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Gender Psych Ch. 12 "Worker Role and Health"
Terms in this set (24)
Differential Exposure Hypothesis
States that differences in the kinds of roles women and men possess explain sex differences in health. For example, to the extent that men are more likely than women to possess the paid worker role, and the paid worker role is associated with good mental health, women may suffer poorer mental health compared to men.
Differential Vulnerability Hypothesis
States that shared roles have different effects on health for women and men. For example, if parenthood is more central to women's than men's self-concepts, difficulties with children may be more strongly related to women's than men's health.
The potential for healthier people to choose certain roles, which then leads to difficulties in determining whether those roles influence health.
Explains how women's paid employment can influence both women's and men's health: increased relative income has a positive effect on health, whereas increased family demands have a negative effect on health.
Role Scarcity Hypothesis
Suggests multiple roles have a negative effect on health because time and resources are limited and additional roles tap resources. Also referred to as Role Strain.
Refers to the difficulties in fulfilling obligations for all of one's multiple roles because time is limited. You are suffering from this when you feel stressed because you have three exams on Monday, a party to plan for Saturday, and a fund-raising event to attend on Sunday.
Refers to the demands of one role conflicting with the demands from another role. You suffer from this when your grandmother turns 90 and your best friend turns 21 on the same Saturday.
Role Expansion Hypothesis
Suggests that benefits are to be gained from having diverse roles. The additional resources gained by multiple roles outweigh the increase in strains that might arise from more roles.
Resources from one role can be used to buffer strains arising from another role; this is part of the role expansion hypothesis.
The idea that the effects of enacting one role affects how one enacts another role. Taking on the paid worker role may affect how one views and enacts the parent role.
The presence of _______ adds to the complexity of understanding the conditions under which paid work is beneficial to women.
When women or men are not offered a job or are offered a lesser job because of their sex. For example, women are less represented than men in judicial and legislative branches of government.
Occurs after the person has the job and takes the form of reduced salary or reduced opportunities for promotion.
Type of treatment discrimination in which women are paid less than men for doing comparable work.
Supply-Side Theory (Human capital theory)
Emphasizes the difference characteristics of workers that may contribute to the wage gap; thus, the focus is on the person. Does not account for the pay disparity.
Demand-Side Theory (discrimination)
Emphasizes the different ways women and men are treated; the focus here is on the environment. The effects of discrimination are typically estimated by the proportion of the wage gap that cannot be explained by all the personal characteristics that distinguish women and men.
Salary Estimation Effect
The assumption that jobs inhabited by men pay more than jobs inhabited by women.
Comparable Worth Policy
States that men and women in different jobs should be paid the same wage for comparable work. Some of the factors considered are job activities, responsibilities, environmental conditions/hazards, knowledge required, education required, skill involved, and experience needed.
Employer's devaluation and limitation of job opportunities of female employees when they become parents.
Increase in income granted to men who are married and/or have children compared to men who are single.
Human Capital Accumulation Theory
A job and the salary associated with the job are functions of the person's characteristics or "human capital", such as skills, experience, and education.
Denial of Disadvantage
Women (and men) are more likely to agree tat women in general are subject to discrimination and that women do not receive the same salary as men for comparable work, but women deny and personal disadvantage.
Quid Pro Quo
A type of sexual harassment in which one person offers work benefits or threatens work repercussions in exchange for sexual favors.
A type of sexual harassment in which one person creating a hostile, intimidating work environment for another.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Personality Chapter 5: Motives
Cognitive: Ch. 5-8 Memory
Social Psychology: Group Influence
Gender Psychology Exam 2
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