40 terms

Language Files Chapter 12 Language Contact

Terms you need to know for language contact
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language contact
Situation in which groups of speakers of different languages come into contact with one another
borrowing
Process by which one language adopts words, phrases, or grammatical structures from another language
language convergence
The process by which two or more languages in contact become increasingly similar in both grammar and lexicon
language death
The complete demise of a language; a dead language no longer has any speakers
bilingual mixed language
Language in which different aspects of linguistic structure derive from different languages, resulting from a high degree of bilingualism among speakers; also called an intertwined language
pidgin
A simplified language that develops in contact situations in which speakers previously shared no common language
creole
A language that developed from contact between speakers of different languages and that serves as the primary means of communication for a particular group of speakers
contact situation
Social situation in which speakers of distinct language varieties are brought together by social and/or economic factors such as settlement, trade, or relocation
lexical borrowing
Process of adopting words or phrases from another language
structural borrowing
Process of adopting grammatical structures from another language
loanword
Word borrowed from one language into another
loan translation
Phrase borrowed into a language by way of a word-for-word translation into native morphemes
intensity of contact
Level of contact between speakers of different languages, determined by the duration of the linguistic contact and the amount of interaction among the speakers
bilingual
State of commanding two languages; having linguistic competence in two languages
prestige
Having high standing or respect in a community
adstratum language
One of two or more languages in contact that mutually influence one another, owing to relatively equal degrees of power and prestige associated with the groups of speakers; also called an adstratal language
superstratum language
The target language in a language contact situation; the language associated with the politically and economically dominant group
substratum language
In a contact situation, the native language of speakers of a politically and economically non-dominant group
native language (L1) interference
The process of carrying over features from one's native language into another language, usually in language contact or second-language acquisition situations
second-language (L2) acquisition
Acquisition of a second language as a teenager or adult (after the critical period)
transfer
The influence of one's native language on the learning of subsequent languages (which can facilitate or inhibit the learning of the second language)
language shift
The process by which a group of speakers abandons their native language in favor of another language
prepidgin jargon
An extremely rudimentary and variable type of language formed in the earlier stages of contact situations
crystallization
The process through which a pidgin establishes regular grammatical conventions
prototypical pidgin
Pidgin that emerges rather abruptly in contact situations in which the contact is limited to particular social settings (such as trade); it has a reduced linguistic structure, but may evolve into an expanded pidgin
expanded pidgin
Pidgin whose use is not limited to certain social settings; it is a full language, unlike a prototypical pidgin
lexifier
The language that provides most of the vocabulary of a pidgin
nativization
Process by which some variety of speech that was no one's native language is learned by children in a speech community as their first language
multilingual
The state of commanding three or more languages; having linguistic competence in three or more languages
societal bilingualism
Phenomenon in which bilingualism is the norm for a group of people
endangered language
A language that has very few speakers left
code-switching
Using words or structural elements from more than one language within the same conversation (or even within a single sentence or phrase)
language choice
A bilingual or multilingual person's decision--often politically, socially, or personally motivated--to speak a certain language in a certain situation
diglossia
A situation in which two distinct languages or dialects are used for different functions within one society
semi-speaker
A person who does not speak a language fluently
dormant language
A term used to label dead languages by people who believe they may be revived
dead language
A language that does not have any speakers; also called extinct language
language
An abstract cognitive system that uniquely allows humans to produce and comprehend meaningful utterances
dialect
A variety of a language defined by both geographical factors and social factors, such as class, religion, and ethnicity
societal multilingualism
Phenomenon in which multilingualism is the norm for a group of people