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Strayer Chapter 2: First Civilizations
Terms in this set (30)
Indo-European migrants who came into South Asia after the Indus Valley civilization; developed the culture that would form the basis for Indian civilizations afterwards.
Book of the Dead
An Egyptian book of spells and chants to be completed by a dead person in order that his soul might be rejoined with his body in paradise after death.
A system of professional officials who administer the day-to-day operations of the state.
Chinese writing system; originally a pictographic system that evolved into ideograms, in which symbols represent ideas regardless of the pronunciation.
A political system in which an urban-based king ruled his city and its surrounding area with a centralized government; each city-state thought of itself as an independent unity.
Forced, or unfree, work provided by unwilling people.
A type of coerced labor in which people were required to work for the state as a form of taxation.
"Wedge-shaped"; the writing system invented by the Sumerians and used by all Mesopotamian civilizations afterwards.
A tool used to create a standard imprint when rolled on clay; used for record-keeping in the Indus Valley.
The original inhabitants of South Asia, possible descended from the first group of humans to leave Africa; while they created the Indus Valley civilization, they were later replaced by the Aryans.
A family line of rulers, in which a father passed his political authority down to his son.
Epic of Gilgamesh
Earliest known written epic poem, which tells the legendary deeds of Gilgamesh, a historical king of Uruk; later became the model for all Mesopotamian kings.
Earliest known written laws, established by the King of Babylon
A system of class distinctions in which some people have higher status than others.
"Sacred writing"; the writing system developed by the ancient Egyptians; also included a kind of "cursive" script known as Demotic.
A group of Indo-European peoples who initially moved into Asia Minor (modern Turkey); their early knowledge of iron-working allowed them to briefly control most of Mesopotamia.
A very large linguistic group that originated near the Caucasus mountains; eventually migrated to most of Eurasia, bringing the idea of civilization with them.
Undeciphered writing system used by the Indus Valley civilization.
Silt that was blown from the Himalayas and deposited in East Asia, turning the Huang He yellow and providing nutrients to the soil as it flooded.
A very regular pattern of winds that provided most of the rainfall for a whole year.
Large buildings that were designed to glorify the ruler and to strengthen the authority of the state and the elite.
A technique used to tell the future in Shang China; included an early form of characters (Chinese writing).
A group of Semitic peoples who invented the alphabet and then spread it throughout the Mediterranean region as they set up trade colonies.
A system of gender distinctions in which men were superior to women.
Construction projects that were required for the good of the general public; examples include defensive walls, flood control and irrigation, places of public worship, and plumbing.
A very large linguistic group that originated in the fertile crescent; eventually migrated into most of the Middle East, Mediterranean, and North Africa, spreading the idea of civilization with them.
Centralized governments that control and manage the affairs of the community; not to be confused with a "state" as Tennessee is a state.
The original inhabitants of Mesopotamia; invented civilization without any previous model; would be replaced by other peoples but their civilization was copied.
The process of living in large cities; a key feature of civilizations
A large pyramid-like structure constructed in Mesopotamia and used as a temple for the public displays of ritual.
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