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Chapter 4-The Tissue Level Of Organization
Terms in this set (117)
Groups of cells that usually have a common origin in an embryo and function together to carry out specialized functions.
Is the science that deals with the study of tissues.
Is a physican who specializes in laboratory studies of cells and tissues to help physicans make accurate diagnosis.
Cover body surfaces and line hollow organs, body cavities and ducts. They also form glands, This tissue allows the body to interact with both its internal and external environments.
Protect and support the body and its organs . Various types of connective tissues bind organs together, store energy reserves as fat, and help provide the body with immunity to disease-causing organisms.
Are composed of cells specialized for contraction and generation of force. In the process muscular tissues generate heat that warms the body.
Detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside the body and responds by generating electrical signals called nerve action potentials that activate musclular contractions and glandular secretions.
Are contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells.
Consist of weblike strands of transmembrane proteins that fuse together the outer surfaces of adjacent plasma membranees to seal off passageways between adjacent cells.
Contain plaque, a dense layer of proteins on the inside of the plasma membrane that attaches both to membrane proteins and to microfilaments of the cytoskeleton.
Transmembrane glycoproteins called...... join the cell.
Adherens junctions often form extensive zones called....
Contain plaque , and have transmembrane glycoproteins that extend into the extracellular space between adjacent cell membranes and attatch cells to one another.
resemble desmosomes but they do not link adjacent cells.
Points that provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another with special membrane proteins. Also called communicating junctions.
Gap junction proteins; a family of structurally-related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form gap junctions. Prevent cytoplasmic mixing. Exchange materials and electrical impulses. Somewhat like closely aligned channel proteins.
Consists of cells arranged in continous sheets in either single or multiple layers.
Apical (free) surface
Of an epithelial cell faces the body's surface , a body cavbity, the lumen of an internal organ, or a tubular duct that recieves cell secretions.
Of an epithelial cell which face the adjacent cells on either side , may contain tight junctions , adherens junctions, desmosomes and or gap junctions.
Of an epithelial cell is oppsite the apical surface, also the deepest layer.
Is a thin extracellular layer that commonly consists of two layers, the basal lamina and reticular lamina.
relying on the blood vessels of the adjacent connective tissue to bring nutrients and remove wastes.
Covering and lining epitheliam
Forms the outer covering of the skin and some iternal organs.
Makes up the secreting portion of the glands such as the thyroid gland,adrenal glands, and sweat glands.
is the production and release of substances such as mucus, sweat and enyzmes.
Is the intake of fluids or other substances such as digested food from the intestinal tract.
Tiny hair-like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
Mucus secreting cells in mucous membranes, columnar epithelial cells that contain a large vacuole with mucus.
tough, fibrous intracellular protein that helps protect skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes and chemicals.
may consist of a single cell or a group of cells that secrete substances into ducts, onto a surface or into blood.
called hormones, enter the interestital fluid and then diffuse directly into the bloodstream without flowing through a duct.
secrete their products into ducts that empty onto the surface of a covering and lining epithelium such as the skin surface or the lumen of a hollow organ.
are single-celled glands.
composed of many cells that form a distinctive microscopic structure or macroscopic organ.
If the duct of the gland does not branch.
If the duct of the gland branches.
glands with tubular secretory parts.
those with rounded secretory portions and also called alveolar glands.
have both tubular and more rounded secretory parts.
sweat glands secreting their stuff directly on the skin.
accumulate their secretory product at the apical surface of the secreting cell.
accumulate a secretory product in their cytosol.
are one of the most abundant and widely distributed tissues in the body.
is the material located between its widely spaced cells.
are large flat cells with branching processes. Present in all the general connective tissues and are usually the most numerous.
develop from monocytes, a type of white blood cell. they have a irregular shape and are capable of engulfing bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis.
are small cells that develop from a type of white blood cell called a B lympocyte . Secrete antibodies , important part of body's immune response.
are abundant alongside the blood vessels that supply connective tissue, they produce histamine. These cells can bind to, injest, and kill bacteria.
also called fat cells, are connective tissue cells that store fats. They are found deep to the skin and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.
White Blood Cells
not found in a significant number of normal connective tissues. They migrate from blood into connective tissues .
is the component of a connective tissue between the cells and fibres.
chondroitin, keratan sulfates, hyaluronic acid.
a glycoprotein consisting of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attached, found in the extracellular matrix of animal cells.
is a viscous , slippery substance that binds cells together , lubricates joints, and helps maintain the shape of the eyeballs.
provides support and adhesiveness in cartilage, bone, skin , and blood vessels.
skin, tendons, blood vessels and heart valves contain this type of sulfate....
bone, cartilage, and the cornea of the eye contain this type of sulfate...
are responsible for linking components of the ground substance to one another and to surfaces of the cell.
the main adhesion protein of connective tissues, binds to both collagen fibers and ground substance.
the element of the connective tissue extracellular matrix whose function is strengthen and support connective tissues
are very strong and resist pulling forces but they are not stiff which allows tissue flexibility.
which are smaller in dimater than collagen fibers, branch and join together to form a fibrous network within a connective tissue.
consisting of collagen arranged in fine bundles with a coating of glycoprotein , provide support in the walls of blood vessels, and form a network around the cells in some tissues.
supporting framework of many organs
Embyronic connective tissues
are present primarily in the embyro, the developing human from fertilization through the first two months of pregnancy and in the fetus the developing human from the third month of pregnancy to birth.
Mature connective tissues
are present in the newborn - 5 types; loose connective tissue, dense connective tissue, cartilage, bone tissue, liquid connective tissue.
loose connective tissues
are loosely arranged between cells.
Dense connective tissue
contain more fibers, which are thicker and more densely packed but have considerably fewer cells than loose connective tissues.
consists of a dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers firmly embedded in chondroitin sulfate a gel-like component of the ground substance.
mature cartilage cells.
small spaces between the lamellae which contain osteocytes.
surrounds the surface of most cartilage and contains blood vessels and nerves and is the source of new cartilage cells.
there is growth from within the tissue.
there is growth at the outer surface of the tissue.
Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone.
are concentric rings or extracellular matric that consist of mineral salts which give bone its hardiness and compressive strenght, and collagen fibers which gives bone its tensile strenght.
are small spaces between lamellae that contain mature bone cells called osteocytes.
networks of minute canals containing the processes of osteocytes.
contains blood vessels and nerves.
is a connective tissue with a liquid extracellular matric and formed elements.
is a pale yellow fluid that consists mostly of water with a wide variety of dissolved substsances,
Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Red blood cells
transport oxygen to body cells and remove some carbon dioxide from them.
White blood cells
are involved in phagocytosis, immunity, and allergic reactions.
ECF fluid that flows in lympathetic vessels.
are flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body.
consist of an epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer and are called....
lines a body cavity that opens directly to the exterior.
the connective tissue layer of a mucous membrane is areolar connective tissue and is called the....
lines a body cavity that does not directly open to the exterior and it covers the organs that are within the cavity.
the layer attatched to and lining the cavity wall is called the..
the layer that covers and adheres to the organs within the cavity is the...
a watery lubricant that allows organs to glide easily over one another or to slide against the walls of cavities.
the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and covering the lungs is the..
The serous membrane lining the heart cavity and covering the heart is the...
The serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and covering the abdominal organs is called the...
covers the entire surface of the body and consists of a superficial portion called the epidermis and a deeper portion called the dermis.
referring here to a place where bones come together.
Discontinuous layer of cells that make up synovial membranes
- they secrets some of the components of synovial fluid.
lubricates and nourishes the cartilage covering the boens at movable joints and contains macrophages that remove microbes and debris from the joint cavity.
consist of elongated cells called muscle fibers or myocytes that use ATP to generate force.
cell that carries messages throughout the nervous system.
Nerve action potentials/ nerve impulses
electrical signals emitted by neurons in response to stimuli.
contains the nucleus and other organelles
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron.
do not generate or conduct nerve impulses , these cells have a number of important supportive functions.
neurons and muscle fibres.
the ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals such as action potentials.
supporting connective tissue
cells that constitute the functioning part of the tissue or organ.
divide to replace lost or damage cells.
near perfect reconstruction of an injured tissue.
development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ
new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process.
participate in blood clotting.
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