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NRRT270 Exam 1
Terms in this set (83)
U.S. Travel Association
The leading national private organization in the United States that represents the whole of the travel industry
World Tourism Organization (WTO)
The major international organization entrusted by the UN to promote, research, and develop tourism worldwide
Office of Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI)
The national governmental organization that surveys international travelers in order to help businesses gain access to and compete in the global marketplace.
Silk Road Programme
Developed to enhance sustainable tourism development along the historic Silk Road route
When a non-resident or foreigner visits a given country
When a resident of a given country leaves that country to visit another one
Tourism of visitors, both resident and non-resident, within the economic territory of the country of reference
Tourism involving residents of one country traveling only within that country
Internal tourism + outbound tourism
Travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel
A set of interrelated groups coordinated to form a unified whole and to accomplish a set of common goals
Spirit of Hospitality
Not enough just to deliver an experience
The Grand Tour
Extended European travel in the 17th century by wealthy British Aristocrats for educational purposes
The Silk Road
Trading route in Asia - oldest important trading routes, Marco Polo in the 13th century, Italy to China connection between two worlds
Thomas Cook and Thomas Bennet
First travel agents
Fortress-like inns, and early form of accommodation in the Middle East
Changes in tourism patterns over time; can be visualized by looking at credible sources including industry trade journals and websites
First round of spending, direct transaction between tourist and the place they visit
Re-spending of money within the local economy. Business to business transactions needed to allow for direct impacts
Income earned in a direct or indirect affected industry. Local spending money on goods/services by people working to satisfy the direct/indirect effects.
Number of Jobs Created by Tourism
1 in 11
Sumerian is the oldest known written language in human history, written in the form of "pictograms" (carved pictures or symbols)
- Approximate size 1 inch, cut from sections of cone-shaped shells, then polished, worn around neck, became very popular, Coins weren't invented until around 600 BCE
Stage coach invented in 1400's in Hungry, used in Europe and U.S. in 1800's
Requirements for Growth
Freedom, economics, Infrastructure, Ease of travel, cost of travel.
Top 3 tourism destinations
France, US, Spain
Top destination for total earnings
US, Spain Thailand
Breweries and wineries in the US
Breweries-4,600+ 2k in planning
Who were the greatest early road builders?
Major invention by the Sumerians around 4000BC?
Defining Tourism - Goeldner and Ritchie
the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors.
1. People travelling outside of their normal environment, or away from home (*The term usual environment is intended to exclude trips within the area of usual residence, frequent and regular trips between the domicile and the workplace, and other community trips of a routine character).
2. Length of stay, typically no more than one year
3. Purpose of trip
The United States Travel Association (USTA)
a tourist as one person traveling:
-50 miles (one way) or more away from home, rather you stay the same night or leave the same day
-Trips are included regardless of purpose, excluding crews, students, military personnel on active duty, and commuters.
United Kingdom (UK)
You will find distance is not specified here. In other words, if you are a London resident and drive to a close nearby city such as Camberley (29 miles) and stay the night, you could technically be considered a tourist.
From a terminology point of view, business and conferences are added in explicitly. Other purposes are also particular- wat does that mean?
1) At least 40 kilometers (24 miles) from the usual place of residence.
2) For a period of at least 24 hours and not exceeding 12 months.
Canada defining tourism
,Canada uses the 50 miles or more distance when measuring trips.
However, this differs domestically.
The Province of Ontario is shorter and uses a minimum of 25 miles to measure their tourists.
Tourism Similarities and Differences
Length of Stay
Purpose of Travel
Outside Normal Environment- Away from Home
Defining a Tourist:
Influences bottom line
Helps understand visitors and how much they spend
Tourism is measured in terms of volume and value
Enhances the overall tourist experience
Excursionist or Same Day / Day Trip Visitors
Visitors who do not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited and travelling less than 24 hours.
ex. cruise ships
Tourists or Overnight Tourists:
Visitors who stay in the country visited for at least one night or 24 hours.
Components of the Tourism System
1. The culture of the residents of the host region
2 Technology: one of the most changing and powerful characteristics of the built environment.
3 . Information: A recent addition to the built environment
4. Governance: Which includes legal, political, and fiscal systems within which tourism operates
Exist to meet the needs of the host community not put in place to serve the tourists (ex. Roads, Sewage systems, grocery stores)
Facilities developed specifically to serve the needs of the tourists (ex. hotels car rentals, restaurants)
Food Services sector
Adventure and Outdoor Recreation Sector
Travel Trade Sector and Tourism Services
Determining success of a tourism destination
the planning, development, promotion and catalyst organizations component.
4 Perspectives of Tourism
1. The tourist
2. the Business providing the goods and services
3. the government of the community or area
4. The host community
Unique Characteristics of the Tourism Industry
Small business industry
The 'wares' of the travel industry have no shelf life
Intangibility- an 'experience' rather than a tangible product
Ease of duplication-
People are brought to the product, not visa versa
Simultaneous production and consumption
Tourism directly supports more than
7.9 million travel and tourism jobs in the United States. 1/8 Americans is employed either directly or indirectly because of people traveling to and within the United States
Amusement parks 500,000 jobs
Facilities (arenas, convention centers)
Convention and trade show operations
_________ of jobs in all fields are found through who you know
Your resume should demonstrate
Problem solving skills
Relevant work experience
Founders of Travel are credited to
Another term for Sumerians was Babylonians
The Sumerians lived in
Mesopotamia (modern day Syria and Iraq, between Tigris and Euphrates rivers).
The Sumerian's invented
money, writing, and the wheel and the concept of the tour guide, thus making them the ancient founders of tourism.
Types of Travelers:
- Government officials
Earliest paved roads were in
Asia Minor and Syria built by the Hittites. Also found in Persia, India, Greece, Crete, and the famous Roman roads.
started building roads in about 150 BCE - developed a huge network over 50,000 miles throughout their empire
Technology & Transportation Developments
Automobile Travel: 1908
-US, Henry Ford (Model T
Evolution of Accommodation
Caravansaries (fortress-like inns)
Ordinaries (small hotels)
Hotels and motels
7 Wonders of the Ancient World Attractions
Great Pyramids of Egypt (including Sphinx)
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
Collosus of Rhodes in the Harbor at Rhodes
Great Lighthouse (Pharos) in Alexandria, Egypt
Temple Artemis at Ephesus
7 Wonders of the New World
The Maya ruins of Chichen Itza in Mexico
The statue of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro
The Great Wall of China
Machu Picchu in Peru
The ancient city of Petra in Jordan
India's Taj Mahal
The Colosseum in Rome
The First Travel Agents
Robert Smart, 1822.
First Steamship Passenger Agent
Thomas Cook, 1841
First Rail Excursion Agent
Thomas Bennett, 1850.
Made individual inclusive travel arrangements (Probably first travel agent), set up business as trip organizer.
The Silk Road
Trading route in Asia
Traveled and made famous by Marco Polo in 13th century
WTO Silk Road Project
Traded more than just silk
No real visible paths
The Grand Tour
Young men of the British Aristocracy traveled during the 17 & 18 century for education and enlightenment purposes.
What is a Trend?
Changes over time
Not your opinion
What about next 30 years?
Industry trade journals, websites, etc.
Tourism organizations can be viewed in the following ways:
United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
Pays particular attention to interests of developing countries - made a commitment to the UN to contribute to the elimination of poverty through encouragement of sustainable tourism
Leading international organization in tourism today.
Most widely recognized organization in tourism
UNWTO World projects
Travel. Enjoy. Respect
Year of Silk Road\
World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC)
Worldwide, raise awareness of economic impact of tourism and work with governments to unlock the industry's potential to create jobs and generate prosperity (private sector)
United Nations Development Program
(2030,17 Sustainable Goals)
Asian Development Bank
International Air Transport Association (IATA)
Represents, leads, and serves the airline industry.
Leader in expansion of e-ticketing, environmental best practices, and World Air Transport Statistics.
International civil aviation Organization (ICAO)
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
Secure international cooperation and highest degree of uniformity in civil (non-military) aviation procedures for governments
Enhances global aviation safety and security and maximizes environmental protection ( annual safety report)
European Travel Commission (ETC)
Promotes travel to Europe
Functions as a "national" tourism office for Europe and serves to attract tourists to European countries
Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA)
Leader and representative for tourism of nations in Asia & the Pacific
Develop, promote, facilitate travel to and among destination areas in the Pacific region.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
Promotes policies to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment.
Canadian Tourism Commission
Plans, directs, manages, and implements programs to generate and promote tourism in Canada.
Marketing, research and partnerships- "Keep Exploring"
State tourism offices
Funding: State general revenues, lodging taxes, membership fees, lottery revenue
Activities: promotion, marketing, toll-free inquiries, visitor centers, research\
The Colorado Tourism Office (CTO)
Created by legislature in 2000
Housed in Office of Economic Development
Funded through gaming tax
Convention and Visitor Bureaus (CVBs)
Not-for-profit umbrella organizations that represent a city or urban area in the solicitation an servicing of all types of travelers to that city or area, whether they visit for business, pleasure, or both.
Destination Marketing Association International (DMAI)
Most city CVBs belong to this organization. Leadership in Travel Marketing Industry
Marketing Information Network (MINT)
Americans Dream Destinations
Colorado is 19th