33 terms

WHAP: China & India

STUDY
PLAY
Shang Dynasty
- no central government
- monarchy controlled by local nobles
- religion: divination/oracle bones
- HuangHe Valley
- local trade/bartering
Zhou Dynasty
- ruled through alliances with regional princes; power in exchange for land/troops/$$$
- feudalism
- expand to Yangtze River
- mandate of heaven
Qin Dynasty
- Shi Huangdi (first emperor)
- crushed regional resistance w/ imperial army
- centralized legalist gov't
- standard currency + central tax system
Han Dynasty
- continued Qin's centralized gov't but reduced repression and expanded bureaucracy
- traded with Roman Empire
- Confucianism (Wu Ti)
- invaded by the Huns
- standard paper money = trust in gov't
- expansion evidenced of centralization (spice trade/silk road)
Classical China strengths
Silk Road, isolation, advanced technology, agriculture, unity
Classical China weaknesses
social inequality, regional warfare and internal rebellion
Mandate of Heaven
divine right to rule from Zhou dynasty onwards
Shi Huangdi
established Qin dynasty, was a brutal but effective ruler - crushed regional resistance, built Great Wall, started national census
Legalism
system of political thought that favored authoritarianism; ruled by force
Confucianism
arose out of political turmoil after collapse of Zhou, purpose to bring peace & order by emphasizing personal virtues - was ethical, not religious
Daoism
emphasizes living in harmony with nature and to bend to it's will, made compatible with Confucianism by having priests included expressions of loyalty to emperor (was tolerated b/c political activity was not encouraged)
Rice
year round farming created need for rigid social hierarchy
Mauryan Empire
- Chandragupta/Ashoka
- formed to fight against Alexander the Great
- promoted Buddhism
Ashoka v. Shi Huangdi
- autocracy
- use of military to keep empire in check and expand outwards
- introduced different system of thinking to gov't: buddhism/legalism (better received)
Guptan Empire
- feudalistic (negotiated w/ local princes)
- intermarry with families to expand influence and trade
- tax system & sea trade allows for rationalization
- religious toleration
- est. universities, arabic numbering system, zero, infinity, and pi
Chandragupta Maurya
first Mauryan Dynasty ruler, autocratic and religiously ascetic
Ashoka
Chandragupta's grandson, autocratic, bloodthirsty but could be compassionate, Buddhism
Kautilya
Chandragupta's chief, first political treatise (Arthashastra: use force when necessary, the end justifies the means)
Aryans
Indo-European nomads who invaded India and took over the native population (Harrapans) - had iron (better tech.), established caste systems
Vedas
sacred books that contained literary epics from the Aryans - hymns/poems/prayers/spells
Varnas
Aryan social classes - hereditary and permanent, arrangement between castes forbidden
Jati
smaller subgroups in caste w/ distinctive occupations
Brahmins
highest class, priests, religious power, head
Kshatryas
warriors, arms
Varshyas
middle class, thighs
Shudras
common labor, feet
Untouchables
very bottom of the caste, did "illegal" jobs like handling dead bodies, unclean, maintain order
Hinduism
brahma forms part of everything, reincarnation, dharma (law of moral consequences), fulfill dharma = higher caste, eventually removed from "popcorn ball" of life, to karma, polytheistic, flexible, adheres to caste system
Buddhism (Middle Path)
-Siddartha Gautama
- reincarnation
- rejected caste system & materialism; therefore not as widely accepted
- four noble truths (1. to live is to suffer, 2. the root of suffering is desire, 3. eliminate desire, 4. eightfold path) to escape from rebirth cycle
Theravada Buddhism
- oldest
- small vehicle
- monks & meditation
- strict followers of Siddartha
- S. Asia
Mahayana Buddhism
- for the mass
- great vehicle
- salvation of /all humanity/ through self sacrifice of enlightened
- N. Asia
Fa-Hsien
Chinese Buddhist monk who visits India only to find it primarily Hindu = CULTURAL DIFFUSION
Tamils
southern Indians who were isolated from the rest , seafaring community based on trade
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