they are invading all these countries and having imperialism).

Immigration Act of 1924

A law passed in Congress in 1924, it limited immigration based on country of origin. It was the first law of its kind--except for Chinese Exclusion, few immigrants had been turned away from America. Now, fears of immigrant radicalism, as well as new strains of racial supremacy, caused the government to pass restrictions that pretty severely limited how many immigrants could pass through the Golden Doors. Many of the quotas were based on "scientific research," used to determine the "national origins" of the American population and to decide which "races" were fit to live in America and which weren't. Obviously, the least American Anglo-Saxon looking you were, the smaller the quota was for you. This was part of the "Taking back America" battle waged by conservatives who were worried about the dilution of American values during the 20s

Harlem Renaissance

(1920s): During the 1920s, nearly 1 million blacks left the south in the Great Migration Northward. Harlem, a New York City neighborhood, quickly became the capital of black America. Most of Harlem was very poor, with many blacks forced into low-wage jobs and paying exorbitant rents. However, it was also time in which a vibrant black cultural community developed, supported by White intellectuals. Theater, music, writing, and arts all flourished in the 20s. This is when the term "New Negro," used to describe the new self-assertive Black Americans searching for a rejection of stereotypes, came into use. Famous figures associated with the Harlem Renaissance include Hughes, McKay, Cullen, Johnson, Hurston, and Baker.

Herbert Hoover

(1928-32): the last Republican President of the 20s, _______ swept the 1928 election, thanks in part to his popularity and success both as a businessman and a politician ("he had never known failure) and because his opponent, Smith, was Catholic. At first, when the depression hit, Hoover dismissed it as a normal part of capitalism meant to weed out bad companies. He believed that government aid would make people lazy. As conditions worsened, his popularity dropped, and even as he called together business and labor leaders to take voluntary steps to curb the crisis, many decried him for his disconnect with the conditions of ordinary Americans. This led him to have to pass...

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

(1932) This was the pre-New-Deal New Deal. In 1932, realizing that the Depression was not going away, Hoover created the RFC, which loaned $$$ to failing banks, railroads, and other businesses. It gave nearly $2 Billion in aid to public-works projects and local relief efforts.

Brains Trust

(1933-): ooooh, all the smart people are gonna get together in Washington and they're gonna make the best decisions for our country. Washington DC's got a monopoly on brains. This was the hope of many people after Roosevelt got elected; that somehow, the gvt was going to be able to solve everything. The Brains Trust was actually a group of close advisors to the Prez that included many former Progressives (such as Frances Perkins).

Bank Holiday

Roosevelt is like "guys, this is getting out of control. Let's close the banks until we sort this out."

Emergency Banking Act

(1933): There had been 8000 Bank failures 1929-33, and banks had been trading stocks (uhoh!). Roosevelt decides that people are panicking too much and that the situation is getting out of control, so he closes ALL the banks, and then says "we'll only reopen the ones that we back, then get rich people to invest in them." This was part of a big "collective hallucination"--if the people believed that the banks were stable, then they wouldn't rush to get their money. More than anything, the Bank Holiday gives Americans an illusion of stability. The __________________ provided funds to shore up dying banks.

Glass-Steagall Act

(1933) prohibits banks from having fun with the stock market. It divides banks into commercial and investment sectors, thus making money more secure. It also establishes the FDIC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, to back up any money stored in a US Bank. Repealed in 1999.


(1933) the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, to back up any money stored in a US Bank. Repealed in 1999.

National Recovery Administration

(1933): Modeled on the government-business partnerships established by the War Industries Board during World War I, The _____ was supposed to set production standards and help unify laborers and bosses. Its symbol was the Blue Eagle and it organized many marches and demonstrations with the slogan "we do our part!" It also recognized the right to form labor unions, which many employers ignored. Unfortunately, the government had no teeth to enforce the 750 codes that came with the _____ by 1935. And it didn't really help with economic recovery or peace between employers or employees.

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

(1933): "Let's pay farmers to destroy food to raise prices... while others are going hungry..." That was the basic motto of the _______. It set quotas for major crops and payed farmers to plant less. It led to higher prices and farm incomes for landowning farmers, but many sharecroppers and tenant farmers were evicted and became homeless and jobless as a result. Coupled with the Dust Bowl, this had a devastating effect on families in Kansas and Oklahoma.

Civilian Conservation Corps

(1933): sent unemployed young men to work on projects like forest preservation, flood control, and the improvement of national parks and wildlife preserves.

Tennessee Valley Authority

(1933): highly successful project that turned around a poor area of Tennessee and supplied it with cheap hydroelectric power and fertile land. It provided an example of how government intervention could help solve some of the problems of the Depression era.

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)

The AFL becomes increasingly criticized for its policy of organizing workers by craft, and many leaders call for unions of industrial workers to be created. When the AFL convention refuses, John Lewis, head of United Mine Workers, leads walkout that produces ________________, which wanted to create unions in the "main bastions" of the American economy. It wanted to guarantee workers a fair share in the wealth they helped to produce. It encouraged many strikes, including a sit-down strike at GM in 1937. Unlike the AFL, it believed in government intervention to help workers against economic and social insecurity, and called for a standard of American living and redistribution of income to the laboring classes.

Wagner Act

(1935): Empowered the National Labor Relations Board to supervise employee elections for union representation and outlawed anti-union "unfair labor practices" and enforce the rights of unionized workers to collective bargaining, etc etc. Yay for Labor!

Father Charles E. Coughlin

(mid-30s): known as the "radio priest," he aired weekly radio broadcasts attacking bankers and capitalists, and thought the government should take over key industries. He soon became disappointed with FDR for failing to uphold social justice, and quickly shifted towards fascism.

Huey Long

(early 30s): Known as The Kingfish, Long was basically a dictator over Louisiana (he claimed to help uplift "common people" and was an embodiment of Socialist and Populist traditions) who launched the Share Our Wealth Movement, which called for the confiscation of the wealth of the riches Americans to guarantee an annual income and job to every American. His slogan was "Every Man a King," and he was extremely popular. He was assassinated in 1935 before he could run for President.

Second New Deal

(1935): Whereas the First New Deal had focused on Economic Recovery, the Second focused on economic security and on a permanent solution to redistribute the national income. Major pieces were the Works Progress Administration, which built hella infrastructure, the Social Security Act, the Wagner act.

Works Progress Administration

(1935): employed many out-of-work Americans to improve the country's infrastructure by building bridges, roads, airports, etc etc. It also employed many jobless professionals, such as doctors.

United Nations

1945. The evolution of the League of Nations, it worked to create and maintain ~world peace~ by, for example, preventing future world wars. The US joined up this time. Although successful in that there hasn't been a WWIII, it has also slightly failed in that there have been numerous other wars (Cold, Vietnam, Korea, Iraq).

Fair Deal

1945. Truman's version of a New Deal. Provided for civil rights legislation, national health insurance, and the repeal of the Taft-Harley Act (see below). However, the Republican-dominated Congress rejected the Fair Deal for the most part because they wanted to reduce the federal government's involvement in helping the people. Nonetheless, Congress did pass the Housing Act of '49 (provided for government-funded public housing) and the Social Security Act of '50 (it's in the name).

House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

1945. Investigated communists separately from McCarthy. Famous cases: '47, when it launched a series of hearings about communist influence in Hollywood (Hollywood would blacklist the suspects and those who refused to name names), and '48, when it investigated Alger Hiss (Nixon became famous after prosecuting the man). All of this was very much publicized in order to instill fear into the people.

Operation Dixie

1946. The AFL/CIO's failed attempt to unionize the South. They thought it was necessary to try to get the workers to make a stand for their rights by striking, for example, in order to protest the severe drop in wages. Truman didn't approve.

Taft-Hartley Act

1947. Sought to reverse some of the gains made by organized labor by banning sympathy strikes and secondary boycotts and preventing forms of compulsory union membership. Again, Truman didn't approve of this, but the conservative Republican Congress passed it anyway. We can see here that the Republican Congress was really against the working class and helping the working class.

Truman Doctrine

1947. It's easy to see the progression of US foreign policy from the Monroe Doctrine (which basically laid a claim to the W. Hemisphere) to the Roosevelt Corollary (which said that it was the US's right to actively protect the Caribbean) to the ______________, which finally said that the US had to protect the world from the evils of communism in order to promote a democratic freedom. The Doctrine itself is important because it shows how much of a world power the US had become after WWII.

Marshall Plan

1947. Sort of a New Deal for Europe, as Foner puts it (893). Sec'y of State Marshall says that the US has to contribute financially to Europe's recovery in order to strengthen the Truman Doctrine's policies for protecting capitalism. Puts in provisions for helping allies as well as former enemies.


1947. The archetype for suburbs/planned communities. Cheap and mass-produced - all the houses looked the same, for example. First built by William and Alfred Levitt in New York. Racially segregated - ran on a restrictive covenant that stated that homeowners could not sell their homes to anyone who wasn't white, because of the fear that whites would move out if they heard they had to share the neighborhood with a non-white.


1948. Also known as the States' Rights Democratic Party. Comprised of white Southerners pro-segregation and versus Truman's idea of civil rights. Not surprisingly, SC governor Thurmond was their presidential candidate in the election of '48. Party died within the year.

Henry Wallace

1948. Progressive Party's nomination for president. Really liberal; pro social welfare programs and controlling the use of nuclear weapons. (If that meant getting Communist and Socialist help, he was down... Unfortunately, his acceptance of these groups gave people a reason to be scared of him - Truman said that to vote for him was to vote for Stalin). Was against racial segregation (even more so than Truman).

Berlin Blockade

1948-9. The West had control of the part of Germany that included Berlin, a city entrenched in an otherwise highly Soviet zone. In order to try to prevent the West from expanding their influence in Germany, the Soviets cut Berlin off from Western trade by land. But the Westerners found a way to airlift provisions to the city. Yay! Stalin lifted the blockade in '49, causing the split between East and West Germany. Berlin itself remained divided.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

1949. Formed to - again - prevent the Soviets from taking over Europe. The US and Canada are the only non-European members. The Europeans felt it necessary to have the US's military force on its side. Similar organizations that formed quickly thereafter: SEATO (in SE Asia) and CENTO (in the Middle East).


1950. Document that stated essentially how the US saw the Soviets - they were coldblooded people that needed to be stopped in order to save the world from evil. This kind of highfalutin language was used in order to dramatize the need to spend on the war.

McCarran Internal Security Act

1950. Passed over Truman's veto. Documented affiliates of communist organizations within the US and made it possible to investigate these suspected subversives if need be. Members of these organizations couldn't become US citizens or leave the country. Really enforced the need to stick to American values - anyone who had different opinions could be called a communist.

Joseph McCarthy

1950. A Republican bully who (ab)used his power as a senator to accuse hella people of being communist, despite the fact that he had zero evidence. Although the Republicans were initially cool with him because he made Truman look bad, __________ became an embarrassment after Eisenhower was elected as president in '52.

McCarran-Walter Act

1952. Also known as the Immigration and Nationality Act. Kept an immigration quota and allowed the government to deport suspected subversives. Prevented anyone who was or had ever been associated with the Communist Party from coming into the country.

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

1953. Working-class Jewish communist couple from NYC executed because people suspected them of passing on secrets concerning the a-bomb to Soviets during WWII. Julius was probably guilty (bad Julius!) but Ethel probably wasn't... That she was also indicted shows the lengths to which prosecutors would go in order to say they'd caught a commie. Go them. Anyway, J/E were the first civilians to be executed because of charges of espionage.

Warsaw Pact

1955. The Communists' version of NATO. The creation of this alliance officially delineated the two sides of the Cold War.

Baby boom

post-1945 to the 60s. There was a freaking HUGE increase in the number of births after WWII, which inspired traditional family culture, consumerism, and the move to the suburbs. All soldiers really wanted to do was escape the war and settle down, and I guess they got what they wanted.

Urban renewal

1950. Redevelopment of cities and especially their slums in order to compete with the attention suburbia was getting. Some of this "renewal" meant tearing down and then rebuilding unfavorable areas, which sparked controversy. An example of urban renewal is the renovation of Central Park.

End of Ideology

1960. A book written by Daniel Bell that said that the more society progressed from capitalism, the more ideology would disappear - that is to say, we'd get to the point where we live in the society that we have long envisioned.


1950s and 60s. This group of conservatives were for limited government and an unregulated market. Spoke to entrepreneurs, especially. Very much against the other vision of conservatism, "new conservatism," which called for a more moral America.

Milton Friedman

1962. Wrote Capitalism and Freedom, which called the private sector to take over government functions (especially in the market) and the repeal of minimum lage laws, the graduated income tax, and social security. Supported the idea of unrestricted free choice. The book was highly influential to libertarian thought.

Consumer culture

A culture where it is favorable to buy, buy, buy. As America's goods became more and more mass produced, the idea of liberty was linked to the ability to buy goods. Advertising was targeted towards specific groups. Buying a new vacuum would make cleaning easier and thus give women more freedom in the home; washing one's hair with some brand of shampoo would make the user more manly and attractive. Media and the mass exodus to suburbia played key factors in the proliferation of the consumer culture.

Checkers Speech

In 1952 election, Nixon won the (Republican) nomination to run under Eisenhower as vice president. However, soon thereafter reports came out that wealthy Californians had created a private fund for his family (which he used to live in style). In his televised speech, he spoke of his upbringing and family. He did admit that the new family dog (named Checkers) was in fact a gift from his wealthy backers, but refused to return it.

U-2 Incident

Stalin died in '53, opening talks between the US and the USSR. However, in 1960, an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. Eisenhower denied the Soviets' accusations of spying on them. (it was sort of a "WTF" moment because he denied spying on them and then it was like "well then...what is this pilot doing here?")


the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth. It was launched by the Russians in 1957, sending Americans into a panic and resulting in the passing of the National Education Defense Act.

National Education Defense Act

(1957) was a response to the launching of Sputnik. It was the first time higher education was directly financed by the government. It's intent was to further educate children in math and science so that Americans could compete with the USSR.


John F. Dulles, Secretary of State, declared that if the US were to suffer any attack by the USSR, the country would respond with "massive retaliation" (meaning nuclear warfare). With the buildup of arms on both sides of the war, the term "__________" appeared. It referred to the possibility of possibly destroying the world due to even a minor miscalculation or misunderstanding.

Military Industrial Complex

starting around the time of WWII, the military became closely linked with business. The manufacturing of arms became a big business that would poor billions of dollars into military complexes on the West Coast. However, the business did not die down with the end of the War. Production continued into the Cold War where exorbitant amounts of money were spent of National Defense and the development of nuclear weapons.


The _________ were a group of poets and writer during the '50s who rejected conformism and materialism. They believed in personal as well as political freedom. Their view of freedom included sexual experimentation, impulsive action, and drug-induced pleasure.

Brown v. Board of Education

(1954) In this case, Oliver Brown went to court because his daughter had to cross the railroad tracks every day to get to the nearest school for blacks. While many cases battled for the same cause, the general fight against segregation in schools was named _________________ (for reasons having to do with how the courts sort cases by alphabet, etc.) The final case ruling was that all institutions that are separate, whether the same in funding or no, are unequal. The Supreme Court decision therefore declared segregation in all public schools unconstitutional, but the implementation of such laws proved to be a problem.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

In 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man (something that was illegal at the time). She was arrested, but her actions led to a year-long boycott of public transportation. Blacks carpooled or arranged taxi rides and finally the Supreme Court declared segregation in public transportation unconstitutional.

SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)

was a group of nonviolent African-Americans that strove for equality.

Missile Gap

was a term used by Kennedy to describe the technological and military superiority of the USSR. He used it against the Republicans, claiming that it was their fault for letting it form.

SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)

A group of students advocating for equal rights during the 60s. Among their projects were the freedom rides and various sit-ins.

Freedom Rides

Beginning in 1961 after the Court had banned segregation on interstate buses and terminals, mixed groups of students tested the results by taking buses into the South. They were violently met but in the end the Interstate Commerce Commission decided to ban segregation in all busses and terminals.

New Frontier

JFK's program, which came to a halt due to Republican Congress acting difficult and also due to his assassination. LBJ developed his own version with many of the same concepts (Great Society)

Peace Corps

Designed by JFK to improve the image of the US abroad (and for humanitarian reasons as well), the ____________ sent young Americans abroad to help improve the economy and education programs of developing countries.

Bay of Pigs

1961. was a failed attempt by JFK to overthrow the Castro government. The idea was that they would send in trained Cuban exiles, and then a popular uprising would facilitate the coup. Unfortunately, the Cuban soldiers were ready and our invaders got pwned. As a result, Cuba got even closer with the USSR.

Cuban Missile Crisis

In October, 1962, Americans discovered that the USSR had been installing missiles in Cuba that were capable of reaching the US. Rather than attacking the Soviets, which would have led to worldwide nuclear warfare, Kennedy blockaded the island and demanded their removal. After negotiations, the Soviets conceded.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

When he came to presidency, LBJ made civil rights one of his top priorities and passed the act in 1964. It prohibited discrimination based on race as well as sex in employment, public institutions (including hospitals and schools), as well as privately owned restaurants, hotels, and theatres. It was after signing this bill that Johnson admitted that the South had now been lost to the GOP.

Barry Goldwater

In the campaign of 1964, ___________ was the Republican nomination running against LBJ. He believed that "Extremism in the face of Liberty is no vice." He was willing to risk nuclear warfare against the USSR and wished to repeal welfare programs and Social Security. His popularity in the South, however, was an example of how race could be the issue that would carry the election (the "Southern Strategy"). Basically, he was a Republican @$$h0le. JUST KIDDING.

Voting Rights Act

(1965) No discrimination at voting stands on account of economic class (previously blacks were legally allowed to vote but Southerners had made precautions to prevent such horrors by instituting literacy tests and poll taxes)

Great Society

(1965-1967) After his election in 1964, LB Johnson expanded on the social agenda and created more welfare programs. He created various agencies and departments to improve health services (Medicaid, Medicare), urban development (Departments or Transportation, Housing, and Urban Development), and education (National Endowments for the Humanities and Arts, donations to schools in general). The key difference between the New Deal and the ___________ is that the former was a response to economic depression whereas the latter was a result of prosperity. _____________ was also more inclusive of all of those who needed aid, unlike the New Deal, which excluded blacks from programs such as social security.

Phyllis Schlafly

Conservative Political Activist and Constiutional Attorney. She hates the Equal Rights Amendment and is against feminism. (Supported Goldwater who ran against Johnson, she was born in 1920s, she's still around).


the ideals of the Reagan presidency in 1980s: reduce government spending, reduce taxes and income, reduce government regulation within the economy, control money supply to prevent inflation. So, a lot less of government involvement in general, handing over the free market and decisions to the people/not the federal government.

Tax Reform Act

(1986) A "Reagan tax cut" that simplified the basis of tax in the country. Essentially, it reduced taxes (simplified them majorly) and everyone had to pay less taxes. Like Reagan, it supported less government involvement in the people (people's income specifically).

Strategic Defense Initiative

(issued in 1983 by, you guessed it, Reagan) This institution was created to have space protection (yes, like space, what surrounds the planets) from nuclear attacks. Organization was created in 1984, a year later. Many questions surrounding it: how useful is it really? how scientific is it (Star Wars was created in 1977)? A lot of research facilities and fund are put into this program in order to further STRATEGIC defense (vs. we bomb you, you bomb us, the world goes up in flames).

Iran-Contra Affair

A Reagan scandal in 1986 where the government had agreed to sell arms to Iran (arms embargo) in hopes of releasing hostages AND get funds to put towards U.S> intelligence agencies for Nicaraguan contras.


Last general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union who served from 1985-1991. His actions led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union after his term.

social gospel

"The purveyors of the ___________ urged for government action to accomplish social reforms and refused to hold the poor solely responsible for their plight." Supporters of the _____________ believed that instilling Christian principles would make society better.

Teller Amendment

a reaction to Congress after McKinley's War Message (1898) was issued. His Message concerned (out of the Cuban struggle for independence) the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana. He wanted "to secure a full and final termination of hostilities" between government of Spain the people of Cuba to ensure peace and tranquility (Monroe Doc. esque, right? Essentially we are the world's policeman). So the ______________ was like we have to leave the control of Cuba up to the people of Cuba, and NOT annex it. It was a hands-off conclusion.

Open Door Policy

(c. 1899) U.S asks China to declare that the country could trade with U.S and all other European countries. (couldn't intervene with treaty ports)

Fourteen Points

(1918) Wilson's chit-chat about how there is a moral dilemma and issue within WWI that needs to be fought for in order to have post war peace in Europe. (Became basis for German surrender in Paris Peace Conference)

Espionage Act

(1917) You can't interfere with any military operations, you're prohibited from supporting America's enemies in war time, you cannot interfere with military recruitment. (Remember this is shortly after we entered WWI).


Usually a reaction to modern ideals and beliefs that involves adherence to sets of basic principles. Think about this not only in terms of religion but also politically.


(1865, by Confederates. 1915 it was spurred again for nativism, anti-communism, anti-semitism, anti-catholicism) wow this is a pretty tall order, no? We all should know this is a huge hate group that's composed of White Americans who dislike and have no support for blacks. Their hatred was then extended into the larger sphere of all racial minorities.

Welfare State

Economic and social well-being that a government takes on the responsibility of for its citizens. Equal opportunity, equal distribution of wealth (at its lowest terms) and a responsibility for those unable to take care of themselves.

Social Security Act

(1935) Roosevelt's first term, he issued this. It's part of the New deal. Tried to address the 'dangers' of life: old age, poverty, and unemployment.


specifically centered around communism and the United States' efforts to stop it from spreading (like a virus) through America and through the international community. (If America was effected, a domino effect would ensue, naturally, because America is that influential to the rest of the world).

War on Poverty

started by Johnson in response to international poverty issues (19% at the time, scary). This was part of the Great Society which stemmed from Roosevelt's New Deal ideals.

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

(1972) It was introduced in 1923 and was almost passed in 1972 but failed to be ratified. The amendment proposed to eliminate all legal distinction on account of sex. Women believed that they needed equal access to employment, education, and any other opportunities for citizens instead of the special legal protection they were being given at the time. If this amendment had passed, they would have lost this special protection. Many women, including Phyllis Schlafly, opposed the _____.

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