54 terms

MA Pharmacology terms

Learn common pharmacology terms
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Antibiotics
Obtained from molds, bacteria, yeasts, and increasingly manufactured synthetically
Broad-spectrum antibiotics
Effective against many microorganisms
Cephalosporins
The beta-lactam antibiotics, derived from mold, structurally related to penicillin
1st generation cephalosporins
Effective against organisms such as streptococci, some strains of staphylococci, and some organisms that invade the urinary tract.
2nd generation cephalosporins
In addition to activity against the same organisms as 1st generation, also effective against Haemophilus influenzae
3rd generation cephalosporins
Less effective than 1st and 2nd generation against strep and pneumococci but more effective against gram-neg invaders of the urinary tract
Fungus
A member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds as well as the more familiar mushrooms
Narrow-spectrum antibiotic
Effective against only a few microorganisms
Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)
Sulfanamide drug. A substance that the mocroorganisms need for the synthesis of folic acid.
Penicillin
Any antibiotic derived from the penicillium mold
Quinolones
Orally effective antimicrobials that act by inhibiting the bacterial enzyme DNA gyrase. Effective against infections resistant to older antibiotics
Sulfonamides
"Sulfa drugs" combat infection by checking the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms enabling the body's defenses to cope with the infection
Tetracyclines
Broad spectrum antibiotics used in treatments of infections caused by Rickettsia, Chlamydia, and Mycoplasma and a variety of gram-negative bacteria
Virus
A small infectious agent that can only replicate inside the living cells of an organism
Allergen
A substance capable of causing an allergic reaction
Allergy
A hypersensitivity reaction provoked by a sensitizing agent, or allergen
Anaphylaxis
A severe, life-threatening allergic reaction accompanied by vasodilation, lowered blood pressure, and shock
Antibody
Produced by the body as a reaction to the intrusion of a foreign compound or antigen; designed to counteract or neutralize the offending antigen
Antigen
Any substance that stimulates the production of antibodies in the body or any substance that reacts with previously formed antibodies
Antihistamine
Agent that prevents or diminishes the pharmacalogic effects of histamine; used in the treatment of allergy-type syndromes
Drug allergy
A reaction resulting from hypersensitivity to a drug
Immunotherapy
The systematic repeated exposure to small amounts of an allergen that reduces symptoms of allergic rhinitis in selected patients
Acne
Inflammatory eruption of the skin
Anesthetic
Produces a loss of sensation throughout the body by cutting of sensory impulses to the brain
Astringent
Substance that causes tissues to contract and help to reduce secretions
Candida albicans
A yeast like organism that produces cutaneous or mucous membrane infections
Candidiasis
A super infection by Candida albicans
ACE inhibitors
Agents that inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme important in the treatment of CHF
Antidote
An agent that neutralizes a substance or counteracts its effects
Antiplatelet
Destroys platelets or inhibits their production, reduces the tendency of platelets to stick together and form a clot
Coagulant
Agent that causes a blood clot to form
Diuretic
Substance used to increase the output of urine
Thrombolytic
Used to dissolve blood clots
Vasodilator
Causes blood vessels to increase in diameter
Anticoagulant
Used to delay blood clotting
Antilipidemic
Reduces the amount of lipids in serum
Beta blockers
Treats cardiac arrhythmias and MI
Congestive heart failure
The heart is unable to circulate blood effectively
Inotropic
Increases myocardial contractility
Vasoconstrictors
Causes narrowing of the blood vessels
Demulcent
Protective agent used to alleviate irritation of skin, mucous membranes, and abraded tissue
Emollient
Fatty or oily substance applied to soothe the skin or mucous membranes
Moniliasis
Super infection with the fungus Candida albicans
Photosensitizer
An agent that makes the skin more susceptible to burning and sun damage
Asthma
Constriction of the lung bronchioles in response to allergic or emotional phenomena, producing symptoms of dyspenea, constriction in the chest, coughing, and expiratory wheezing
Bronchoconstriction
Narrowing of the lung bronchioles
Bronchodilation
Relaxation and enlargement of the bronchi
Inflammation
Pathological reaction to an injury or abnormal stimulation by an agent
Respiration
Process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide via the respiratory system
1st generation cephalosporins
Keflex, Ancef, Kefzol, Duricef
2nd generation cephalosporins
Ceclor, Mefoxin, Ceftin, Zinacef
3rd generation cephalosporins
Claforan, Rocephin, Fortaz
4th generation cephalosporin
Cefepime
4th generation cephalosporin
Used to treat urinary tract infections and severe infections of the skin, soft tissue, and abdomen