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Unit 10 Gas Laws

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Compressibility
A measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure
Boyle's Law
For a given mass of a gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure P1 xV1 = P2 x V2
Charle's Law
The volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant V1/T1 = V2/T2
Gay-Lussac's Law
The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume is constant P1/T1 = P2/T2
Combined Gas Law
The law that describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas (P1 x V1) / T1 = (P2 x V2) / T2
Ideal gas
A gas that conforms to the ideal gas law. Conforms exactly to all of the assumptions of the kinetic theory
Ideal gas law
The relationship PV = nRT which describes the behavior of an ideal gas
Ideal gas constant
The constant in the ideal gas law, has the symbol R and the value 8.31 (L x KPa)/(K x Mol)
Real gas
Differ from ideal gases at low temperatures and high pressures, do not exactly meet the assumptions of the kinetic theory
Avogadro's hypothesis
Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
Partial pressure
The contribution each gas in a mixture of gases makes to the total pressure
Dalton's law of partial pressure
At constant volume and temperature the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases P total = P1 + P2 + P3 +...
Diffusion
The tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout
Effusion
The process that occurs when a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container
Graham's law of effusion
The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass; this relationship is also true for the diffusion of gas Rate A / Rate B = sqr root(molar mass B / molar mass A)