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ch 24 bio
Terms in this set (33)
evolutionary changes that create a new species and groups that include many new species
a group of related organisms that maintains a distinctive swt of attributes in nature
the mechanisms that promote the formation of new species
how many species are there on earth
how many species on eartg have been identified
name some unknown species
bacteria, archeans, protists
what are subspecies?
geographically restricted group of individuals that displays a unique set of traits when compared to other populations of that species
a genetically distinct population of bacteria or archeans that is adapted to its particular local environment
biological species concept
this is based on the ability to successfully interbreed and have viable and fertile offspring
morphological species concept
this is based on anatomical similarities, also known as appearance
ecological species concept
this is based on occupying the same niche in the same geographical area
this is the role any organism plays in the environment. this role includes the organism's requirements like food, nesting, temp etc.
Evolutionary lineage concept
this is based on the lines of descent or descent with modification, which is the same as evolutionary relatedness.
evolutionary history of a species
General lineage concept
this is based on the idea that each lineage results in a group of individuals with a particular set of characteristics.
Long-term geographic separation of members of a particular sexually reproducing species.
how is speciation caused?
by reproductive isolation, one population ofn species from other populations of the same species
give some reproductive isolation mechanisms
most of these prevent the formation of a zygote and are call prezygotic.
some occur after the formation of a zygote and are called postzygotic.
habitat isolation, give an example
two species of garter snakes live in the same area, one species lives in water while the other on land. they do not come into contact with eachother and therefore do not interbreed.
temporal isolation, example
two species of skunk are seperate species even though the geographical area overlaps. one produces in the winter, the other in fall.
two species of mocking jay singing different songs
a hornet and a bumble bee try to mate but cannpt since genitalia are different
what prezygotic isolation only applies to insects
name some prezygotic isolation examples
habitats, temporal, behavioal, mechanical, gametic
Example of gametic isolation
flower produces pollen and it must go into the correct place. pollen of a specific species has an enzyme that will break down a barrier in the style of another individual in that species to all reproduction.
what are some postzygotic examples
reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid breakdown
what is reduced hybrid viability
this is when two species, the individuals, successfully mate and create an embryo that does not completely develop and dies before birth
reduced hybrid fertility
this is where the two individuals of different species actually produces offspring that is sterile. the hybrid cannot and will not mate.
this usually pretains to plants. the firsr gen. hybrid will be viable and fertile, but as generation move and succed, they begin to show weakness and fewer beneficial characteristics.
name 3 modes of natural selection
disruptive, directional, srablizing
What is directional selection? provide and example
this is where one phenotypic extreme is selected while the other is turned away. a brown mouse and white mouse exist in an environment of woodland area, the brown mouse would be selected.
stabilizing selection? provide an example
this is where both phenotypes are selected against and a middle ground is selected for. example would be that the brown and white mouse are turned away but a tanish or light brown mouse is selected.
What is disruptive selection? provide examples
this is where the middle ground is selected against while the other two extremes are selected for. example would be that two rabbits, black and white, live in an area where one side snows but the other side is forested. in this case, predetors will not see any if the black stays in the forest and the white stays on snow.
Recommended textbook explanations
Earth and Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology
Edward J. Tarbuck
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
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