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Core 250 Exam 3
Terms in this set (44)
Attempt to reconcile the problem of evil with a god who is omnipotent and loving
Only a few laws underlay all human behaviors
the belief that the world can be made better by human effort
To cultivate our garden
Meliorism. Not everything is for the best, but we can make things better with work.
Dr. Plangloss' optimistic formulation
Leibnizian optimism. All is for the best in this world (the best world).
Comparison of Burke's and Hobbes' conservatism
Similarities: Negative view of human nature (therefore conserve institutions)
Differences: Natural right (hobbes) vs. Natural law
Burke's view of reason
Burke accepts that there is original sin, and that reason is limited. He rejects chronological process. Meaning newer isn't necessarily better.
Burke's role of tradition compared to Wollstonecraft
Burke: Tradition provides structure and stability. Change should be gradual.
Wollstonecraft: Political tradition is fine, but if they needed change, do it fast.
How did Wollstonecraft agree with Rousseau? Disagree?
Agree: Humans are basically good. Civilization corrupts them.
Disagree: Virtue should be non-gendered.
How did Wollstonecraft challenge society's view and treatment of women?
Women need to have reason developed rather than stunted. Boys get educated and reason is developed, so women should be educated too.
Macho Soldiers and Frivolous Women
Both attracted by fancy garb, both engage in meaningless banter, and both are useless to society once they've served they're function. Why? Because both have had bad education.
How does Kant bring the innatists and empiricists?
Innatists: Agrees that the mind is active, but there are NO innate ideas, just innate processing of empirical data.
Empiricists: Agrees that knowledge comes through the senses, but the mind is not passive.
Copernican Revolution of Kant
Ptolemaic: The sun goes around the earth, and the mind conforms to objects
Copernican: The earth goes around the sun, and objects conform to the mind.
das ding an sich
Noumenal World: The way things really are, not how they appear.
Kant's World of Understanding
1) Forms of intuition: Space (most things processed through this)
Time (everything processed through this)
2) Categories of the Mind: 12 categories. Substance and Causality (not real things, but the way we process info)
3) The ideas of reason: Self, World, God
I should do to you what I want everyone to do (not the golden rule)
Utilitarian vs. Deontological ethics
Utilitarian: An action is only good if the consequences are good
Deontological: An action is good if it's done with an intention to do good (regardless of consequence)
Is does not equal ought
Facts alone do not yield moral values
A part of Descartes' methodological doubt:
Deceiving senses (empiricism)
Demon (if 2+2 ACTUALLY = 5 but a demon tells you 4)
the method of doubt
Purpose: to find certainty. 0% doubt = 100% certainty
Methodological doubt vs. Psychological doubt
M: Anything that can logically be doubted
P: What actually worries you
Cogito ergo sum
"I think, therefore I am." It is important in Descartes thought, because he cannot doubt that he exists, because he is thinking.
1) Begin with clear and evident intuition (innate idea)
2) Move deductively (deductive reasoning)
3) from simple to complex one step at a time
Interactions between body and mind
Dualism (body and mind can intersect)
Materialism (Just body)
Idealism (Just mind)
Epiphenomenalism (body and mind as parallel)
Basic beliefs on Modernism
What kind of truths were modernists seeking?
State of Nature (Hobbes)
What humans are like in their natural state. Bodies in motion.
Actions, drives - Power
Fundamentally equal in capacity
Freedom to seek power/survival
But natures resources are limited, so result is war. Every man against every man.
(Hobbes) We're driven by fear to seek peace and defend ourselves
Make an agreement with each other
Government plays a negative role
Government must be powerful
We can't demand our rights back when we disagree.
(Hobbes) Sea monster. Powerful government.
(Hobbes) Ruler is absolute final law
(Locke) blank slate. We start out as blank slates.
(Locke) Law is king. No one is above it.
Significance of quote
"Life is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." People will stab you in the back if they get the chance. It's every man for themselves.
State of nature (Locke)
Free: God given, not determined, free moral agents
Equal: No natural hierarchy, equal in blood
Independent: Self-interested, able to cooperate
State of nature (Madison)
Dignified and depraved
Checks and balances and inalienable rights
Creating a hypothesis off of the empirical data
Creating a hypothesis from innate feelings
Make predictions based off hypothesis
Consequences of using Scientific method
Could have to experiment multiple times. If it can't be disproven, then it is a theory, which can never be proven.
Value of a theory
Theories can't ever be proven.
We are alienated from our world. We work for existence, it's not a part of our essence. Alienation from our labor, ourselves and each other.
Five Epochs of history (Marx)
1. Primitive Community
2. Slavery: you belong to a person, you won't starve
3. Feudalism: You belong to the land
4. Capitalism: you to sell yourself, a wage slave
5. Socialism: Taught to consume, State will wither away
Basis: Production and distribution of good
Superstructure: politics, religion, laws, etc.
Goals of pragmatism
Provide practical help to solve problems
Build on the accomplishments of science
Pragmatists compared to Kant
No single, absolute good because situation matters. There are consequences of our behaviors that we can know. Ideas are like a map when we're lost in the woods.
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